People presenting with shoulder pain considered to be of musculoskeletal origin is common in primary care but diagnosing the cause of the pain is contentious, leading to uncertainty in management. To inform optimal primary care for patients with shoulder pain, the study aims to (1) to investigate the short-term and long-term outcomes (overall prognosis) of shoulder pain, (2) estimate costs of care, (3) develop a prognostic model for predicting individuals’ level and risk of pain and disability at 6 months and (4) investigate experiences and opinions of patients and healthcare professionals regarding diagnosis, prognosis and management of shoulder pain.
The Prognostic And Diagnostic Assessment of the Shoulder (PANDA-S) study is a longitudinal clinical cohort with linked qualitative study. At least 400 people presenting to general practice and physiotherapy services in the UK will be recruited. Participants will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Short-term data will be collected weekly between baseline and 12 weeks via Short Message Serevice (SMS) text or software application. Participants will be offered clinical (physiotherapist) and ultrasound (sonographer) assessments at baseline. Qualitative interviews with 15 dyads of patients and their healthcare professional (general practitioner or physiotherapist).
Short-term and long-term trajectories of Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (using SPADI) will be described, using latent class growth analysis. Health economic analysis will estimate direct costs of care and indirect costs related to work absence and productivity losses. Multivariable regression analysis will be used to develop a prognostic model predicting future levels of pain and disability at 6 months using penalisation methods to adjust for overfitting. The added predictive value of prespecified physical examination tests and ultrasound findings will be examined. For the qualitative interviews an inductive, exploratory framework will be adopted using thematic analysis to investigate decision making, perspectives of patients and clinicians on the importance of diagnostic and prognostic information when negotiating treatment and referral options.
The PANDA-S study has ethical approval from Yorkshire and The Humber-Sheffield Research Ethics Committee, UK (18/YH/0346, IRAS Number: 242750). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, social and mainstream media, professional conferences, and the patient and public involvement and engagement group supporting this study, and through newsletters, leaflets and posters in participating sites.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has received much attention as a risk factor for perioperative complications and 68.5% of OSA patients remain undiagnosed before surgery. Faciocervical characteristics may screen OSA for Asians due to smaller upper airways compared with Caucasians. Thus, our study aimed to explore a machine-learning model to screen moderate to severe OSA based on faciocervical and anthropometric measurements.
A cross-sectional study.
Data were collected from the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine affiliated Ruijin Hospital between February 2019 and August 2020.
A total of 481 Chinese participants were included in the study.
(1) Identification of moderate to severe OSA with apnoea–hypopnoea index 15 events/hour and (2) Verification of the machine-learning model.
Sex-Age-Body mass index (BMI)-maximum Interincisal distance-ratio of Height to thyrosternum distance-neck Circumference-waist Circumference (SABIHC2) model was set up. The SABIHC2 model could screen moderate to severe OSA with an area under the curve (AUC)=0.832, the sensitivity of 0.916 and specificity of 0.749, and performed better than the STOP-BANG (snoring, tiredness, observed apnea, high blood pressure, BMI, age, neck circumference, and male gender) questionnaire, which showed AUC=0.631, the sensitivity of 0.487 and specificity of 0.772. Especially for asymptomatic patients (Epworth Sleepiness Scale
The SABIHC2 machine-learning model provides a simple and accurate assessment of moderate to severe OSA in the Chinese population, especially for those without significant daytime sleepiness.
Ivermectin is a drug with antiviral properties and has been proposed as an alternative treatment for patients with COVID-19, in some countries; however, there is limited evidence to support its clinical use. Accordingly, the aim of this review and meta-analysis is to obtain superior evidence on the effectiveness and safety of ivermectin in treatment of COVID-19.
