To identify and synthesize evidence on the use of action research methods in mental health nursing care.
CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in January 2021.
Data were selected using the updated Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis framework. Two reviewers independently conducted the study selection, and quality appraisal using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research, data extraction and data analysis procedures.
Sixteen studies, half of which used participatory action research, were included in this review. Nurses, along with other stakeholders, were an active part of the action research process. The main topics of interest addressed were categorized as improving the adoption of a person-centred approach to care and improving decision-making procedures. The use of action research helped the participants to identify the meaning they attached to the topic of interest to be improved. Moreover, this method helped to identify needs and strategies for improving care. The studies concurred that the use of action research enabled participants to gain awareness, improve attitudes and acquire knowledge. In addition, it enabled participants to gain confidence and security in the group context, as key aspects of their empowerment.
This review shows the usefulness of action research in any mental health nursing context, contributing to the improvement of care at both the individual and collective levels.
This paper demonstrates the use of the action research method in the field of mental health nursing. Its use has improved the clinical practice of nurses as well as that of teams in both community and hospital settings, addressing issues of the person-centred approach to care and decision-making procedures.
To describe hospital nurse leaders' experiences with digital technologies.
A qualitative descriptive study.
Semi-structured focus group interviews in one university-affiliated hospital in Finland. Data were collected from October to November 2021 and analysed using content analysis an e-leadership framework.
A total of 20 frontline nurse leaders and middle-managers participated. Leaders had different kinds of experiences that concerned their traits, cognition, affect and behaviour with digital technologies. Leaders experienced that they needed to be open-minded towards digitalization, which sometimes eased their work by making it more efficient. Occasionally, they also got frustrated with digitalization, which caused them stress. Leading digital technologies required collaboration with several different stakeholders, and leaders were especially responsible for ensuring nurses' digital competence. Also, leaders own digital capability was highlighted, although some leaders experienced that their digital capability was low.
The e-leadership framework is useful for describing the conduct of leadership roles in the context of digital services. Digitalization has transformed leadership, yet nurse leaders' education and training do not seem to have been sufficiently modified to these rapid changes. In addition, more attention should be given to how nurse leaders can be distressed by digitalization.
This study provides insight into leadership in the context of digitalized specialized medical care based on nurse leaders' direct statements. Furthermore, the results highlight nurse leaders' educational needs concerning digitalization. Adequately educating nurse leaders to become e-leaders is crucial to successful digitalization in the nursing domain.
The study focused on nurse leaders' experiences.
To explore why young- and middle-aged adults ignore prodromal myocardial infarction symptoms from a life course and sociocultural perspective.
A qualitative descriptive study.
We applied purposeful sampling to recruit participants from a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou from July to November 2021. Face-to-face interviews were performed. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis methods.
Twenty-four young- and middle-aged adults diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction participated in this study. Analysis revealed three main themes: I'm still young, it will not happen to me; to be somebody and different roles, multiple pressures. Age-related self-confidence led to inappropriate perceptions and responses to prodromal symptoms among young- and middle-aged adults. These individuals strived to align their behaviours and attention with social expectations and self-expectations, underestimating the importance of perceiving the warning signs of acute myocardial infarction and seeking medical treatment. Pressure from social roles also prevented them from paying enough attention to prodromal symptoms.
Targeted social support, public education and technologies should be provided to these individuals since they are pillars of the family and society. We also highlight how nurses can function these strategies appropriately.
This study contributes to a better understanding of the neglect of prodromal symptoms among young- and middle-aged adults. Its results enhance our understanding of the perception of and coping with prodromal symptoms among this population, which will help avoid the burden caused by acute myocardial infarction.
The patients involved in our study shared their experiences and insights to provide new perspectives regarding the neglect of prodromal myocardial infarction symptoms among young- and middle-aged adults.
A discussion of the personal and social contexts for Millennial family caregivers and the value of including complex identity and intersectionality in Millennial family caregiving research with practical application.
This discussion paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory.
Millennial family caregivers have distinct generational, historical and developmental experiences that contribute to the care they provide as well as their own well-being. Complex identity, the integration of multiple identities, and intersectionality, systems and structures that disempower and oppress individuals with multiple identities, need to be addressed in nursing research so intervention tailoring and health equity can be better supported in this population. From research conceptualization and design to data analysis, data must be used intentionally to promote equity and reduce bias. The inclusion of diverse Millennial caregivers throughout all stages of the research process and having a diverse nursing research workforce will support these efforts.
