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AnteayerNursing Research

An Integrative Review of Measuring Caregiver Burden in Substance Use Disorder

imageBackground Family caregivers contribute to engagement in treatment and adherence, reduced substance misuse and relapse, and increased well-being of recipients with substance use disorder. However, providing care has also been associated with negative emotional and physical health outcomes for caregivers. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine what instruments are used to measure caregiver burden in informal caregivers of individuals with substance use disorder. Methods An integrative review framework was applied to examine empirical and theoretical literature to answer the guiding research question, “How is caregiver burden measured in caregivers of individuals with substance use disorder?” PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsychINFO were searched using a combination of search terms. The initial 1,198 articles were narrowed to 32 that fit the search criteria and purpose of the review. Results A variety of scales have been used to measure caregiver burden. Caregiver burden is operationalized as objective or subjective burden. Objective burden refers to changes in the home, finances, employment, social life, and leisure, whereas subjective burden refers to the emotional reaction of the caregiver in coping with providing care. Caregiver burden was most often reported as moderate to severe in populations with substance use disorder. Attributes measured included anxiety, depression, stress, worry, displeasure, care recipient behavioral problems and substance abuse, stigma, relationship strain, financial expenses, social support, family disruption, and the effect on caregiver physical and emotional health. Conclusions Specific instruments that can accurately evaluate objective and subjective caregiver burden are needed to measure the quality of caregiver health. More research is necessary to better understand the physical and emotional health of caregivers of persons with substance use disorder and the factors that contribute to increased quality of life. Understanding the relationship between outcomes and protective factors could help nurses to develop prevention strategies and treatment interventions aimed at decreasing the psychosocial trauma and stress associated with caregiver burden.

Novel Strategies for Predicting Healthcare-Associated Infections at Admission: Implications for Nursing Care

imageBackground Accurate, real-time models to predict hospital adverse events could facilitate timely and targeted interventions to improve patient outcomes. Advances in computing enable the use of supervised machine learning (SML) techniques to predict hospital-onset infections. Objectives The purpose of this study was to trial SML methods to predict urinary tract infections (UTIs) during inpatient hospitalization at the time of admission. Methods In a large cohort of adult hospitalizations in three New York City acute care facilities (N = 897,344), we used two SML methods—neural networks and decision trees—to predict having a hospital-onset UTI using data available and accessible on the first day of admission at healthcare facilities in the United States. Results Performance for both neural network and decision tree models were superior compared to logistic regression methods. The decision tree model had a higher sensitivity compared to neural network, but a lower specificity. Discussion SML methods show potential for automated accurate UTI risk stratification using electronic data routinely available at admission; this could relieve nurses from the burden of having to complete and document additional risk assessment forms in the electronic medical record. Future studies should pilot and test interventions linked to the risk stratification results, such as short nursing educational modules or alerts triggered for high-risk patients.

Self-Reported Sensory Gating and Stress-Related Hypertension

imageBackground Increasing evidence views hypertension as a stress-induced disorder. Stressors must be “gated” by the brain before any inflammatory or immune processes that contribute to hypertension are initiated. No studies were found that examined sensory gating in relation to hypertension. Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if disturbances in self-reported sensory gating could differentiate normotensive from hypertensive young adults. Methods A nonmatched, case–control design was used. We administered an online survey to 163 young adult participants. Participants were predominantly female, in their mid-20s, well educated, and approximately evenly distributed by race and hypertension status. The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) measured gating disturbances. Results The mean SGI scores were significantly higher among persons diagnosed with hypertension, reflecting a moderate effect size of sensory gating. After adjusting for confounders, however, the normotensive and hypertensive groups were not significantly different on their SGI scores. Discussion With an observed moderate effect size of 0.35, but low power, more research is warranted regarding the role of gating disturbances in the development of stress-induced hypertension. Clinically, the SGI may be important for screening patients who would benefit from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to identify persons with masked hypertension.

Patient Activation Among Community-Dwelling Persons Living With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

imageBackground Vigilant self-management is associated with positive health outcomes in people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet the predictors of activated self-managers are not well understood. Objectives The aims of the study were to identify and describe the predictors of patient activation among a sample of community-dwelling adults with COPD in the United States. Methods A postal survey of demographic, mood, symptom, function, health perception, life quality measures, and the patient activation measure was completed by 64 participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine and describe associations between personal characteristics, health outcomes, and patient activation measure scores (0–100). Multivariate, linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of patient activation score. Results Patient activation was high among the sample. Multivariate analysis revealed positive affect, smoking pack-years, overall quality of life, and female gender collectively explained 45.4% of the variance in patient activation. Discussion Positive life view, gender, and lifestyle factors present novel predictors of high activation in self-managers of COPD that warrant explication through future research.

