The COVID-19 pandemic brought an urgent need to discover novel effective therapeutics for patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19. The Investigation of Serial studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging And moLecular Analysis (ISPY COVID-19 trial) was designed and implemented in early 2020 to evaluate investigational agents rapidly and simultaneously on a phase 2 adaptive platform. This manuscript outlines the design, rationale, implementation and challenges of the ISPY COVID-19 trial during the first phase of trial activity from April 2020 until December 2021.
The ISPY COVID-19 Trial is a multicentre open-label phase 2 platform trial in the USA designed to evaluate therapeutics that may have a large effect on improving outcomes from severe COVID-19. The ISPY COVID-19 Trial network includes academic and community hospitals with significant geographical diversity across the country. Enrolled patients are randomised to receive one of up to four investigational agents or a control and are evaluated for a family of two primary outcomes—time to recovery and mortality. The statistical design uses a Bayesian model with ‘stopping’ and ‘graduation’ criteria designed to efficiently discard ineffective therapies and graduate promising agents for definitive efficacy trials. Each investigational agent arm enrols to a maximum of 125 patients per arm and is compared with concurrent controls. As of December 2021, 11 investigational agent arms had been activated, and 8 arms were complete. Enrolment and adaptation of the trial design are ongoing.
ISPY COVID-19 operates under a central institutional review board via Wake Forest School of Medicine IRB00066805. Data generated from this trial will be reported in peer-reviewed medical journals.
To provide a route map regarding systematic reviews (SRs) of acupuncture therapies that will meet two goals: (1) to identify areas in which more or better evidence is required and (2) to identify acupuncture applications that, although proven effective, remain underused in practice, and thus warrant more effective knowledge dissemination.
We included SRs that conducted meta-analyses (MAs) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for this overview.
We searched for SRs without language restrictions from January 2015 to November 2020 in four Chinese electronic databases and Epistemonikos database. And we also searched for newly published RCTs that were eligible for selected best SRs in PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and four Chinese electronic databases from its lasted search dates to November 2020.
We reanalysed the selected MAs if new primary studies were added. We used random-effect model to calculate the overall effect.
Our search identified 120 SRs published in the last 5 years addressing acupuncture therapies across 12 therapeutic areas and 77 diseases and conditions. The SRs included 205 outcomes and involved 138 995 participants from 1402 RCTs. We constructed 77 evidence matrices, including 120 SRs and their included RCTs in the Epistemonikos database. Seventy-seven SRs represented the effect estimate of acupuncture therapies. Finally, we system summarised the areas of possible underutilisation of acupuncture therapies (high or moderate certainty evidence of large or moderate effects), and the areas of warranting additional investigation of acupuncture therapies (low or very low certainty evidence of moderate or large effects).
The evidence maps and overview of SRs on acupuncture therapies identified both therapies with substantial benefits that may require more assertive evidence dissemination and promising acupuncture therapies that require further investigation.
Obese men with prostate cancer have an increased risk of biochemical recurrence, metastatic disease and mortality. For those undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), substantial increases in fat mass are observed in the first year of treatment. Recently, we showed that a targeted supervised clinic-based exercise and nutrition intervention can result in a substantial reduction in fat mass with muscle mass preserved in ADT-treated patients. However, the intervention needs to be accessible to all patients and not just those who can access a supervised clinic-based programme. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of telehealth delivered compared with supervised clinic-based delivered exercise and nutrition intervention in overweight/obese patients with prostate cancer.
A single-blinded, two-arm parallel group, non-inferiority randomised trial will be undertaken with 104 overweight/obese men with prostate cancer (body fat percentage ≥25%) randomly allocated in a ratio of 1:1 to a telehealth-delivered, virtually supervised exercise and nutrition programme or a clinic-based, face-to-face supervised exercise and nutrition programme. Exercise will consist of supervised resistance and aerobic exercise performed three times a week plus additional self-directed aerobic exercise performed 4 days/week for the first 6 months. Thereafter, for months 7–12, the programmes will be self-managed. The primary endpoint will be fat mass. Secondary endpoints include lean mass and abdominal aortic calcification, anthropometric measures and blood pressure assessment, objective measures of physical function and physical activity levels, patient-reported outcomes and blood markers. Measurements will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months (post intervention), and at 12 months of follow-up. Data will be analysed using intention-to-treat and per protocol approaches.