Millennial family caregivers comprise one-quarter of the family caregiving population in the United States, and they are more diverse than previous family caregiving generational cohorts. Their needs will be more fully supported by nursing scientists with the adoption of methods and techniques that address complex identity and intersectionality.
Nursing researchers can use the following research approaches to address complex identity and intersectionality in Millennial caregivers: inclusion of qualitative demographic data collection (participants can self-describe); data disaggregation; data visualization techniques to augment or replace frequencies and descriptive statistics for demographic reporting; use of researcher reflexivity throughout the research process; advanced statistical modelling techniques that can handle complex demographic data and test for interactions and differential effects of health outcomes; and qualitative approaches such as phenomenology that centre the stories and experiences of individuals within the population of interest.
To understand self-employed long-term-care workers' experiences of precariousness, and to unravel how their experiences are shaped at the intersection of gender, class, race, migration and age.
In the Netherlands, increasing numbers of nurses and nursing aides in long-term care (LTC) opt for self-employment. Societal organizations and policy makers express concerns about this development, as self-employment is seen as a risk factor for poor health. Self-employment is not necessarily precarious work but can contribute to the precariousness of specific groups. Knowledge about inequities among self-employed nurses and nursing aides in long-term care is lacking.
A participatory, qualitative interview study. The research team consisted of four academic researchers and five (un)paid care workers.
Semi-structured interviews with 23 self-employed nurses and nursing aides in LTC (2019–2020). Data were analysed from an intersectional perspective.
First, we describe that feeling precarious as a hired employee—due to increasing workloads, health risks, poverty and discrimination—shapes care workers' choice for self-employment. Second, we describe inequities between self-employed care workers who could (financially) afford to turn to self-employment as a health strategy and those who felt squeezed out of the organizations due to poverty or discrimination. They more often dealt with precarious work in the context of precarious lives, negatively impacting their health. Third, we describe how negotiating an entrepreneurial identity with a caring identity required material sacrifices and thus contributed to self-employed care workers' financial precariousness, particularly as women.
Our findings indicate that working in LTC is becoming increasingly precarious for all care workers, both for hired and self-employed, with younger, lower-paid and racialized women with unpaid caring responsibilities seemingly most at risk for precariousness.
Our findings urge policy makers and care organizations to develop gender and diversity-sensitive policy responses to address these inequities.
To explore pre-nursing students' experiences and identify factors influencing their well-being as learners during COVID-19.
A qualitative descriptive design was used.
Short answer study data (n = 289) were collected in Fall 2020 as part of a larger IRB-approved survey-based study focused on pre-nursing students. Participants were presented with three short answer questions designed to elicit a description of their experiences as a pre-nursing student. NVivo and reflexive thematic analysis were used to analyse participant responses.
Six themes related to learner well-being emerged from the data. Learner well-being was supported by achieving academic goals, experiencing positive feelings about current course content, creating connections with peers and envisioning themselves as nurses in the future. Negative contributors to pre-nursing student well-being included managing fears of program rejection and juggling multiple roles and demands. Online learning necessitated by COVID-19 created opportunities for loneliness and isolation from peers, technological difficulties and additional psychological stress, which also contributed negatively to learner well-being.
These findings illustrate pre-nursing students' experiences and provide support for the influence of the learning environment and factors within the individual on the well-being of learners.
Students preparing to apply to nursing programs are an understudied population and little is known about their well-being as learners. Survey-based open-ended short answer questions can be utilized to gain rich insight into their experiences. The study themes and sub-themes can be utilized for discussion and reflection in courses with pre-nursing students and as a starting point for additional conversations between pre-nursing students and educators regarding improving the support of well-being in learners. Additional research and evidence-based interventions that promote learner well-being in pre-nursing students are needed as they prepare for nursing program admission and to support their academic progression.
Members of the public were not involved in the design or conduct of the study, analysis, or interpretation of the data, or in the preparation of the manuscript because the study focus is on gaining an understanding the experiences of pre-nursing students and their well-being.
To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults with Crohn's Disease (CD) in Birmingham, UK (latitude 52.4°N, −1.9°E) and identify modifiable risk factors.
A nurse-led, single-centre, prospective study was conducted over 5 months in 2019 and 2020 in outpatients with CD, at a tertiary referral hospital in Birmingham UK. Vitamin D (25OHD) levels were measured at a single timepoint by a dried blood spot sample. Modifiable risk factor data were collected including intake of vitamin D-containing foods, use of vitamin D supplements, sun exposure and current smoking.