We will search in the medical databases and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases for randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised trials published from December 2019. The criteria for inclusion are that infection needs to be confirmed by a real-time PCR or serology test, and the effect of ivermectin has been compared with placebo, symptomatic treatment or no treatment. We will exclude observational studies and clinical trials that involved patients with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, but without a laboratorial diagnosis. Outcomes of interest include mortality, time to symptom resolution, time of hospitalisation, frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome, admission to intensive care unit, viral load, PCR-negative status, percentage of infection after prophylactic use, and total incidence of adverse and side effects. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two reviewers will independently select the studies and assess their eligibility. Two other reviewers will independently extract data from each study. Meta-analysis will then be carried out using fixed-effects or random-effects model, using the mean difference for continuous outcomes and the relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. Bias risk will be assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The quality of evidence for each outcome will be assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. Review Manager V.5.3.5 will be used for synthesis and subgroup analysis.
Owing to the nature of the review, ethical approval is not required. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications.
To describe characteristics of older adults with back pain in primary care, and to assess associations between patient characteristics and type of first primary care provider (general practitioner (GP), physiotherapist (PT) or chiropractor).
Cross-sectional analysis from the Back Complaints in the Elders-Norway cohort study.
Norwegian GP, PT and chiropractic primary care centres.
Patients aged ≥55 years seeking Norwegian primary care with a new episode of back pain were invited to participate. Between April 2015 and February 2020, we included 452 patients: 127 first visited a GP, 130 first visited a PT and 195 first visited a chiropractor.
For the first objective, the outcome measure was descriptive statistics of patient characteristics, covering the following domains: sociodemographic, general health, current and previous back pain, psychological and clinical factors. For the second objective, first primary care provider was the outcome measure. Associations between patient characteristics and visiting a GP or PT compared with a chiropractor were assessed with multiple multinomial regression analyses.
Median (IQR) age was 66 (59–72) years. Levels of back-related disability was moderate to severe, with a median (IQR) Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (range 0–24) score of 9 (5–13). Recurring episodes were common, 301 (67%) patients had monthly or yearly recurrences. Patients with worse back-related disability, longer duration of symptoms, lower expectations for full recovery and worse physical performance measured with the Back Performance Scale had higher odds of visiting a GP or PT compared with a chiropractor (p
Older back pain patients in primary care had moderate to severe levels of back-related disability, and most had recurring episodes. Our results suggest that older adult’s choice of first primary care provider was associated with important patient characteristics, which highlights the need for caution with generalisations of study results across primary care populations.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) contributes substantially to the population burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), with a high long-term risk of developing T2DM. This study will assess whether a structured lifestyle modification programme for women immediately after a GDM pregnancy, delivered via customised text messages and further individualised using data from activity monitors, improves T2DM risk factors, namely weight, physical activity (PA) and diet.
This multicentre randomised controlled trial will recruit 180 women with GDM attending Westmead, Campbelltown or Blacktown hospital services in Western Sydney. They will be randomised (1:1) on delivery to usual care with activity monitor (active control) or usual care plus activity monitor and customised education, motivation and support delivered via text messaging (intervention). The intervention will be customised based on breastfeeding status, and messages including their step count achievements to encourage PA. Messages on PA and healthy eating will encourage good lifestyle habits. The primary outcome of the study is healthy lifestyle composed of weight, dietary and PA outcomes, to be evaluated at 6 months. The secondary objectives include the primary objective components, body mass index, breastfeeding duration and frequency, postnatal depression, utilisation of the activity monitor, adherence to obtaining an oral glucose tolerance test post partum and the incidence of dysglycaemia at 12 months. Relative risks and their 95% CIs will be presented for the primary objective and the appropriate regression analysis, adjusting for the baseline outcome results, will be done for each outcome.
Ethics approval has been received from the Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (2019/ETH13240). All patients will provide written informed consent. Study results will be disseminated via the usual channels including peer-reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences.
The objective of this rapid scoping review was to identify studies of dose-sparing strategies for administration of intramuscular seasonal influenza vaccines in healthy individuals of all ages.
Comprehensive literature searches were executed in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane library. The grey literature was searched via international clinical trial registries for relevant studies published in English in the last 20 years. We included studies in healthy humans of any age that used any dose-sparing strategy to administer intramuscular seasonal influenza vaccines. Title/abstract and full-text screening were carried out by pairs of reviewers independently. Data extraction was conducted by a single reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Our outcomes were influenza infections, intensive care unit admission, pneumonia, hospitalisations, adverse events and mortality. Results were summarised descriptively.
