Human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells were irradiated with different energy lasers to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of microRNA‐206 and protein, and to further summarise the therapeutic effect of laser on scar cells. Human scar cell line HSF cells were cultured in three groups. The control group was not irradiated by laser, the low‐energy group was irradiated by 10 J/cm2 laser, and the high‐energy group was irradiated by 20 J/cm2 laser. After irradiation, HSF cells were cultured for 20 hours. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Transwell migration assay was used to detect cell migratory ability. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) was used to detect miR‐206 and mTOR gene levels. The levels of MMP‐9, Bax, Bcl‐2, cyclin D1, and mTOR signalling pathway proteins were detected by Western blotting assays. The results showed that after laser irradiation, the proliferation of cells decreased, and the difference between the control group and the experimental group was significant (P < .05). The higher the energy was, the greater the upregulation of apoptosis was. Apoptosis and cell migration increased (P < .05). The expressions of microRNA‐206, MMP‐9, and Bax were upregulated, while the expressions of mTOR, Bcl‐2, and cyclin D1 were downregulated. To sum up, laser irradiation can significantly inhibit the proliferation of HSF cells, affect cell cycle, and increase cell apoptosis and migratory ability.
To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous lidocaine in relieving postoperative pain and promoting rehabilitation in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, we conducted this meta‐analysis. The systematic search strategy was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese databases, and Cochrane Library before September 2019. As a result, 10 randomised clinical trials were included in this meta‐analysis (n = 527 patients). Intravenous lidocaine significantly reduced pain scores at 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours on movement and 2, 4, and 12 hours on resting‐state and reduced opioid requirement in first 24 hours postoperatively (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −5.02 [−9.34, −0.70]; P = .02). It also decreased the first flatus time (WMD: −10.15 [−11.20, −9.10]; P < .00001), first defecation time (WMD: −10.27 [−17.62, −2.92]; P = .006), length of hospital stay (WMD: −1.05 [−1.89, −0.21]; P = .01), and reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (risk ratio: 0.53 [0.30, 0.93]; P = .03) when compared with control group. However, it had no effect on pain scores at 24 and 48 hours at rest, the normal dietary time, and the level of serum C‐reactive protein. In summary, perioperative intravenous lidocaine could alleviate acute pain, reduce postoperative analgesic requirements, and accelerate recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a fatal complication after median sternotomy. This study was to assess the effect of vacuum‐assisted closure (VAC) combined with bi‐pectoral muscle advancement flap therapy on rehabilitation for the treatment of DSWI. Fifty‐two patients with DSWI underwent treatment of VAC and bi‐pectoral muscle flap. These patients were followed‐up 12 months postoperation. The patient characteristics, duration of VAC therapy, the mean hospital stay, and postoperative complications were retrospectively analysed. All patients underwent 1 to 3 VAC treatment sessions before closure. Fifty‐one of 52 DSWI patients were cured to discharge; the mean hospital stay was 26.5 days. The drainage tube continued to drain a large amount of bloody fluid in three patients after the wound was closed. Respiratory failure occurred in one patient with severe mediastinal and pulmonary infections and died eventually in hospital. One patient died of acute cerebral haemorrhage during the12‐month follow‐up. VAC therapy combined with bi‐pectoral muscle flap is a simple and effective treatment for DSWIs with short hospital stays and few complications. However, this is a retrospective case series presentation with no comparison group; further large‐scale controlled studies are needed.
In recent years, hydrosurgery is a technology that has been applied more and more in debridement procedures. However, the selectivity of hydrosurgery to cutaneous necrotic tissues has not been proved. This study was designed to investigate the possible tissue selectivity of hydrosurgery in the debridement in burn wounds. Deep partial‐thickness burns were produced on the back of porcine, and 48 hours later, both burn wounds and normal skin were debrided using the hydrosurgery system. Then tissue samples were taken, and histological staining was performed and observed under microscope. Burn wound resection rates and the normal skin damaged rates were measured. Our result indicated that the burn wounds were significantly more sensitive than the normal skin when the water pressure produced by the hydrosurgery system was set between 3000 and 5000 psi (pounds per square inch), that is, the necrotic tissue portions were debrided more easily than the normal skin tissue. Based on these data, we suggest that 3000 to 5000 psi of water pressure in the hydrosurgery system has a skin tissue selectivity in burn wounds.