Total 150 participants (53.3% male, 79.3% white British). Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD <50 nmol/L) was found in 53.3%. 32.7% of participants took over-the-counter vitamin D supplements and 20.7% used prescribed supplements. We found that diets were generally poor in relation to vitamin D-rich foods. In terms of sun exposure, few (18%) had visited a sunny country recently, and few (6%) covered their whole body with clothing. Most used High Sun Protection Factor (80%) with a median grade of SPF 45.
Patients with CD are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency as defined by 25OHD < 50 nmol/L, with the prevalence of deficiency being highest during the winter months. Patients with CD in the UK are unlikely to maintain vitamin D levels from sunlight exposure, dietary sources or over-the-counter supplements.
Patients with Crohn's Disease are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency but there is little data from the UK at this latitude. We demonstrate the prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in people with Crohn's Disease in the UK. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this group is high and warrants monitoring by nurses and clinical teams. Nurses and clinical teams should consider strategies for vitamin D supplementation in patients with Crohn's Disease.
To explore differences in the prevalence, psychosocial risk factors and the connection to annual sick leave of nurses' emotional exhaustion depending on the care setting.
We conducted a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, representative survey with German nurses (BIBB/BAuA-Employment Survey 2018). We analysed data from three groups of nurses (hospital care HC: n = 333, nursing homes NH: n = 143, home health care HHC: n = 109). We calculated prevalence estimates for all psychosocial risk factors and emotional exhaustion and utilized Χ2-tests to explore differences relating to the care setting. We calculated risk estimates using logistic regression analyses.
Forty-four per cent of all nurses reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Care settings did not affect prevalence estimates (HC: 45.3%, NH: 37.8%, HHC: 50.5%). Weekend work was a risk factor for exhaustion. Being at the limit of efficiency was the only work-related psychosocial risk factor being independent of the care setting. Emotional demands were a significant risk factor for nurses working in HC and NH, and low team cooperation was a risk factor for nurses working in NH. Nurses' emotional exhaustion is associated with more sick leave days.
The high prevalence of nurses' emotional exhaustion is independent of the care setting. This threatens nurses' health and negatively affects the organization and society due to the relation to sick leave. Weekend work and quantitative demands relate to exhaustion independently of the care context. Emotional demands and low team cooperation show context-specific correlations.
Organizational interventions that limit quantitative demands are needed to prevent exhaustion among nurses. In HC and NH, measures are needed to improve coping with emotional demands and to strengthen team cooperation. Policymakers and nursing managers should take action to address nurses' emotional exhaustion.
Due to the study design.
Critical illness and the intensive care unit can be a terrifying experience to patients and relatives and they may experience the extreme life-saving measures as dehumanizing. Humanizing intensive care is often described as holism or dignity, but these abstract concepts provide little bodily resonance to what a humanized attitude is in concrete situations.
To explore what contributes to patients' and relatives' experience of intensive care as humanized or dehumanized.
Findings from 15 qualitative papers describing patients' and/or relatives' perceptions of humanizing or dehumanizing care.
A systematic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and EMBASE from 1 January 1999 to 20 August 2022 identified 16 qualitative, empirical papers describing patients' and relatives' experiences of humanizing or dehumanizing intensive care, which were assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Checklist, 15 papers were included and analysed using Thematic Synthesis and Ricoeur's model of the text.
Intensive care was humanized when patients felt connected with healthcare professionals, with themselves by experiencing safety and well-being and with their loved ones. Intensive care was humanized to relatives when the patient was cared for as a unique person, when they were allowed to stay connected to the patient and when they felt cared for in the critical situation.
Patients and relatives experienced intensive care as humanized when healthcare professionals expressed genuine attention and supported them through their caring actions and when healthcare professionals supported patients' and relatives' opportunities to stay connected in the disrupted situation of critical illness. When healthcare professionals offered a connection to the patients and relatives, this helped them hold on and find meaning.
No patient and public contribution.
This paper describes practical advice for refugees aspiring to become Registered Nurses (RNs) in Australia.
Qualitative description using a naturalistic inquiry framework.
Between February 2018 and September 2019, the lead author conducted semi-structured interviews with employed RNs that are former refugees that speak English. Interviews were 45–90 min in duration and digitally recorded. Participants provided voluntary informed consent and were sent questions beforehand. All transcription data were thematically analysed for key themes until no further themes were identified. This paper covers practical advice provided by the participants at the conclusion of their interviews.