A total of 13 studies with 10 351 participants were included in the review and all studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted between 2006 and 2019. The most common interventions were the trivalent influenza vaccine (n=10), followed by the quadrivalent influenza vaccine (n=4). Nine studies included infants/toddlers 6–36 months old and one of these studies also included children and adolescents. In these nine studies, no clinical effectiveness outcomes were reported. Of the four adult studies (≥18 years), two studies reported on effectiveness outcomes, however, only one RCT reported on laboratory-confirmed influenza.
Due to the low number of studies in healthy adults and the lack of studies assessing confirmed influenza and influenza-like illness, there remains a need for further evaluation.
Women in different age phases have different metabolism and hormone levels that influence the production and excretion of uric acid. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and related factors of hyperuricaemia among women in various age phases.
Observational, cross-sectional study.
Data were obtained from women at three health check-up centres in Shanghai.
Adult women from three health check-up centres were recruited. Exclusion criteria were individuals with pregnancy, cancer, incomplete information. Finally, 11 601 participants were enrolled.
The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia of total subjects were 11.15% (95% CIs 10.57% to 11.72%). The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in 18–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years old was 6.41% (95% CI 4.97% to 7.86%), 5.63% (4.71% to 6.55%), 6.02% (5.01%% to 7.03%), 11.51% (10.19% to 12.82%), 16.49% (15.03% to 17.95%) and 23.98% (21.56% to 26.40%), respectively. Compared with 18–29 years old, the ORs for hyperuricaemia in other age phases were 0.870 (95% CI 0.647 to 1.170, p=0.357), 0.935 (0.693 to 1.261, p=0.659), 1.898 (1.444 to 2.493, p
After 50 years old, the prevalence of hyperuricaemia in Shanghai women has increased significantly and reaches the peak after 70. Obesity and dyslipidaemia are two main related factors for hyperuricaemia during all ages, while diabetes mellitus and nephrolithiasis have no relationship with hyperuricaemia throughout. CKD is an independent impact factor for hyperuricaemia after 30 years old.
Incorporating patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) into usual care in hospitals can improve safety and quality. Gaps exist in electronic PROM (ePROM) implementation recommendations, including for elective surgery. The aims are to: (1) understand barriers and enablers to ePROM implementation in hospitals and develop Australian ePROM implementation recommendations (AusPROM); (2) test the feasibility and acceptability of the Quality of Recovery 15 item short-form (QoR-15) PROM for elective surgery patients applying the AusPROM and (3) establish if the QoR-15 PROM has concurrent validity with the EQ-5D-5L.
Phase I will identify staff barriers and facilitators for the implementation of the AusPROM recommendations using a Delphi technique. Phase II will determine QoR-15 acceptability for elective surgery patients across four pilot hospitals, using the AusPROM recommendations. For phase II, in addition to a consumer focus group, patients will complete brief acceptability surveys, incorporating the QoR-15, in the week prior to surgery, in the week following surgery and 4 weeks postsurgery. The primary endpoint will be 4 weeks postsurgery. Phase III will be the national implementation of the AusPROM (29 hospitals) and the concurrent validity of the QoR-15 and generic EQ-5D-5L. This protocol adopts the Guidelines for Inclusion of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Trials Protocols guidelines.
The results will be disseminated via public forums, conferences and peer-reviewed journals. Ethics approval: La Trobe University (HEC20479).
ACTRN12621000298819 (Phase I and II) and ACTRN12621000969864 (Phase III)
The conceptualisation of healthy ageing phenotype (HAP) and the availability of a tentative panel for HAP biomarkers raise the need to test the efficacy of potential interventions to promote health in older adults. This study protocol reports the methodology for a 24-week programme to explore the holistic influence of the yoga-based intervention on the (bio)markers of HAP.