Geriatric population is increasing rapidly worldwide, and fragility fracture and complication following orthopaedic surgery in elderly people have now become major challenges for surgeons. Further studies are required to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI) in geriatric patients. This retrospective, multicenter study was conducted at four level I hospitals in China. During the 31‐month study period, a total of 2341 patients (65 years or older) underwent orthopaedic surgery and complete data were recorded from September 2015 to April 2018. Demographics information, medications and additional comorbidities, surgery‐related variables, and laboratory indexes were extracted and analysed. Receiver‐operating characteristic analysis was performed to detect the optimum threshold of continuous variables. Independent risk factors of SSI were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Finally, 63 patients suffered from wound infection within the follow‐up period, indicating a 2.7% incidence rate of SSI. Statistical results showed that open injury (odds ratio [OR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4‐16.7), American Society of Anesthesiologists classified III‐IV score (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3‐3.8), surgical duration of >132 minutes (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1‐5.0), serum albumin (ALB) of <36.4 mg/L (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6‐3.4), and blood glucose (GLU) of >118 mg/dL (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1‐5.3) were independent risk factors of postoperative SSI. With the application of sensitive and modifiable variables such as surgical duration and the levels of ALB and GLU, more geriatric patients with sub‐high risk of postoperative SSI could be identified.
To examine the dissimilarity between Chinese myocardial infarction (MI) patients’ and spouses’ illness perceptions (IPs), and to explore the relationship between patients’ IP, differences in couples’ IP and patients’ lifestyle after discharge.
An individual's IP is affected and moderated by several factors, including the social context. One of the most influential members of the social network of patients is the spouse.
From April 2016–April 2017, 111 MI patients and their spouses were recruited. Before discharge from hospital, revised Illness Perception Questionnaire was administered to MI patients and their spouses separately. Two months after discharge, patients’ lifestyle was assessed using Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. The manuscript was organised according to STROBE guidelines.
Spouses were more likely to believe that the illness would last for a long time, and patients perceived MI as being more controllable than their spouses did. The patient–spouse dissimilarity in the perception of consequences was negatively correlated with both nutrition and stress control behaviours. Patients in couples with more dissimilar perception of environmental factors as a cause were more likely to choose a healthy diet, while patients in couples with more dissimilar perceived treatment control were more able to control stress.
There are both similarities and dissimilarities between MI patients’ and spouses’ IP, and these dissimilarities contributed the majority of the explained variance in patients’ lifestyle after discharge.
We should consider both couples when examining how a patient copes with a chronic illness.
The PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA‐A) was developed to guide authors to present a structured abstract. However, the adherence of abstracts to these guidelines in some areas was of concern.
To determine whether the publication of PRISMA‐A resulted in an improvement in the abstracts reported with nursing systematic reviews (SRs).
This was a cross‐sectional study. We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials–based SRs published in top‐tier nursing journals. A PRISMA‐A checklist was used to assess abstracts in the SR included. Total score on checklists, comparison of total scores between two periods, and effect factors were analyzed.
Overall, abstract reporting compliance with PRISMA‐A has not improved significantly with the time span. Of the 81 SRs, 74.1% were structured. About half reported eligibility criteria, information sources, and description of the effect as recommended. Registration status was reported only in 4.9%. The reporting quality was significantly higher for journals with higher impact factors (p < .001).
Although not inclusive of all SRs in the nursing field, our sample reflects the general trend that there was no significant improvement in the compliance of SR abstracts reported in nursing with the release of PRISMA‐A. There is room for improvement, as most items have not been fully reported.
To evaluate the impact of the specially designed medical dressing screen during wound dressing changes for children aged 1–3 who experienced a burn on their hand or foot.
Randomized controlled trial.