Twelve participants provided practical advice. Six themes were identified: (1) Find your purpose and set goals; (2) Work hard and never give up; (3) Seek support; (4) Capitalize on opportunities; (5) Be optimistic; (6) Give back. The last theme, give back, was salient across all interviews and was an inherent motivator for some participants once their RN status was achieved.
Each participant set the goal of becoming a fully registered nurse and made it a life goal that provided meaning for them. Despite their experiences, the participants provided practical advice that could guide younger people aspiring to become successfully qualified RNs.
The findings in this study are unique as they are derived from people with experiences as refugees who, despite their adversity, became RNs. The practical advice provides a framework not only for younger people from refugee backgrounds seeking to achieve their professional goals, but others looking to succeed in other workforce sectors. The practical advice for success will be useful in informing nursing authorities, tertiary institutions and private and public health organizations to develop effective approaches to guide the next generation of would-be RNs set to contribute to nursing practice in Australia. There were no patient or public contributions as the focus was the personal and professional lives of nurses with refugee backgrounds.
To explore the effects of disability, depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms on patients' and their partners' quality of life (QoL) using the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM).
A cross-sectional study using actor–partner interdependence model.
We recruited 183 dyads of stroke survivors and their family caregivers in Indonesia. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment (WHODAS 2.0), Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-42) and Rand Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used to measure disability, depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms and QoL of stroke survivors and family caregivers. The actor–partner interdependence model was tested using multilevel modelling. The actor–partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) was applied to estimate the direct and indirect effect.
Disability had actor effects on stroke survivor's overall QoL and partner effect on family caregiver's overall QoL. More severe disability of stroke survivors was associated with a lower overall QoL of their own and that of family caregiver's overall QoL. Depressive symptoms of stroke survivors had actor effects on stroke survivors' overall QoL and partner effects on family caregivers' overall QoL. Actor and partner effects also exist on family caregiver's depression symptoms to their own overall QoL and stroke survivor's overall QoL. Moreover, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with lower levels of their own and partner's overall QoL in both stroke survivors and family caregivers. Stroke survivor's stress symptoms also negatively associated with their own and family caregiver's overall QoL. However, a family caregiver's stress without a partner effects on stroke survivor's overall QoL. The APIMeM analysis showed that disability of stroke survivors directly decreased their own overall, physical (PCS) and mental QoL (MCS). Also, disability mediated by stroke survivor's depression, anxiety and stress symptoms decreased both stroke survivor's and family caregiver's physical (PCS) and mental QoL (MCS).
The findings suggest that stroke survivors and family caregivers may influence each other during the caregiving process and social life. The disability of stroke survivors, and the depression, anxiety and stress symptoms of stroke survivors and family caregivers affect their own QoL and their partners' QoL. Disability of stroke survivors directly decreased their own overall, physical (PCS) and mental QoL (MCS). Also, it indirectly via stroke survivor's depression, anxiety and stress symptoms decreased both stroke survivor's and family caregiver's physical (PCS) and mental QoL (MCS).
Dyadic actor–partner interdependence models have shown promising potential to predict the QoL among patients and family caregivers. The dyadic effects of disability, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms on the QoL of stroke survivors and family caregivers can be applied to guide the future development of nursing intervention addressed decreasing depression, anxiety and stress symptoms to optimize health outcomes among stroke survivors and their family caregivers.
This study examined whether social support at work from superiors and colleagues is associated with positive affect at work, and whether work engagement creates a positive relationship with job satisfaction among midwives. We also investigated whether a positive affect and work engagement mediate the relationship between social support at work and job satisfaction.
This was a quantitative cross-sectional study.
Data were collected from 163 midwives working in the Polish public healthcare system between June 2019 and December 2019.
There was a direct relationship between support from superiors and colleagues, positive affect at work, work engagement and job satisfaction. The relationship between support from superiors and job satisfaction was mediated partially by positive affect at work and work engagement. In contrast, the relationship between support from colleagues and job satisfaction was mediated entirely by positive affect at work and work engagement.
Support from colleagues, compared to support from superiors, was a stronger predictor of positive affect at work and job satisfaction among midwives. Support at work is a resource that leads to higher job satisfaction by generating positive feelings and increasing work engagement.
We recommend paying particular attention to the role of inter-personal relationships and positive feelings at work in shaping the level of satisfaction with work among midwives. The personnel management policy at healthcare institutions should be oriented towards strengthening supportive attitudes in the workplace.
The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of altruism and sacrifices among Swedish nurses working in intensive care units (ICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This was a descriptive phenomenological study.