The study is a two-armed, randomised waitlist controlled trial with blinded outcome assessors and multiple primary outcomes. We aim to recruit 250 subjects, aged 60–80 years from the residential communities and old age clubs in Bangalore city, India, who will undergo randomisation into intervention or control arms (1:1). The intervention will include a yoga-based programme tailored for the older adults, 1 hour per day for 6 days a week, spread for 24 weeks. Data would be collected at the baseline and post-intervention, the 24th week. The multiple primary outcomes of the study are the (bio)markers of HAP: glycated haemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s for physiological and metabolic health; Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Tests A and B for cognition; hand grip strength and gait speed for physical capability; loneliness for social well-being and WHO Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form for quality of life. The secondary outcomes include inflammatory markers, tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II, C reactive protein, interleukin 6 and serum Klotho levels. Analyses will be by intention-to-treat and the holistic impact of yoga on HAP will be assessed using global statistical test.
The study is approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana University, Bangalore (ID: RES/IEC-SVYASA/143/2019). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant prior to inclusion. Results will be available through research articles and conferences.
This study aimed to explore the perceptions of orthopaedic clinicians about consultations for people with persistent musculoskeletal low back pain (PMLBP) in which surgery is not recommended. Surgery is not recommended for the majority of PMLBP consulting in secondary care settings.
Secondary care sector in the UK.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 orthopaedic team clinicians from 17 different hospitals in the UK and Ireland. Interviews explored clinicians’ perceptions of the challenges in consultations where surgery is not indicated. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis.
Two meta-themes, Difficulties and Enablers, each consisting of several subthemes were identified. Difficulties included challenges around the choice of appropriate terminology and labels for PMLBP, managing patients’ expectations, working with mentally vulnerable patients and explaining imaging findings. Enablers included early management of expectations, use of routine imaging, triaging, access to direct referral elsewhere, including other non-surgical practitioners in the team, training to improve communication skills and understanding of psychological issues.
The findings highlight clinicians’ perceived need for concordance in messages delivered across the care pathway and training of orthopaedic clinicians to deliver effective reassurance and address patients’ needs in circumstances where surgery is not indicated.
Currently, no standard instrument exists for assessing the concept of male involvement in maternal health, hampering comparison of results and interpretation of the literature. The aim of this study was to construct the key elements of a global multidimensional male involvement framework, based on the latest evidence and input of experts in the field.
For this purpose, a Delphi study, including an international panel of 26 experts, was carried out. The study consisted of three rounds, with 92% of respondents completing all three surveys. Experts were asked to rate indicators within six categories in terms of validity, feasibility, sensitivity, specificity and context robustness. Furthermore, they were encouraged to clarify their rating with open text responses. Indicators were excluded or adapted according to experts’ feedback before inclusion. A 85% agreement was used as threshold for consensus.
A general consensus was reached for a global framework for assessing male involvement in maternal health, consisting of five categories: involvement in communication, involvement in decision-making, practical involvement, physical involvement and emotional involvement.
Using the male involvement framework as a tool to assess the concept of male involvement in maternal health at local, national, and international levels could allow improved assessment and comparison of study findings. Further research is needed for refining the indicators according to context and exploring how shared decision-making, gender equality and women’s empowerment can be assessed and facilitated within male involvement programmes.
The biomechanics of the healthcare professionals (HCPs) performing the life-saving intervention of chest compressions in the neonatal population is poorly understood. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the variations in body position at a self-selected and a predetermined bed height during neonatal chest compressions. Measures of joint angles, time to postural sway and number of postural adjustments were chosen as indices for the stability of the HCP’s position.
Data were collected at a simulation-based research centre in which the patient care environment was replicated.
HCPs with varying roles working in the neonatal intensive care unit and holding a current Neonatal Resuscitation Program Provider certification were recruited for this study.
Fifteen HCPs performed two trials of chest compressions, each lasting 2 min, at a predetermined bed height and a self-selected bed height. Trials were video recorded, capturing upper and lower body movements. Videos were analysed for time to postural sway and number of postural adjustments. Joint angles were measured at the start and end of each trial.