Prediction of Changes in Adherence to Secondary Prevention Among Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

imageBackground Healthcare providers are concerned about adherence to provider recommendations in coronary artery disease management. Seeking patient-related factors influencing changes in adherence over time is necessary for formulating suitable intervention measures—especially among diverse populations. Objective To explore whether health literacy, self-efficacy, and disease knowledge predict changes in adherence over time (between baseline and 3 months) to secondary prevention recommendations for Chinese coronary artery disease patients. Methods A longitudinal study was performed for 662 patients following percutaneous coronary intervention in China. Self-reported data were collected at baseline during hospitalization and at a 3-month telephone follow-up. Variables included demographics, health literacy, self-efficacy, disease knowledge, and adherence to secondary prevention recommendations for medication taking and a heart-healthy lifestyle. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of adherence changes over time. Results Patients were categorized into three groups: sustained/declined to nonadherence between baseline and 3 months, improved to adherence, and sustained adherence. The number of patients in sustained/declined to nonadherence group was small. Absence of stents predicted sustained/declined to nonadherence to medication and lifestyle over time. Health literacy was not associated with adherence changes over time. Higher self-efficacy scores were associated with lower likelihood of sustained/declined to nonadherence to a healthy lifestyle over time, whereas higher disease knowledge scores were associated with higher sustained/declined to nonadherence to medication. Conclusions Adherence to secondary prevention 3 months after discharge was relatively good in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease who received percutaneous coronary intervention. Absence of stents and lower self-efficacy can predict the poor adherence changes, which should be considered in formulating follow-up care.

Economic Analysis of Brief Motivational Intervention Following Trauma Related to Drugs and Alcohol

imageBackground Very few studies have conducted an economic assessment of brief motivational intervention (BMI) in patients experiencing traumatic injuries related to alcohol and/or substance use. Furthermore, findings concerning the potential long-term economic benefits of BMI applied in nursing are promising but very scarce. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the costs and benefits associated with the application of a BMI program by nursing staff to patients hospitalized for trauma related to substance use. Methods An analysis of costs and benefits was conducted in a nonrandomized study of a retrospective cohort of patients. An intervention and follow-up (of 10–52 months) of patients between 16 and 70 years of age admitted for traumatic injuries in University Hospital of Granada were carried out with a cohort of 294 patients (intervention = 162 vs. no intervention = 132) between 2011 and 2016. The National Health Service’s perspective on the use of medical resources and the costs associated with intervention and recidivism was considered. A cost analysis with a 5-year time frame and a subsequent analysis of sensitivity were conducted. Results Direct medical costs associated with trauma recidivism were significantly lower in patients who received BMI, as compared to patients who did not receive it, €751.82 per patient (95% CI €13.15 to €1,490.48) in the first year. The cost–benefit ratio of €74.92 at 4 years reflects National Health Service savings for each euro invested in BMI. Discussion The implementation of BMI programs in nursing care may be profitable from an economic standpoint, justifying the inclusion of these programs in hospitals both because of their efficacy and the potential savings incurred by the health system. This study addresses the lack of evidence regarding the economic implications linked to the effectiveness of the intervention to reduce substance use and trauma recidivism. Results identify BMI delivered in hospitals by nurses as a technique that offers the potential for reducing costs linked to trauma recidivism. The research has important practical implications for hospital nurses and doctors.