The study was conducted between June 2020 and March 2021 and included 20 nurses who were directly involved in the ICU care of COVID-19 patients in Sweden during the pandemic. The text transcripts were analysed using Malterud's Systematic Text Condensation.
The analysis revealed four themes. The work situation changed from 1 day to another—the nurses were brutally confronted with a new and highly demanding situation. Adapting to the chaotic situation—despite fear, anguish and exhaustion, the nurses adapted to the new premises. They shouldered the moral responsibility and responded to the needs of the patients and the health care system since they had the competence. Being confronted with ethical and moral challenges—the nurses were overwhelmed by feelings of helplessness and inadequacy because despite how hard they worked, they were still unable to provide care with dignity and of acceptable quality. The importance of supporting each other—collegiality was fundamental to the nurses' ability to cope with the situation.
Taken together, being exposed to a constantly changing situation, facing the anguish and misery of patients, families, and colleagues, and being confronted with a conflict between the moral obligation to provide care of high quality and the possibility to fulfil this commitment resulted in suffering among the nurses. Collegial back-up and a supportive culture within the caring team were important for the nurses' endurance.
The study contributes an understanding of nurses' lived experience of working during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights the importance of protecting and preparing nurses and nursing organisation for potential future crises.
To understand how the pandemic environment impacted the delivery of FCC of children and families from a nursing perspective in a major tertiary paediatric hospital.
Family-centred care (FCC) is a well-established framework to promote parental involvement in every aspect of a child's hospitalization, however, rules and restrictions in place during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the ways in which Family-centred Care could be delivered in practice.
This is a qualitative exploratory descriptive study to elicit the perspective of paediatric nurses delivering care to children in a hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in Victoria, Australia.
Nurses from all subspecialties in a tertiary paediatric hospital were invited to participate in virtual focus groups to discuss their experience of delivering FCC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, then analysed using Framework Analysis.
Nineteen nurses participated across seven focus groups during June and July 2020. The four themes—Advocating with empathy, Enabling communication, Responding with flexibility, and Balancing competing considerations—and the eight subthemes that were generated, outline how nurses deliver FCC, and how these FCC actions were impacted by the COVID-19 environment and the related hospital restrictions.
This study documents the experiences, resilience and resourcefulness of paediatric nurses in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as moving Family-centred Care from a theoretical framework into a practical reality.
The findings from this study should inform consideration of the impacts of public health policies during infectious disease outbreaks moving forward. In addition by describing the core actions of Family-centred Care, this study has implications for educational interventions on how to translate FCC theory into practice.
No public or patient contribution as this study explored nursing perceptions only.
To investigate women's childbirth experiences and their relation to self-esteem development in the postpartum year.
A mixed methods study.
Women (N = 125) completed survey questionnaires regarding their self-esteem and childbirth experiences at three time points in 2020–2021: third trimester of pregnancy (T1), 4–8 weeks postpartum (T2) and 1 year postpartum (T3). The survey results were analysed using qualitative thematic and quantitative path analyses with latent change factors. The open-ended answers of the women who demonstrated a change in self-esteem between T2 and T3 were then compared. The STROBE checklist was used as the reporting guideline.
The quantitatively measured childbirth experiences predicted statistically significantly and positively the changes in self-esteem in the following year. The women described their childbirth stories through three main themes: childbirth as a lived experience, childbirth as a relational event and childbirth as a medical event. On the basis of the thematic analysis, we propose that the relationship between childbirth experience and self-esteem development might only hold for women with extremely positive or negative childbirth experiences. There were mixed results for those women who had mixed experiences, indicating that other factors probably contributed to the changes in self-esteem.
Childbirth is a pivotal event that may have lasting effects on the mother's self-esteem after childbirth. Especially women with traumatic experiences deserve attention because they are at risk of the most negative consequences.
Perinatal services and policy makers must recognize the importance of childbirth experiences in women's well-being and improve their practices. Different cultural models of childbirth should be recognized and supported to facilitate good experiences and prevent traumatic ones.
Service users recruited in Finnish Child Health Centers responded to surveys that were used as data for this study.
Partner abuse is a global public health issue with both short- and long-term health effects. Healthcare professionals frequently encounter patients who experience partner abuse and should be knowledgeable about how to respond to these individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of The Readiness to Encounter Partner Abuse Patients (READI) Scale.
A descriptive, methodological and cross-sectional design was used.