A statistically significant difference was found between the two bed height conditions for number of postural adjustments (p=0.02). While not statistically significant, time postural sway was increased in the choice bed height condition (85 s) compared with the predetermined bed height (45 s). After 30 s of chest compressions, mean shoulder and knee angles were smaller for choice bed height (p=0.03, 95% CI Lower=–12.14, Upper=–0.68 and p=0.05, 95% CI Lower=3.43, Upper=0.01, respectively). After 1 min and 45 s of chest compressions, mean wrist angles were smaller in the choice bed height condition (p=0.01, 95% CI Lower=–9.20, Upper=–1.22), stride length decreased between the 30 s and 1 min 45 s marks of the chest compressions in the predetermined height condition (p=0.02).
In 2012, US Marines and Sailors began annual deployments to Australia to participate in joint training exercises with the Australian Defence Force and other partners in the region. During their training, US service members are exposed to a variety of infectious disease threats not normally encountered by American citizens. This paper describes a cohort of US Marines and Sailors enrolled during five rotations to Australia between 2016 and 2020.
Study participation is strictly voluntary. Group informational sessions are held prior to deployment to describe the study structure and goals, as well as the infectious disease threats that participants may encounter while in Australia. All participants provided written informed consent. Consented participants complete a pre-deployment questionnaire to collect data including basic demographic information, military occupational specialty, travel history, family history, basic health status and personal habits such as alcohol consumption. Blood is collected for serum, plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) processing. Data and specimen collection is repeated up to three times: before, during and after deployment.
From the five rotations that comprised the 2016–2020 Marine Rotational Force-Darwin, we enrolled 1289 volunteers. Enrolments during this period were overwhelmingly white male under the age of 24 years. Most of the enrollees were junior enlisted and non-commissioned officers, with a smaller number of staff non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers, and minimal warrant officers. Over half of the enrollees had occupational specialty designations for infantry.
In the future, we will screen samples for serological evidence of infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, Coxiella burnetii, Ross River virus, SARS-CoV-2 and other operationally relevant pathogens endemic in Australia. Antigenic stimulation assays will be performed on PBMCs collected from seropositive individuals to characterise the immune response to these infections in this healthy American population.
The absence of a diagnostic test for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a major impediment in managing this serious childhood condition. ARF is an autoimmune condition triggered by infection with group A Streptococcus. It is the precursor to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a leading cause of health inequity and premature mortality for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and internationally.
‘Searching for a Technology-Driven Acute Rheumatic Fever Test’ (START) is a biomarker discovery study that aims to detect and test a biomarker signature that distinguishes ARF cases from non-ARF, and use systems biology and serology to better understand ARF pathogenesis. Eligible participants with ARF diagnosed by an expert clinical panel according to the 2015 Revised Jones Criteria, aged 5–30 years, will be recruited from three hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Age, sex and ethnicity-matched individuals who are healthy or have non-ARF acute diagnoses or RHD, will be recruited as controls. In the discovery cohort, blood samples collected at baseline, and during convalescence in a subset, will be interrogated by comprehensive profiling to generate possible diagnostic biomarker signatures. A biomarker validation cohort will subsequently be used to test promising combinations of biomarkers. By defining the first biomarker signatures able to discriminate between ARF and other clinical conditions, the START study has the potential to transform the approach to ARF diagnosis and RHD prevention.
The study has approval from the Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research ethics committee and the New Zealand Health and Disability Ethics Committee. It will be conducted according to ethical standards for research involving Indigenous Australians and New Zealand Māori and Pacific Peoples. Indigenous investigators and governance groups will provide oversight of study processes and advise on cultural matters.
Multimorbidity is associated with mortality in high-income countries. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between multimorbidity (≥2 of the following chronic medical conditions: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, anaemia, HIV, angina, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence) and all-cause mortality in an older, rural black South African population. We further investigated the relationship between HIV multimorbidity (HIV as part of the multimorbidity cluster) and mortality, while testing for the effect of frailty in all models.