Pandemic Science

Por: Pickler · Rita H.
No abstract available

Patient and Family Member Experiences in Critical Care Research and Quality Improvement Projects

imageBackground Public and patient involvement in healthcare research is increasing, but the effect of involvement on individuals, service delivery, and health outcomes—particularly in specialist population groups like critical care—remains unclear, as does the best way to involve people who have experienced critical illness. Objectives The aim of the study was to explore former patients’ and family members’ views and experiences of involvement in critical care research and/or quality improvement. Methods Using a qualitative methodology, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with seven former intensive care unit patients and three close family members across England. Data were analyzed using a standard process of inductive thematic analysis. Results Four key themes were identified: making it happen, overcoming hurdles, it helps, and respect and value. Findings center on the need for flexibility, inclusivity, and transparency. They further highlight the particular challenges faced by critical illness survivors and their family members in relation to research involvement, the importance of individualized support and training, and the vital role that project leads have in making people feel valued and equal partners in the process. Discussion This is the first study to explore patients’ experiences of involvement in critical care research. Despite the small, homogenous sample, the study provides valuable and important data to guide future practice. It highlights the need to enable and support people to make informed choices at a time when they are ready to do so. It further highlights the importance of gatekeepers to avoid vulnerable people contributing before they are ready—a practice that could negatively affect their health status.

Neural Processing and Perceived Discrimination Stress in African Americans

imageBackground Racial discrimination is one of many barriers experienced by African Americans that interfere with health self-care management. Discrimination stress may decrease the tendency for individuals to resonate with the social–emotional appeals embedded in persuasive health information, which are known to play a key role in producing behavior change. Understanding the neurobehavioral underpinnings of discrimination stress experienced by African Americans may help reduce or resolve this important health disparity. Objectives The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the association between neural processing of health information and perceived discrimination. In particular, we focused on three previously identified measures of health information processing associated with distinct brain areas: analytic network, empathy network, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Methods Data were obtained from 24 African Americans enrolled in a blood pressure self-care management study. Participants completed surveys assessing racial discrimination and global stress, as well as a 40-minute functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol used to measure neural activation associated with processing different types of health information. Results Discrimination stress was significantly related to reduced activation of the empathy network and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, whereas there was a nonsignificant positive relationship with activity in the analytic network. Discussion Uncovering associations between patient experiences, such as racial discrimination, and their neural processing of health information can lead to the development of tailored health messages and self-care management interventions. This may inform strategies to close the gap on health outcomes.

An Integrative Review of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Serious Cardiovascular Conditions

imageBackground There is emerging evidence that supports a role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the risk and presence of serious cardiovascular conditions. However, few existing literature reviews methodically describe empirical findings regarding this relationship. Objectives The purpose of this integrative review was to (a) evaluate BDNF (serum/plasma BDNF levels, BDNF Val66Met genotype) among humans at risk for or with serious cardiovascular conditions and (b) investigate the relationship between BDNF and risk/presence of serious cardiovascular conditions in humans. Methods An integrative review was conducted. Articles in English included human subjects, a measure of BDNF levels or BDNF gene, serious cardiovascular conditions, and quantitative data analyses. The search resulted in 475 unique titles, with the final sample including 35 articles representing 30 studies. Articles that received “good” or “fair” ratings (n = 31) using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Study Quality Assessment Tools were included for synthesis. Results The retrieved articles were largely nonexperimental, with sample sizes ranging from 20 to 5,510 participants. Overall, BDNF levels were lower in patients with chronic heart failure and stroke, but higher in patients with unstable angina and recent myocardial infarction. Lower BDNF levels were associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with a prior history of serious cardiovascular conditions and decreased cardiovascular risk in healthy samples. For BDNF genotype, on average, 36.3% of participants had Met alleles. The frequency of the BDNF Met allele varied across race/ethnicity and cardiovascular conditions and in terms of association with serious cardiovascular condition incidence/risk. Discussion These findings indicate an emerging area of science. Future investigation is needed on serious cardiovascular condition phenotypes in relationship to BDNF in the same study conditions. Results also suggest for use of standardized BDNF measurement across studies and additional investigation in cardiovascular inflammatory processes that affect BDNF. Moreover, within specific populations, the frequency of Met alleles may be too low to be detected in sample sizes normally found in these types of studies.

Protocol for Symptom Experience, Management, Outcomes, and Adherence in Women Receiving Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