Data were collected with a sociodemographics form and the READI-T Scale between 13 December 2021 and 5 January 2022. The study sample comprised nursing students (n = 323) at or over the age of 18 years and accepting to take part in the study. The linguistic and content validity and confirmatory factor analysis were used to assess the validity of the scale. The reliability of the scale was achieved using Cronbach's alpha, item-total correlations and test–retest.
The READI-T Scale had a content validity index of 0.99 and adequate sensitivity. The factor loadings ranged from 0.63 to 0.84 for the self-efficacy sub-dimension, from 0.82 to 0.91 for the emotional readiness sub-dimension, from 0.47 to 0.81 for the motivational readiness sub-dimension and from 0.28 to 0.64 for the partner abuse knowledge sub-dimension. The CFA showed that the model had a good fit (x 2/df = 1.792; GFI = 0.88; CFI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.050). Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.92 for the scale.
The READI-T Scale is a valid and reliable tool to determine whether Turkish nursing students are knowledgeable enough to encounter partner abuse patients.
This scale can be used to determine the training needs of healthcare professionals on partner abuse and may be useful as a pre-and posttest to determine the effects of partner abuse education programs. Thus, this scale may also assist early identification of persons who have a risk for partner abuse.
Walking and cycling are beneficial for urban adults' health. Transport and recreation are modifiable domains of major physical activity resources. The purposes of this study were to explore associations among psychological and environmental factors, walking and cycling behaviours and quality of life by developing a path model and comparing gender differences.
A cross-sectional study.
Participants were community-dwelling healthy urban adults aged 20–65 years. Data were collected between September 2019 and June 2020 by self-reported questionnaires, including health beliefs, the neighbourhood environment, walking and cycling behaviours and the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale. An ANCOVA, chi-squared tests, partial least squares-path model and a multi-group analysis were performed for statistical analyses.
In total, 1294 valid responses were received, which included 41.27% men and 58.73% women. Men had lower walking behaviours and better self-efficacy than women. The developed path model indicated an acceptable model fit. Significant path coefficients were found among psychological and environmental factors, walking and cycling behaviours and quality of life. The path model between men and women found no significant differences in any path coefficients. Significant path coefficients of environmental factors with cycling behaviour and of walking behaviour with quality of life were found in men but not in women.
Improving individuals' health beliefs, self-efficacy and perceived walkability and cyclability is a beneficial strategy for promoting physical activity. Walking and cycling behaviours are recommended to improve the quality of life of urban adult populations.
What problem did the study address?
A large proportion of urban adult populations still have insufficient physical activity globally. It is essential that implications from an overall perspective of psychological and environmental factors and their interactions be integrated to develop efficient strategies for promoting physical activity and quality of life. What were the main findings?
The developed path model with an acceptable model fit found that psychological and environmental factors were important in explaining urban adults' walking and cycling behaviours and quality of life. Differences were not found between men's and women's path models. Where and on whom will the research have impact?
Improving urban adults' psychological and environmental factors might be an efficient strategy for promoting sufficient physical activity. Men's low engagement in walking behaviours should garner increased attention. Providing equal opportunities for both genders to engage in walking and cycling behaviours are recommended for health promotion in urban regions.
To examine and refine a conceptual model of resilience in adult cancer care based on the perspectives and experiences of resilience in adults with colorectal cancer.
A descriptive qualitative study was performed.
Twelve participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer that had completed cancer treatment with curative intent were recruited from a tertiary hospital in Australia from July to December 2019. The meaning of individual resilience was explored using in-depth individual interviews. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Following data analysis, the elements of the conceptual model of resilience were mapped against the themes and subthemes to refine the model.
Five themes were identified as key elements of individual resilience in adults with colorectal cancer: (1) seeking motivations to move forward; (2) striving for normality; (3) adapting and managing self; (4) drawing on external supports; (5) redefining self. A refined conceptual model of individual resilience in adults with colorectal cancer was developed based on the integration of the themes and the elements of the conceptual model of individual resilience.
Our refined conceptual model of individual resilience in adults with colorectal cancer could facilitate nurses’ and other health professionals' understanding of the process of how resilient individuals with colorectal cancer overcome their illness-related adversity. This refined model may be used to further develop and test cancer-specific resilience measures and develop interventions to facilitate resilience in people living with colorectal cancer.
This research identified five features of resilience in adults with colorectal cancer and refined a conceptual model of resilience in adults with colorectal cancer. The findings could help nurses and other health professionals with identifying individuals who are at risk of adaptation difficulties and contribute to an early referral to psychosocial support services.