Population cohort study.
Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province, South Africa.
4455 individuals (54.7% female), aged ≥40 years (median age 61 years, IQR 52–71) and resident in the study area.
The primary outcome measure was time to death and the secondary outcome measure was likelihood of death within 2 years of the initial study visit. Mortality was determined during annual population surveillance updates.
3157 individuals (70.9%) had multimorbidity; 29% of these had HIV. In models adjusted for age and sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity was associated with greater risk of death (women: HR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.50; men: HR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.95) and greater odds of dying within 2 years (women: OR 2.34; 95% CI: 1.32 to 4.16; men: OR 1.51; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.24). HIV multimorbidity was associated with increased risk of death compared with non-HIV multimorbidity in men (HR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.54), but was not statistically significant in women (HR 1.85; 95% CI: 0.85 to 4.04); when detectable, HIV viral loads were higher in men (p=0.021). Further adjustment for frailty slightly attenuated the associations between multimorbidity and mortality risk (women: HR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.26; men: HR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.82), but slightly increased associations between HIV multimorbidity and mortality risk.
Multimorbidity is associated with mortality in this older black South African population. Health systems which currently focus on HIV should be reorganised to optimise identification and management of other prevalent chronic diseases.
A third of pregnant women in the UK are vitamin D deficient, which may confer deleterious consequences, including an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restriction. This study aims to determine the proportion of women that met National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) standards for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and compare biochemical and obstetrical outcomes according to supplementation status.
This is a single-centre cross-sectional study in an antenatal centre in Birmingham, UK. Participants received a questionnaire regarding their experiences with vitamin D supplementation during their pregnancy with their general practitioner. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone profile results were obtained during the same appointment and obstetrical outcomes were collected retrospectively once participants had delivered.
41.8% of participants (n=61) received written and/or verbal advice about supplementation, (NICE standards=100%). 72.6% (n=106) had one or more risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, of which 38.7% (n=41, NICE standards=100%) were asked about supplementation. Among those asked, 85.4% (n=41, NICE standards=100%) received the correct dosage. Compared with the supplementation group, the non-supplementation group had offspring that were 1.40 cm (95% CI 0.01 to 2.80, p=0.04) longer at birth; which was significant after adjusting for confounding factors. No significant differences in any biochemical parameters were observed between supplementation categories (p>0.05).
Adherence to NICE standards was suboptimal. This may be attributed to insufficient training for general practitioners on the importance of supplementation, causing them to underestimate the consequences of gestational vitamin D deficiency. Recommendations include implementing a mandatory screening tool to identify ‘at-risk’ women and providing more clinician training to ensure that supplementation during pregnancy is standard of care.
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Malawi, but preventable through screening. Malawi primarily uses visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for screening, however, a follow-up for positive screening results remains a major barrier, in rural areas. We interviewed women who underwent a community-based screen-and-treat campaign that offered same-day treatment with thermocoagulation, a heat-based ablative procedure for VIA-positive lesions, to understand the barriers in accessing post-treatment follow-up and the role of male partners in contributing to, or overcoming these barriers.
We conducted in-depths interviews with 17 women recruited in a pilot study that evaluated the safety and acceptability of community-based screen-and-treat programme using VIA and thermocoagulation for cervical cancer prevention in rural Lilongwe, Malawi. Ten of the women interviewed presented for post-treatment follow-up at the healthcare facility and seven did not. The interviews were analysed for thematic content surrounding barriers for attending for follow-up and role of male partners in screening.
Transportation was identified as a major barrier to post-thermocoagulation follow-up appointment, given long distances to the healthcare facility. Male partners were perceived as both a barrier for some, that is, not supportive of 6-week post-thermocoagulation abstinence recommendation, and as an important source of support for others, that is, encouraging follow-up attendance, providing emotional support to maintaining post-treatment abstinence and as a resource in overcoming transportation barriers. Regardless, the majority of women desired more male partner involvement in cervical cancer screening.