The study was performed, between January 2019 ‐ April 2019, at a Burn Outpatient Ward. A total of 52 outpatient children who had suffered burns were included in the clinical trial. The burn area of these participants accounted for 1–5% of the total body surface area. The children were randomly divided into two equal‐sized groups, each receiving a different treatment. In the medical screen group (N = 26), a medical screen was used for children during the dressing changes. In the control group (N = 26), the children received only regular dressing changes. Pain level of the children during dressing change was the primary outcome, the satisfaction of children's parents and wound therapist were used as second outcomes. The Bonferroni method was used to perform pairwise comparisons of repeatedly measured data at different measurement times in two groups.
The results showed that the medical screen group had better outcomes with respect to pain management during dressing changes; in addition, the satisfaction score of the wound therapist and children's parents presented also better outcomes compared with the control group.
This study demonstrated application of the medical screen for burns can relieve the pain of 1 ‐ 3‐year old children experienced a burn during dressing changes. In addition, the application of the medical screen also increased the satisfaction of the child's parents and wound therapist.
Registration NO: 1,900,020,953.
Compared with conventional dressing methods, the medical screen can be used as a novel way to decrease the negative experience of burn patients ages 1–3 who require dressing changes.
Warfarin is an effective anticoagulant and the only oral anticoagulant available for patients with mechanical heart valves. The prothrombin time and the associated international normalised ratio (INR) are routinely tested to monitor the response to anticoagulation therapy in patients. Patients who undergo mechanical heart valve replacement need lifelong anticoagulation therapy, and their INR is regularly measured to adjust the anticoagulation strength and the dose of anticoagulation drugs. Appropriate warfarin anticoagulation management can reduce patient complications, such as bleeding and thrombosis, and improve the long-term survival rate. We propose modern internet technology as a platform to build a warfarin anticoagulation follow-up system after valve replacement surgery. This system will provide doctors and patients with more standardised and safer follow-up methods as well as a method to further reduce the risk of warfarin anticoagulation-related complications and improve its therapeutic effects.
A prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial will be conducted. A total of 700 patients who require long-term warfarin anticoagulation monitoring after heart valve replacement will be enrolled and randomly divided at a 1:1 ratio into a traditional outpatient anticoagulation management group and a group undergoing a new method of management based on the internet technology with follow-up for 1 year. Differences in the percentage of time in the therapeutic range (TTR), drug dose adjustments, bleeding/thrombosis and other related complications will be observed. The primary endpoint is the difference in the TTR between the two groups. The purpose of this study is to explore a safer and more effective mode of doctor–patient interaction and communication in the internet era. As of 13 July 2019, 534 patients had been enrolled.
This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.
Clinical guidelines are designed to optimise patient care and provide efficient approaches for therapy. Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder that continues to experience a considerable treatment gap due to non-standard recommendations. We assessed the reporting quality of clinical practice guidelines on epilepsy over the past 5 years to generate a reporting specification for this study.
Seven databases were searched in May 2018 focusing on the period from 2013 to 2018. These included Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP). Reporting quality of epilepsy guidelines was assessed by two independent authors using the Reporting Items for practice Guidelines in HealThcare (RIGHT) approach. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess inter-rater reliability.
Participants with epilepsy or seizure, not limited by age, gender, course of disease or cause of epilepsy, were included.
There were no limitations with regard to intervention.
The outcome was the ability of the RIGHT tool to measure reporting quality.
Twelve relevant guidelines were included in this study. The reporting quality was not high in any of the included guidelines. The highest reporting quality included a ‘yes’ proportion of 77.1%, whereas the worst included a corresponding proportion of 37.1%. Overall evaluation results showed that 16.7% of the included guidelines were of high quality, 75% were of medium quality and 8.3% were of low quality. The correlation between the two estimators was credible (>0.7).
Appraisal of these guidelines using the RIGHT tool revealed that the quality of reporting varied among guidelines. Items that exhibited low quality in most included guidelines were healthcare questions, rationale/explanation for recommendations, quality assurance, funding source(s) and role(s) of the funder, and limitations of the guideline. Thus, these aspects should receive greater attention in future guideline reporting.