Ethics approval has been obtained from the Edith Cowan University Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: 2021–02157-GALVAO). Outcomes from the study will be published in academic journals and presented in scientific and consumer meetings.
We assessed the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, personal protective equipment (PPE) shortages and occurrence of biological accidents among front-line healthcare workers (HCW).
Using respondent-driven sampling, the study recruited distinct categories of HCW attending suspected or confirmed patients with COVID-19 from May 2020 to February 2021, in the Recife metropolitan area, Northeast Brazil.
The criterion to assess SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCW was a positive self-reported PCR test.
We analysed 1525 HCW: 527 physicians, 471 registered nurses, 263 nursing assistants and 264 physical therapists. Women predominated in all categories (81.1%; 95% CI: 77.8% to 84.1%). Nurses were older with more comorbidities (hypertension and overweight/obesity) than the other staff. The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 61.8% (95% CI: 55.7% to 67.5%) after adjustment for the cluster random effect, weighted by network, and the reference population size. Risk factors for a positive RT-PCR test were being a nursing assistant (OR adjusted: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.42 to 4.61), not always using all recommended PPE while assisting patients with COVID-19 (OR adj: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.53) and reporting a splash of biological fluid/respiratory secretion in the eyes (OR adj: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.10 to 10.34).
This study shows the high frequency of SARS-CoV2 infection among HCW presumably due to workplace exposures. In our setting, nursing assistant comprised the most vulnerable category. Our findings highlight the need for improving healthcare facility environments, specific training and supervision to cope with public health emergencies.
Several studies have shown that residents of urban informal settlements/slums are usually excluded and marginalised from formal social systems and structures of power leading to disproportionally worse health outcomes compared to other urban dwellers. To promote health equity for slum dwellers, requires an understanding of how their lived realities shape inequities especially for young children 0–4 years old (ie, under-fives) who tend to have a higher mortality compared with non-slum children. In these proposed studies, we aim to examine how key Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) factors at child and household levels combine to affect under-five health conditions, who live in slums in Bangladesh and Kenya through an intersectionality lens.
The protocol describes how we will analyse data from the Nairobi Cross-sectional Slum Survey (NCSS 2012) for Kenya and the Urban Health Survey (UHS 2013) for Bangladesh to explore how SDoH influence under-five health outcomes in slums within an intersectionality framework. The NCSS 2012 and UHS 2013 samples will consist of 2199 and 3173 under-fives, respectively. We will apply Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy approach. Some of SDoH characteristics to be considered will include those of children, head of household, mothers and social structure characteristics of household. The primary outcomes will be whether a child had diarrhoea, cough, fever and acute respiratory infection (ARI) 2 weeks preceding surveys.
The results will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in events organised by the Accountability and Responsiveness in Informal Settlements for Equity consortium and international conferences. Ethical approval was not required for these studies. Access to the NCSS 2012 has been given by Africa Population and Health Center and UHS 2013 is freely available.
In August 2016, Campylobacter spp contaminated an untreated reticulated water supply resulting in a large-scale gastroenteritis outbreak affecting an estimated 8320 people. We aimed to determine the incidence of probable reactive arthritis (ReA) cases in individuals with culture-confirmed campylobacteriosis (CC), self-reported probable campylobacteriosis (PC) and those reporting no diarrhoea (ND).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify incidence of probable ReA cases. We identified cases with new ReA symptoms using an adapted acute ReA (AReA) telephone questionnaire. Those reporting ≥1 symptom underwent a telephone interview with the study rheumatologist. Probable ReA was defined as spontaneous onset of pain suggestive of inflammatory arthritis in ≥1 previously asymptomatic joint for ≥3 days occurring ≤12 weeks after outbreak onset.
Population-based epidemiological study in Havelock North, New Zealand.
We enrolled notified CC cases with gastroenteritis symptom onsets 5 August 2016–6 September 2016 and conducted a telephone survey of households supplied by the contaminated water source to enrol PC and ND cases.