imageBackground The 5-year survival for Black women with breast cancer in the United States is lower than White women for stage-matched disease. Our past and ongoing work and that of others suggest that symptom incidence, cancer-related distress, and ineffective communication contribute to racial disparity in dose reduction and early therapy termination. Although race is perhaps the most studied social determinant of health, it is clear that race alone does not account for all disparities. Objectives The aim of the study was to present a study protocol of Black and White women prescribed breast cancer chemotherapy. The aims are to (1) examine and compare chemotherapy received/prescribed over time and in total; (2a) examine and compare symptom incidence, distress, and management and clinical encounter, including patient-centeredness of care and management experience over time and (2b) correlate symptom incidence, distress, and management experience to Aim 1; and (3) explore the effects of social determinants of health, including age, income, education, zip code, and lifetime stress exposure, on Aims 1, 2a, and 2b. Methods A longitudinal, repeated-measures (up to 18 time points), comparative, mixed-methods design is employed with 179 White and 179 Black women from 10 sites in Western Pennsylvania and Northeast Ohio over the course of chemotherapy and for 2 years following completion of therapy. Results The study began in January 2018, with estimated complete data collection by late 2023. Discussion This study is among the first to explore the mechanistic process for racial disparity in dosage and delay across the breast cancer chemotherapy course. It will be an important contribution to the explanatory model for breast cancer treatment disparity and may advance potential mitigation strategies for racial survival disparity.

Organizational Support for Nurse Practitioners in Primary Care and Workforce Outcomes

imageBackground Lack of organizational support in healthcare settings has been linked to high levels of clinician stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction. Little research exists on organizational support for nurse practitioners. Objective We investigated the relationship between organizational support and nurse practitioner outcomes, including job satisfaction, intent to leave, and quality of care. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect survey data from nurse practitioners (n = 398) in primary care practices in New York State in 2017. Nurse practitioners completed mail surveys with validated measures of organizational support, job satisfaction, intent to leave, and quality of care. Information on participant demographics and work characteristics was also collected. Multilevel regression models assessed the relationship between organizational-level organizational support and resources measure and job satisfaction, intent to leave, and quality of care. Results The organizational-level organizational support and resources measure had a mean of 3.31 on a 4-point scale. Twenty-five percent of the participants were either moderately dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their jobs, and about 11% intended to leave their current jobs within 1 year. The average quality of care rated by participants was 8.51 out of 10—10 being the best quality of care. After adjusting for covariates, higher organizational-level organizational support and resources measure score was associated with higher job satisfaction category, lower odds of intent to leave, and higher quality of care. Discussion Nurse practitioners from primary care practices with higher levels of organizational support are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs, have less intent to leave their jobs, and report better quality of care. Thus, in order to promote nurse practitioner job satisfaction, retain them in clinical positions, and improve quality of care, administrators should take actions to promote organizational support for them. Our findings are consistent with existing literature regarding the relationship between organizational support and clinician outcomes.

Development and Psychometric Analysis of the Patient Preferences for Engagement Tool

imageBackground Assessing patients’ preferences for engaging in healthcare is needed to inform the planning and delivery of individualized healthcare. Unfortunately, patients are often not engaged in their care to the extent that they would like, leading to patient feelings of disempowerment and frustration. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (a) develop and (b) psychometrically test the Patient Preferences for Engagement Tool (PPET), a clinical assessment tool that can be used by nursing staff to identify patient preferences for engagement in healthcare. The usability of the PPET was also examined for both nurses and patients participating in the study. Methods The psychometric evaluation design used content and construct validity testing (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, known groups comparisons) and reliability estimation using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The sample consisted of 308 adult patients aged 18–101 years from a Midwestern U.S. Magnet-designated academic medical center. Results Content validity index was at least 0.8 for all but one item. Using a split sample, a six-factor solution was first identified using exploratory factor analysis and then confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Demographic and illness factors were not significant predictors of factor scores. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of all six factors were >0.7. Both patients and nurses gave high ratings to the tool on effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with use. Discussion The PPET demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability estimates. Assessing patient preferences for engagement gives value to the patient voice and provides an opportunity to have discussions with patients about various ways they can engage in their healthcare. Future research will focus on reducing the number of items on the PPET to construct a clinically useful resource for providers to use to assess patient preferences for healthcare engagement, leading to the development of more personalized care delivery methods.

How Nurse Scientists Can Stay Productive and on Track During the Pandemic

Por: Bruner · Deborah W.
imageOn March 11, 2020, with the declaration of a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, an unplanned slowdown of academic research activities has taken place. Although this is not an ideal situation for nurse scientists, it presents a number of unique opportunities for researchers to shift their focus in the short term, which may actually lead to more productivity in the long term. This commentary explores ways nurse scientists can stay on track without derailing their plans for career advancement under unprecedented circumstances.