Portal hypertension (PH) is a severe disease with a poor outcome. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), the current gold standard to detect PH, is available only in few hospitals due to its invasiveness and technical difficulty. This study aimed to establish and assess a novel model to calculate HVPG based on biofluid mechanics.
This is a prospective, randomised, non-controlled, multicentre trial. A total of 248 patients will be recruited in this study, and each patient will undergo CT, blood tests, Doppler ultrasound and HVPG measurement. The study consists of two independent and consecutive cohorts: original cohort (124 patients) and validation cohort (124 patients). The researchers will establish and improve the HVPG using biofluid mechanics (HVPGBFM)model in the original cohort and assess the model in the validation cohort.
The study was approved by the Scientific Research Projects Approval Determination of Independent Ethics Committee of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (approval number 2017–430 T326). Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
by Jiaming Dan, Xueping Zhang, Zhihua Ren, Liqin Wang, Suizhong Cao, Liuhong Shen, Junliang Deng, Zhicai Zuo, Shumin Yu, Ya Wang, Xiaoping Ma, Haifeng Liu, Ziyao Zhou, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Changliang He, Yi Geng, Xiaobin Gu, Guangneng Peng, Zhijun ZhongGiardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasitic protist and poses a threat to human and animal health. This study investigated the occurrence of G. duodenalis infection in post-weaned calves from Sichuan province, China. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 306 post-weaned calves (3–12 months old) from 10 farms, including 4 intensive feeding farms and 6 free-ranging farms. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 41.2% (126/306) based on the PCR results at any of the three genetic loci: beta-giardin (bg), triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Giardia duodenalis assemblages E (n = 115, 91.3%), A (n = 3, 2.4%), and A mixed with E (n = 8, 6.3%) were identified among the 126 positive specimens. Multilocus sequence typing of G. duodenalis revealed 34 assemblage E multilocus genotypes (MLGs), 1 assemblage A MLG and 7 mixed assemblage (A and E) MLGs. The eBURST data showed a high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage E MLGs. The phylogenetic tree revealed that MLG E3 was the primary MLG subtype in Sichuan province and also the most widely distributed in China.
This study investigated the association between syphilis seroprevalence and age among blood donors, and described the distribution of serological titres among syphilis-infected donors, aiming to confirm the syphilis epidemic characteristics and to promote effective interventions for older adults.
Data were obtained from the Shenzhen Programme for Syphilis Prevention and Control in 2014–2017. Blood samples were screened using the ELISAs, and confirmed using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST).
Among 394 792 blood donors, 733 tested TPPA and TRUST positive (active infection), and 728 tested only TPPA positive (historical infection). The overall prevalence of syphilis seropositivity was 370.1 per 100 000 (95% CI 351.1 to 389.0 per 100 000); the prevalence of active infection was 185.7 per 100 000 (95% CI 172.2 to 199.1 per 100 000). People aged ≥45 years displayed a prevalence of 621.8 per 100 000 in syphilis seropositivity and 280.5 per 100 000 in active infection, which were 3.8 times and 2.4 times higher than that for people aged 2 trend=311.9, p trend2 trend=72.1, p trendtrend
The findings confirm the high prevalence of syphilis among older adults, and suggest the need to increase awareness among healthcare providers and deliver more targeted prevention interventions for older adults to promote early testing.
Obesity is a public health concern that is becoming increasingly more serious worldwide. Effective and sustainable childhood obesity prevention strategies may help to reduce the prevalence of obesity and may have an impact on lifelong health. However, few such strategies have been rigorously evaluated for Chinese children in different regions of China.