One hundred and six (47.3%) CC, 47 (32.6%) PC and 113 (34.3%) ND cases completed the AReA telephone questionnaire. Of those reporting ≥1 new ReA symptom, 45 (75.0%) CC, 13 (68.4%) PC and 14 (82.4%) ND cases completed the rheumatologist telephone interview. Nineteen CC, 4 PC and 2 ND cases developed probable ReA, resulting in minimum incidences of 8.5%, 2.8% and 0.6% and maximum incidences of 23.9%, 12.4% and 2.15%.
We describe high probable ReA incidences among gastroenteritis case types during a very large Campylobacter gastroenteritis outbreak using a resource-efficient method that is feasible to employ in future outbreaks.
Harm minimisation for self-harm is an alternative to preventive strategies and focuses on maximising safety when self-harming. We explored the views of clinicians on harm minimisation for self-harm to describe reported use and acceptability in clinical practice.
A cross-sectional study using an online survey consisting of fixed-choice and open-ended questions.
Primary and secondary care practices in England, Scotland and Wales.
Snowball sampling of UK-based clinicians (n=90; 67% female) working with people who self-harm and who have or have not previously recommended harm minimisation methods to patients.
Of the 90 clinicians sampled, 76 (84%) reported having recommended harm minimisation techniques to people in their care who self-harm. Commonly recommended techniques were snapping rubber bands on one’s wrist and squeezing ice. Other techniques, such as teaching use of clean instruments when self-harming, were less likely to be recommended. Perceived client benefits included harm reduction and promotion of the therapeutic relationship. Perceived potential limitations of a harm minimisation approach for self-harm were (a) potential worsening of self-harm outcomes; (b) ethical reservations; (c) doubts about its effectiveness and appropriateness; and (d) lack of training and clear policies within the workplace.
In our sample of UK-based clinicians in various settings, harm minimisation for self-harm was broadly recommended for clients who self-harm due to perceived client benefits. However, future policies on harm minimisation must address clinicians’ perceived needs for training, well-defined guidelines, and clear evidence of effectiveness and safety to mitigate some clinician concerns about the potential for further harm.
The number of patients in Malaysia requiring dialysis is expected to rise substantially in the future due to the ageing population and increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Hence, more individuals will be expected to adopt the role of caregivers in the future. The upward trend of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and caregiving for dialysis patients has detrimental consequences for both patients and caregivers in terms of their psychological well-being and quality of life. Despite the current circumstances, there are very few studies in Malaysia that have explored the psychosocial factors, specifically on the economic impact of the management of ESRD.
This two-phase sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, incorporating a quantitative design (phase I) and a qualitative study (phase II), is to be conducted in 4 government hospitals and 10 other non-governmental organisations or private dialysis centres within Klang Valley, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey (phase I) will include 236 patient-caregiver dyads, while focus group discussions (phase II) will include 30 participants. The participants for both phases will be recruited purposively. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests and multiple regression analysis will be used for analyses in phase I, and thematic analysis will be used in phase II.
Approval for the study has been obtained from the National Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC) (NMRR-21-1012-59714) and the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz UKM (UKM PPI/111/8/JEP-2021–078) and University of Malaya Medical Centre (MREC ID NO: 2 02 178–10346). Informed consent of the participants will be obtained beforehand, and no personal identifiers will be obtained from the participants to protect their anonymity. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at national or international conferences with minimal anonymised data.
The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated growing research on treatment options. We aim to provide an overview of the characteristics of studies evaluating COVID-19 treatment.
Rapid scoping review
Medline, Embase and biorxiv/medrxiv from inception to 15 May 2021.
Hospital and community care.
COVID-19 patients of all ages.
The literature search identified 616 relevant primary studies of which 188 were randomised controlled trials and 299 relevant evidence syntheses. The studies and evidence syntheses were conducted in 51 and 39 countries, respectively.
Most studies enrolled patients admitted to acute care hospitals (84%), included on average 169 participants, with an average age of 60 years, study duration of 28 days, number of effect outcomes of four and number of harm outcomes of one. The most common primary outcome was death (32%).