Application of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sampling Weights to Transgender Health Measurement

imageBackground Obtaining representative data from the transgender population is fundamental to improving their health and well-being and advancing transgender health research. The addition of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) gender identity measure is a promising step toward better understanding transgender health. However, methodological concerns have emerged regarding the validity of data collected from transgender participants and its effect on the accuracy of population parameters derived from those data. Objectives The aim of the study was to provide rationale substantiating concerns with the formulation and application of the 2015 BRFSS sampling weights and address the methodological challenges that arise when using this surveillance data to study transgender population health. Methods We examined the 2015 BRFSS methodology and used the BRFSS data to present a comparison of poor health status using two methodological approaches (a matched-subject design and the full BRFSS sample with sampling weights applied) to compare their effects on parameter estimates. Results Measurement error engendered by BRFSS data collection procedures introduced sex/gender identity discordance and contributed to problematic sampling weights. The sex-specific “raking” algorithm used by BRFSS to calculate the sampling weights was contingent on the classification accuracy of transgender by participants. Because of the sex/gender identity discordance of 74% of the transgender women and 66% of transgender men, sampling weights may not be able to adequately remove bias. The application of sampling weights has the potential to result in inaccurate parameter estimates when evaluating factors that may influence transgender health. Discussion Generalizations made from the weighted analysis may obscure the need for healthcare policy and clinical interventions aimed to promote health and prevent illness for transgender adults. Methods of public health surveillance and population surveys should be reviewed to help reduce systematic bias and increase the validity of data collected from transgender people.

Symptom Profiles of Latina Breast Cancer Survivors: A Latent Class Analysis

imageBackground Symptom research among Latinas with breast cancer is limited—especially as it relates to multiple co-occurring symptoms. Objective The aim of the study was to identify subgroups (latent classes) of Latinas who have distinct symptom profiles while receiving radiation, chemotherapy, and/or hormonal therapy for breast cancer. Methods This secondary analysis included intake data from three randomized trials of supportive care psychosocial interventions for Latinas treated for breast cancer (n = 290). Prevalence of 12 symptoms—measured using the General Symptom Distress Scale—was entered into the latent class analysis to identify classes of women with different symptom profiles. Results Most of the participants had Stage II or III disease, and 81% reported receiving chemotherapy. On average, women reported 4.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 3) symptoms with an overall symptom distress score of 6.4 (SD = 2.5) on a 1–10 scale, with 10 being most distressing. Latent class analysis resulted in three classes that were labeled based on symptoms with the highest prevalence. Class 1 (n = 192) was “Disrupted Sleep and Tired,” Class 2 (n = 74) was “Tired,” and Class 3 (n = 24) was “Pain, Disrupted Sleep, and Tired.” Depression, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating had moderate prevalence in each of the three classes. Discussion Beyond the core six symptoms (depression, anxiety, fatigue, pain, disrupted sleep, difficulty concentration), the classes differed in the prevalence of other burdensome symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, constipation), which provide implications for treatment. Thus, it is important to assess for the full range of symptoms so that supportive care interventions can be tailored for the distinct symptom profiles of Latinas with breast cancer.

Development of the Adverse Analgesic Drug Event Measure

imageBackground Little is known about how people respond to an analgesic adverse drug event despite the significant incidence of deaths and hospitalizations associated with analgesic adverse drug events. Objective The purpose of this two-phase instrument development study was to test the validity and reliability of the Analgesic Adverse Drug Event Measure (AADEM). Methods Content validity was established during Phase I. Six experts rated the 58-item measure developed from a pilot survey of adults who had experienced an analgesic adverse drug event. Experts’ ratings supported a 17-item AADEM with a scale content validity index of .86. Phase II consisted of online administration of the AADEM to a national Qualtrics panel who reported an adverse drug event from a self-administered analgesic. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted using principal axis factoring and oblique rotation including Direct Oblimin and Promax rotations with Kaiser normalization. Results Four factors emerged from the analysis: sought care, consulted provider, discontinued or continued analgesic, and attributed adverse drug event with a total explained variance of 55.4%. Scale content validity index for the 13-item AADEM was .88. Internal consistency for the four subscales was acceptable, but low for the full 13-item AADEM. Discussion Results establish preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the 13-item AADEM to measure response to an analgesic adverse drug event. Next steps involve confirmatory factor analysis in a different sample to examine the underlying construct of the AADEM. The AADEM might help identify people at risk for serious analgesic adverse drug events.