The Diet, ExerCIse and CarDiovascular hEalth-Children is a cluster-randomised controlled trial that aims to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of a school-based, multi-faceted intervention to prevent obesity among Grade 4 primary school students (8–10 years old) in China. Twenty-four schools (approximately 1200 students) from above average, average and below average developed regions in China will be randomised to an intervention (12 schools) or usual practice (12 schools) group. The intervention will last for one school year (9 months) and consists of activities towards students, parents and school environment. A smartphone application will be used to assist in providing information on, monitoring and providing feedback on the behaviours and body weight of the students. Data will be collected at baseline, 4 months, 9 months and 21 months. The primary outcome will be the difference between groups in the change in students’ body mass index at 9 months after the baseline investigation. The secondary outcomes will include the differences between groups in the changes in anthropometric measures, diet, physical activity levels and other measures at the follow-up visits. A variety of process evaluation methods will be used to evaluate the implementation process of the complex intervention.
This study was approved by the Peking University Institution Review Board (IRB00001052-18021). The results will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at conferences and in lay summaries provided to school staff and participants.
To explore the experience and feelings associated with the endocrine therapy treatment trajectory in women with breast cancer and what affects medication taking behaviour.
Qualitative systematic review.
Qualitative studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO from inception of each database until February 2019.
The systematic search method SPIDER (sample, phenomenon of interest, design, evaluation, research type) was used. Thematic synthesis of the qualitative data was used.
A total of 478 were identified in the initial search. Only 17 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Five analytical themes and 17 descriptive subthemes were identified.
The systematic review highlights knowledge, balancing the scales, self‐efficacy and support influence medication taking behaviour to women with breast cancer.
The medication taking behaviour of breast cancer women can be classified into four types: acceptance/persistence, bearing/suffering, hesitation/adjustment, refusing/abandoning. The four types can switch from one to another. Medication taking behaviour is affected by knowledge, balancing the scales, self‐efficacy, and support. The medical institutions, communities, and families can gain knowledge of the treatment experiences of women to better understand medication taking behaviour and those at risk for non‐adherence. Women wanted different types and amounts of information. Healthcare providers should be aware of patient preferences and take targeted interventions to help them receive treatment.
通过 PubMed、EMBASE、CINAHL、PsycINFO 进行检索(从数据库建立之初到2019年2月),提取相关文献展开定性研究。
To explore (a) resilience among patients over the first 6 months following a first ischaemic stroke; (b) factors associated with resilience at hospitalization, 1, 3, and 6 months postdischarge; (c) baseline predictors of resilience at 6 months postdischarge.
a cohort study.
From February 2017–January 2018, 217 patients presenting at two hospitals with a first ischaemic stroke were recruited. Their resilience, medical coping styles, general self‐efficacy, functional independency, socio‐demographic, and clinical data were assessed while they were still in hospital (baseline) and at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge.
Resilience among stroke patients decreased significantly 1 month after hospital discharge and remained stable. Predictors of resilience were as follows: self‐efficacy and resignation at baseline; number of children, functional independency, general self‐efficacy, and resignation at 1 month; and religion, resignation, self‐efficacy, confrontation at 3 months and 6 months. The baseline factors that predicted resilience at 6 months were income level, religion, stroke severity at discharge, self‐efficacy, and resignation.
Stroke survivors experienced a significant decrease in resilience from hospitalization until 1‐month postdischarge. Factors contributing to resilience after a stroke varied across time. Self‐efficacy and coping styles were particularly important and contributed to long‐term resilience.
Understanding resilience among stroke survivors is needed to inform the development of interventions to enhance the psychological recovery of survivors. The levels of resilience among stroke survivors were low compared with those in the normal older population. Nurses should provide greater psychological support during hospitalization to stroke survivors and especially to those with lower income, higher stroke severity at discharge, no religion, lower self‐efficacy, or who use resignation as a coping strategy as those survivors may have lower resilience 6 months later. Future studies are needed to test interventions designed to change or modify stroke survivors' coping styles and promote self‐efficacy, thereby enhancing higher resilience.
To explore the association between the number of teeth and frailty among older Chinese adults using a nationally representative sample.
Cross-sectional analysis was carried out using the 2014 wave data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, which used a targeted random-sampling design.
This research was conducted in communities from nearly half of the counties and cities in 22 out of 31 provinces throughout China.
Of the 6934 interviewees aged ≥65 years, the final analysis included 3635 older adults who had completed the 2014 wave survey on the variables included in the study.