The included studies evaluated 214 treatment options. The most common treatments were tocilizumab (11%), hydroxychloroquine (9%) and convalescent plasma (7%). The most common therapeutic categories were non-steroidal immunosuppressants (18%), steroids (15%) and antivirals (14%). The most common therapeutic categories involving multiple drugs were antimalarials/antibiotics (16%), steroids/non-steroidal immunosuppressants (9%) and antimalarials/antivirals/antivirals (7%). The most common treatments evaluated in systematic reviews were hydroxychloroquine (11%), remdesivir (8%), tocilizumab (7%) and steroids (7%).
The evaluated treatment was in favour 50% and 36% of the evaluations, according to the conclusion of the authors of primary studies and evidence syntheses, respectively.
This rapid scoping review characterised a growing body of comparative-effectiveness primary studies and evidence syntheses. The results suggest future studies should focus on children, elderly ≥65 years of age, patients with mild symptoms, outpatient treatment, multimechanism therapies, harms and active comparators. The results also suggest that future living evidence synthesis and network meta-analysis would provide additional information for decision-makers on managing COVID-19.
Many people with HIV report both distress and pain. The relationship between distress and pain is bidirectional, but the mechanisms by which distress exacerbates pain are unclear. The inflammatory response to challenge (inflammatory reactivity, IR) may be a partial mediator, given that neuroimmune interactions provide a substrate for IR to also influence neurological reactivity and, thus, pain-related neural signalling. This prospective, observational, case–control study will characterise the relationships between distress, IR, pain-related signalling as captured by induced secondary hyperalgesia (SH), and pain, in people with HIV who report persistent pain (PP) (cases) or no pain (controls).
One hundred people with suppressed HIV, reporting either PP or no pain, will be assessed two or four times over 6 months. The primary outcomes are distress (Hopkins 25-item symptom checklist), IR (multiplex assay after LPS challenge), and PP (Brief Pain Inventory), assessed at the baseline timepoint, although each will also be assessed at follow-up time points. Induced SH will be assessed in a subsample of 60 participants (baseline timepoint only). To test the hypothesis that IR partly mediates the relationship between distress and pain, mediation analysis will use the baseline data from the PP group to estimate direct and indirect contributions of distress and IR to pain. To test the hypothesis that IR is positively associated with SH, data from the subsample will be analysed with generalised mixed effects models to estimate the association between IR and group membership, with SH as the dependent variable.
Information obtained from this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. The study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Cape Town (approval number: 764/2019) and the City of Cape Town (ref: 24699).
Infectious diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity among the highly vulnerable occupants of residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The burden of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) among RACFs residents is mostly unknown and there is a lack of quality data from population-based prospective VPD surveillance in RACFs. The increasing burden of emerging and existing VPDs (eg, COVID-19, influenza, pneumococcal, pertussis and varicella-zoster) necessitates the establishment of an active enhanced surveillance system to provide real-time evidence to devise strategies to reduce the burden of VPDs in RACFs.
This study proposes a prospective active enhanced surveillance that will be implemented in RACFs across the Central Queensland (CQ) region. The study aims to measure the burden, identify aetiologies, risk factors, predictors of severe outcomes (eg, hospitalisations, mortality) and impact of the existing National Immunization Program (NIP) funded vaccines in preventing VPDs in this vulnerable population. CQ Public Health Unit (CQPHU) will implement the active surveillance by collecting demographic, clinical, pathological, diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical outcome data from the RACFs based on predefined selection criteria and case report forms as per routine public health practices. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate regression analysis will be conducted to identify the predictors of morbidity and clinical outcomes following infection.
The study has been approved by the CQHHS Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (reference number HREC/2021/QCQ/74305). This study involves data that is routinely collected as part of the surveillance of notifiable conditions under the Public Health Act 2005. The CQHHS HREC approved a request to waive consent requirements of study participants as researchers will be provided non-identifiable data. The findings from the study will be actively disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social and print media, federal, state, and local authorities to reflect on the results that may facilitate revision of policy and highlight the stakeholders, funding bodies both locally and internationally.
Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow cancer, which predominantly affects older people. The incidence is increasing in an ageing population.
Over the last 10 years, patient outcomes have improved. However, this is less apparent in older, less fit patients, who are ineligible for stem cell transplant. Research is required in this patient group, taking into account frailty and aiming to improve: treatment tolerability, clinical outcomes and quality of life.