Protocol to Measure Hair Cortisol in Low Mass Samples From Very Preterm Infants

imageBackground Hair cortisol is a measure of chronic or repeated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activation in response to physical or psychological stressors. Hair cortisol has been successfully used as a measure of chronic stress in adults and children; however, its use as a valid measure in preterm infants has been limited by challenges in measuring cortisol in the low mass samples collectable from these infants. Objectives The purpose of this report is to present a novel protocol for the measurement of hair cortisol in very low mass hair samples. Methods Small changes were made to previously published protocols. After washing and pulverizing the hair samples, a double methanol cortisol extraction was performed. Samples were spiked with a known quantity of cortisol and analyzed in duplicate using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Hair cortisol was detectable in samples weighing between 0.4 and 10.9 mg. The mean cortisol level was 23.74 pg/mg hair (SD = 26.38). Discussion With small changes to previously published laboratory protocols, cortisol is quantifiable in low mass hair samples from preterm infants. This technical advance is an important step toward quantifying the stress experiences of hospitalized preterm infants.

Sleep Quality Associated With Motor Function Among Older Adult Survivors of Critical Illness

imageBackground Poor sleep is associated with worse motor function in older adults. Sleep may affect motor function specifically among older adults recovering from critical illness after transfer out of an intensive care unit (ICU). Objectives Describe motor function (grip strength) of older ICU survivors and explore relationships between sleep and ICU-acquired weakness in the early post-ICU transition period. Methods We enrolled 30 older adults who were functionally independent prior to hospitalization, mechanically ventilated while in ICU, and within 24–48 hours post-ICU discharge. Handgrip dynamometry assessed post-ICU motor function (fully corrected T score on the National Institutes of Health Motor Battery Grip Strength Test). Actigraphy estimated post-ICU sleep duration (total sleep time [TST]) and fragmentation (wake after sleep onset) over two consecutive nights from 22:00 p.m. to 06:00 a.m.. We identified differences in grip strength by history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using independent-samples t tests. We examined associations between sleep duration and grip strength using exploratory multivariate regression analyses, after adjustment for clinically relevant covariates. Results Grip strength among this cohort of older ICU survivors was almost 2 SDs below the norm for healthy older adults, indicating considerable ICU-acquired weakness. Grip strength was lower among subjects with history of OSA than those without OSA. Greater TST was associated with worse grip strength, after adjusting for history of OSA and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score. Moreover, among the subset of male subjects (n = 19), greater TST was significantly and negatively associated with grip strength, after adjusting for Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score. Discussion Sleep promotion may be a potentially modifiable risk factor to mitigate ICU-acquired weakness in older ICU survivors. We propose that improving sleep throughout recovery from critical illness may indirectly promote better outcomes, as poor grip strength is linked to longer length of hospital stay, higher acuity of discharge disposition, and worsened functional decline in older adults.

Cardiopulmonary Endurance of Hospitalized Older Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

imageBackground Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could lead to poor cardiopulmonary endurance, which affects quality of life and increases the risk of rehospitalization or mortality. However, studies investigating associated factors of cardiopulmonary endurance for COPD inpatients are scant. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether and how age, gender, COPD severity, body composition, dyspnea, respiratory muscle strength, and lower limb muscle strength and endurance were related to cardiopulmonary endurance in elderly inpatients with COPD. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a systematic sampling of older inpatients. Data of demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and disease severity were collected, and body mass index was calculated. Degrees of dyspnea were assessed by the modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale. Respiratory muscle strength was reflected by the maximal inspiratory pressure and the maximal expiratory pressure. Lower limb muscle strength and endurance were assessed by a handheld dynamometer and a 30-second sit-to-stand test, respectively. Finally, cardiopulmonary endurance was assessed by a 6-minute walk test. Results A total of 83 older COPD inpatients participated. The mean age was 74.01 ± 6.93 years. Cardiopulmonary endurance was associated with age, COPD severity, dyspnea, respiratory muscle strength, lower limb muscle strength, and endurance. Predictors of cardiopulmonary endurance were disease severity, dyspnea, and lower limb muscle endurance. These predictors explained 53% of the variance in cardiopulmonary endurance in older inpatients with COPD. Discussion Cardiopulmonary endurance of hospitalized older adults with COPD should be strengthened by improving conditions of disease severity, dyspnea, and lower limb muscle endurance.