Outcome variables included frailty, measured by the Frailty Index, and number of teeth. Covariates included demographic characteristics (ie, age, sex, co-residence, marital status, years of education and financial support), body mass index (BMI) and health behaviours (ie, smoking, drinking and exercise). A univariate logistic regression was used to test the factors associated with frailty. A multiple logistic regression model was used, using the frailty score as the dependent variable and the number of teeth together with significant covariates as the independent variables.
The prevalence of frailty was 27.68%. The mean number of teeth present was 9.23 (SD=10.03). The multiple logistic regression showed that older adults’ demographic variables, health behaviours, BMI, tooth number and chewing pain were significantly associated with frailty. After adjusting for the covariates, older adults with fewer teeth had significantly higher odds of frailty than those with 20 or more teeth (no teeth: OR=2.07, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.80; 1 to 10 teeth: OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38), except for older adults with 11 to 20 teeth (OR=1.30, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.82).
The presence of fewer teeth is significantly associated with frailty status among older Chinese adults. Future studies are needed to explain the specific mechanisms underlying how oral health status is associated with frailty.
Patients with hyperuricaemia are at relatively high risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and CHD risk in a middle-aged and elderly population with hyperuricaemia.
A cross-sectional study.
This study was conducted in a health examination centre of China. Participants were diagnosed with hyperuricaemia based on uric acid concentrations. Specifically, males with a uric acid concentration ≥416 μmol/L were included, as well as females with a concentration ≥360 μmol/L.
10-year CHD risk for each individual was evaluated using Framingham risk score based on the Adult Treatment Panel III charts.
A total of 517 patients with hyperuricaemia (438 males and 79 females) aged from 40 to 85 years old were included in the present study. 193 (37.3%) patients were defined with relatively high 10-year CHD risk. Compared with the lowest quintile, the crude ORs of relatively high 10-year CHD risks were 1.43 (95% CI 0.78 to 2.63, p=0.245), 2.05 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.67, p=0.016), 2.77 (95% CI 1.54 to 4.98, p=0.001), 2.12 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.80, p=0.012) in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles of serum hs-CRP level, respectively (p for trend=0.057). The multivariable-adjusted ORs of relatively high 10-year CHD risk were 1.40 (95% CI 0.75 to 2.61, p=0.291) in the second, 2.05 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.72, p=0.019) in the third, 2.69 (95% CI 1.47 to 4.89, p=0.001) in the fourth and 2.10 (95% CI 1.15 to 3.84, p=0.016) in the fifth quintile of serum hs-CRP level when compared with the lowest quintile (p for trend=0.068).
This study showed that ORs of relatively high 10-year CHD risk were raised in patients with hyperuricaemia with higher serum hs-CRP level; however, there was a not significant but borderline trend association and that more research is needed.
Since the Singapore Mental Health Study in 2010 which reported a 16.0% prevalence rate for current smokers and 4.5% for nicotine dependence, new anti-smoking strategies have been implemented. The aim of this study was to compare smoking trends from the 2010 study with the second Singapore Mental Health Study in 2016 (SMHS 2016).
A survey of 6126 individuals aged 18 years and above randomly selected among Singapore residents was conducted using the same methodology as the 2010 study. The measures used in this analysis were sociodemographic questions, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview which assessed for psychiatric disorders, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a list of chronic physical conditions that were prevalent in Singapore. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between smoking/nicotine-dependence and other measures.
In the SMHS 2016, 16.1% were current smokers and 3.3% were nicotine-dependent. As compared with non-smokers, current smokers were more likely to be younger, male gender, of ethnic minority and had lower/vocational education level. Younger age, male gender, lower/vocational education and psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorders) predicted nicotine dependence. No associations were found between nicotine dependence and any of the chronic conditions.
The prevalence of current smokers in the population has plateaued while that of nicotine dependence has decreased from 2010. However, the study did not investigate the use of e-cigarettes. Inequalities in smoking and nicotine dependence continue to pervade the population particularly among those of ethnic minority, lower/vocational education and the mentally ill.