Frailty-adjusted therapy in Transplant Non-Eligible patients with newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma is a national, phase III, multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing standard (reactive) and frailty-adjusted (adaptive) induction therapy delivery with ixazomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (IRD), and to compare maintenance lenalidomide to lenalidomide+ixazomib, in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma not suitable for stem cell transplant. Overall, 740 participants will be registered into the trial to allow 720 and 478 to be randomised at induction and maintenance, respectively.
All participants will receive IRD induction with the dosing strategy randomised (1:1) at trial entry. Patients randomised to the standard, reactive arm will commence at the full dose followed by toxicity dependent reactive modifications. Patients randomised to the adaptive arm will commence at a dose level determined by their International Myeloma Working Group frailty score. Following 12 cycles of induction treatment, participants alive and progression free will undergo a second (double-blind) randomisation on a 1:1 basis to maintenance treatment with lenalidomide+placebo versus lenalidomide+ixazomib until disease progression or intolerance.
Ethical approval has been obtained from the North East—Tyne & Wear South Research Ethics Committee (19/NE/0125) and capacity and capability confirmed by local research and development departments for each participating centre prior to opening to recruitment. Participants are required to provide written informed consent prior to trial registration. Trial results will be disseminated by conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications.
We assessed the relative difficulty in meeting food needs during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before; determined the relationship between pandemic-associated difficulties in food access and household, maternal and child food security; and identified resiliency-promoting strategies.
A cross-sectional survey of households undertaken in November 2020.
Rural districts of Luang Prabang Province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic.
Households (N=1122) with children under 5 years.
Survey respondents reported the relative ease of access of food and healthcare as well as changes in income and expenditures compared with before March 2020. We determined indicators of food security and source of foods consumed for households, women and children, as well as prevalence of malnutrition in children under 5.
Nearly four-fifths (78.5%) found it harder to meet household food needs during the pandemic. The most common reasons were increased food prices (51.2%), loss of income (45.3%) and decreased food availability (36.6%). Adjusting for demographics, households with increased difficulty meeting food needs had lower food consumption scores and child dietary diversity. Over 85% of households lost income during the pandemic. Decreased expenditures was associated with reliance on more extreme coping strategies to meet food needs. The households who experienced no change in meeting food needs produced a greater percentage of their food from homegrown methods (4.22% more, 95% CI 1.28 to 7.15), than households who found it more difficult.
Pandemic-associated shocks may have large effects on food insecurity. Action is needed to mitigate consequences of the pandemic on nutrition. Local food production and safety net programmes that offset income losses may help.
To examine the role of social media in promoting recall and belief of distorted science about nicotine and COVID-19 and whether recall and belief predict tobacco industry beliefs.
Young adults aged 18–34 years (N=1225) were surveyed cross-sectionally via online Qualtrics panel. The survey assessed recall and belief in three claims about nicotine and COVID-19 and three about nicotine in general followed by assessments of industry beliefs and use of social media. Ordinal logistic regression with robust standard errors controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, education, current e-cigarette use and age was used to examine relationships between variables.
Twitter use was associated with higher odds of recall (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.01 to 1.44) and belief (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.52) in COVID-19-specific distorted science. YouTube use was associated with higher odds of believing COVID-19-specific distorted science (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.09 to 1.60). Reddit use was associated with lower odds of believing COVID-19-specific distorted science (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.59 to 0.88). Recall (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.47) and belief (OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.09 to 1.50) in distorted science about nicotine in general as well as belief in distorted science specific to COVID-19 (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.34 to 1.95) were associated with more positive beliefs about the tobacco industry. Belief in distorted science about nicotine in general was also associated with more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.35).
Use of social media platforms may help to both spread and dispel distorted science about nicotine. Addressing distorted science about nicotine is important, as it appears to be associated with more favourable views of the tobacco industry which may erode public support for effective regulation.
Despite climate change being recognised as the greatest health threat of the 21st century, current medical education curricula do not reflect the urgency of the climate crisis. Preparing for climate-related health repercussions requires educational institutions to disseminate planetary health knowledge in a systematic way. We sought to evaluate the extent of the literature on the inclusion of planetary health in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education to guide curricular development.