Despite access to same-day treatment, long travel distances to health facilities for post-treatment follow-up visits remained a major barrier for women in rural Lilongwe. Male partners were identified both as a barrier to, and an important source of support for accessing and completing the screen-and-treat programme. To successfully eliminate cervical cancer in Malawi, it is imperative to understand the day-to-day barriers women face in accessing preventative care.
The World Health Organisation endorses community-based programmes as a cost-effective, feasible and a ‘best buy’ in the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These programmes are particularly successful when the community actively participates in its design, implementation and evaluation. However, they may be only useful insofar as they can be scaled up and sustained in some meaningful way. Social network research may serve as an important tool for determining the underlying mechanisms that contribute to this process. The aim of this planned scoping review is to map and collate literature on the role of social networks in scaling-up and sustaining community-based physical activity and diet programmes in low-income and middle-income countries.
This scoping review protocol has been planned around the Arksey and O'Malley framework and its enhancement. Inclusion criteria are peer-reviewed articles and grey literature exploring the role of social networks in the scale-up and/or sustainability of NCD prevention community-based programmes in adult populations. Studies must have been published since 2000, in English, and be based in a low-income or middle-income country. The following databases will be used for this review: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, SocIndex, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Google and Google Scholar. Books, conference abstracts and research focused only on children will be excluded. Two reviewers will independently select and extract eligible studies. Included publications will be thematically analysed using the Framework Approach.
Ethical approval will not be sought for this review as no individual-level data or human participants will be involved. This protocol is registered on the Open Science Framework (https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/KG7TX). The findings from the review will be published in an accredited journal. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist will be used to support transparency and guide translation of the review.
Physicians’ cognitive empathy is associated with improved diagnosis and better patient outcomes. The relationship between self-reported and performance-based measures of cognitive empathic processes is unclear.
Cross-sectional analysis of the association between medical students’ empathy scale scores and their empathic performance in a visuospatial perspective-taking (VPT) task.
Undergraduate medical students across two European medical schools (n=194).
Two self-report empathy and one performance-based perspective-taking outcome: Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE); Empathy Quotient (EQ); Samson’s level-1 VPT task.
Higher scores on the ‘standing in patient’s shoes’ subscale of the JSPE were associated with a lower congruency effect (as well as lower egocentric and altercentric biases) in the VPT (B=–0.007, 95% CI=–0.013 to 0.002, p
We show that self-assessment scores are associated with selected performance-based indices of perspective taking, providing a more fine-grained analysis of the cognitive domain of empathy assessed in medical student empathy scales. This analysis allows us to generate new critical hypotheses about the reasons why only certain self-report empathy measures (or their subscales) are associated with physicians’ observed empathic ability.
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the global general population regarding COVID-19.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were used to identify articles published between 1 January and 30 June 2021 assessing KAP regarding COVID-19 in the global general population. The quality of eligible studies was assessed. Random effects model was used to obtain the pooled proportion of each component of KAP of COVID-19. Heterogeneity (I2) was tested, and subgroup and correlation analyses were performed.
Out of 3099 records, 84 studies from 45 countries across all continents assessing 215 731 participants’ COVID-19 KAP were included in this study. The estimated overall correct answers for knowledge, good attitude and good practice in this review were 75% (95% CI 72% to 77%), 74% (95% CI 71% to 77%) and 70% (95% CI 66% to 74%), respectively. Low-income countries, men, people aged below 30 years and people with 12 years of education or less had the lowest practice scores. Practice scores were below 60% in Africa and Europe/Oceania. Overall heterogeneity was high (I2 ≥98%), and publication bias was present (Egger’s regression test, p
This study’s findings call for community-based awareness programmes to provide a simple, clear and understandable message to reinforce knowledge especially regarding efficacy of the preventive measures in low and lower middle-income countries, and in Africa and Europe/Oceania, which will translate into good practice. Targeted intervention for men, people with low education, unemployed people and people aged below 30 years should be recommended. As most of the included studies were online surveys, underprivileged and remote rural people may have been missed out. Additional studies are needed to cover heterogeneous populations.