A scoping review is being undertaken with a search strategy developed with a health sciences librarian. The search strategy was run on the following databases from inception to 22 June 2021: Medline, Embase, APA PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health, Scopus. This scoping review is being conducted as per methodology that has been previously outlined. Studies that discuss the implementation of planetary health education within undergraduate and postgraduate medical education will be included, whether they discuss formal inclusion or supplemental courses. To supplement our database search, data from the Health and Environment Adaptive Task Force’s National Report on Planetary Health Education, the Planetary Health Report Card and the Association for Medical Education in Europe Consensus Statement on Planetary Health and Education for Sustainable Healthcare will be included. As we anticipate varying methodologies, the data analysis will consist of both a quantitative and a qualitative component. Outcomes will be categorised within the domains of the Planetary Health Education Framework, which incorporates concepts of systems thinking, social justice and interconnection within nature as they apply to education for planetary health.
As no intervention or patient recruitment will be required, research ethics board approval is not applicable. We plan to disseminate our results via publication in a peer-reviewed journal or conference presentation.
This protocol has been registered in Open Science Framework (10.17605/OSF.IO/7M6GZ).
In recent years, there has been strong interest in making digital health and social tools more accessible, particularly among vulnerable and stigmatised groups such as transgender people. While transgender people experience unique physical, mental and sexual health needs, not much is currently known about the extent to which they use information and communication technologies such as short messaging service and videoconferencing to access health services. In this paper, we discuss our protocol for a scoping review of the literature about the delivery and utilisation of digitally mediated health services for transgender populations.
This scoping review of the provision and experience of telemedicine among transgender people will follow the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. The search will be conducted using three online databases, namely PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus, with additional literature explored using Google Scholar to identify grey literature. Relevant English-language studies will be shortlisted after completing a title and abstract review based on defined inclusion criteria. Following that, a final list of included studies will be compiled after a full-text review of the shortlisted articles has been completed. To enable the screening process, a team of researchers will be assigned refereed publications explicitly referring to the provision and experience of transgender healthcare through telemedicine. Screening performed independently will then collaboratively be reviewed to maintain consistency.
The research is exempt from ethics approval since our analysis is based on extant research into the use of digital technologies in providing healthcare to transgender people. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed academic publications and presentations. Our analysis will guide the design of further research and practice relating to the use of digital communication technologies to deliver healthcare services to transgender people.
High use of CT scanning has raised concern due to the potential ionising radiation exposure. This study examined trends of CT during admission to tertiary hospitals and its associations with length of stay (LOS), readmission and mortality.
Retrospective observational study from 2003 to 2015.
West Australian linked administrative records at individual level.
2 375 787 episodes of tertiary hospital admission in adults aged 18+ years.
LOS, 30-day readmissions and mortality stratified by CT use status (any, multiple (CTs to multiple areas during episode), and repeat (repeated CT to the same area)).
Multivariable regression models were used to calculate adjusted rate of CT use status. The significance of changes since 2003 in the outcomes (LOS, 30-day readmission and mortality) was compared among patients with specific CT imaging status relative to those without.
Between 2003 and 2015, while the rate of CT increased 3.4% annually, the rate of repeat CTs significantly decreased –1.8% annually and multiple CT showed no change. Compared with 2003 while LOS had a greater decrease in those with any CT, 30-day readmissions had a greater increase among those with any CT, while the probability of mortality remained unchanged between the any CT/no CT groups. A similar result was observed in patients with multiple and repeat CT scanning, except for a significant increase in mortality in the recent years in the repeat CT group.
The observed pattern of increase in CT utilisation is likely to be activity-based funding policy-driven based on the discordance between LOS and readmissions. Meanwhile, the repeat CT reduction aligns with a more selective strategy of use based on clinical severity. Future research should incorporate in-hospital and out-of-hospital CT to better understand overall CT trends and potential shifts between settings over time.
The aim of this study was to conduct a nationwide all comer description of incidence, contemporary management and outcome in Swedish spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) patients. The incidence of SCAD as well as the management and outcome of these patients is not well described.
A nationwide observational study.
All patients with SCAD registered in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Register from 2015 to 2017 were included. The index angiographies of patients with registered SCAD were re-evaluated at each centre to confirm the diagnosis. Patients with non-SCAD myocardial infarction (MI) (n=32 601) were used for comparison.
Outcomes included all-cause mortality, reinfarction or acute coronary reangiography.
This study found 147 SCAD patients, rendering an incidence of 0.74 per 100 000 per year and a prevalence of 0.43% of all MIs. The average age was 52.9 years, 75.5% were women and 47.6% presented with ST-segment elevation MI. Median follow-up time for major adverse cardiac event was 17.3 months. Percutaneous coronary intervention was attempted in 40.1% of SCAD patients and 30.6% received stent. The use of antithrombotic agents was similar between the groups and there was no difference regarding outcomes, 10.9% vs 13.4%, p=0.75. Mortality was lower in SCAD patients, 2.7% vs 8.0%, p=0.03, whereas SCAD patients more often underwent acute reangiography, 9.5% vs 4.6%, p
In this nationwide, all comer Swedish study, the overall incidence of SCAD was low, including 25% men which is more and in contrast to previous studies. Compared with non-SCAD MI, SCAD patients were younger, with lower cardiovascular risk burden, yet suffered substantial mortality and morbidity and more frequently underwent acute coronary reangiography.
To evaluate the diagnostic performance and feasibility of rapid antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 detection in low-income communities.
We conducted a cross-sectional community-based diagnostic accuracy study. Community health workers, who were trained and supervised by medical technicians, performed rapid antigen tests on symptomatic individuals, and up to two additional household members in their households and diagnostic results were calibrated against the gold standard RT-PCR.
Low-income communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Between 19 May 2021 and 11 July 2021, 1240 nasal and saliva samples were collected from symptomatic individuals and 993 samples from additional household members (up to two from one household).
The sensitivity of rapid antigen tests was 0.68 on nasal samples (95% CI 0.62 to 0.73) and 0.41 on saliva (95% CI 0.35 to 0.46), with specificity also higher on nasal samples (0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) than saliva (0.87, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.90). Testing up to two additional household members increased sensitivity to 0.71 on nasal samples (95% CI 0.65 to 0.76), but reduced specificity (0.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97). Sensitivity on saliva rose to 0.48 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.54) with two additional household members tested but remained lower than sensitivity on nasal samples. During the study period, testing in these low-income communities increased fourfold through the mobilisation of community health workers for sample collection.
Rapid antigen testing on nasal swabs can be effectively performed by community health workers yielding equivalent sensitivity and specificity to the literature. Household testing by community health workers in low-resource settings is an inexpensive approach that can increase testing capacity, accessibility and the effectiveness of control measures through immediately actionable results.
The widespread prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) not only influences patients’ daily lives but also has an economic impact on society. Increasing physical activity and a healthy diet can delay the progression of T2D. Although there are evidence-based recommendations on diet and physical activity, patients with T2D have difficulties implementing them. An appropriate lifestyle intervention can address this problem.
This study is based on the need to develop an intervention that helps patients to establish behavioural changes in order to achieve glycaemic control. The intervention will be evaluated in a monocentric, open-label, pragmatic, two-arm randomised controlled trial with a sample ratio of 1:1 and a parallel design. This superiority study will be conducted in Switzerland. All enrolled patients (n=90) will receive the standard medical treatment for T2D. The intervention group will receive personal health coaching by telephone and access to a smartphone and web application for 1 year. The control group will receive access to the application for 1 year and a one-time written diet and exercise recommendation. The primary outcomes are objectively measured physical activity and glycated haemoglobin. Secondary outcomes are self-reported physical activity, nutrition, cognitive mediators of changes in sport-related behaviour, blood values, medication and nutritional supplements, anthropometric data, quality of life, neuropathy and cost-effectiveness. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, at 27 weeks after inclusion and at 54 weeks after inclusion. The recruitment of participants and the measurements will be completed after 2 years. Linear mixed-effects models will be applied for each outcome variable to analyse the intervention effects.
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee North-western and Central Switzerland in February 2021 (ref: 2020-02755). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. The results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals.