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AnteayerNursing Research

Comparisons of Three Measures of Maternal Engagement Activities in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

imageBackground Mothers’ engagement with their hospitalized preterm infant(s) is recognized as an important aspect of treatment in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, no gold standard exists for measuring maternal engagement, and the various methods used to measure mothers’ time have documented limitations. Objectives This study sought to compare three measurement methods of maternal engagement (a five-item maternal cross-sectional survey, time use diaries, and electronic health records [EHRs]) to identify whether these methods capture consistent data and patterns in detected differences in measures of engagement. Methods Maternal engagement was defined as time spent visiting the infant in the NICU (presence), holding (blanket holding in the mother’s arms or by kangaroo care [KC]), and caregiving (e.g., bathing and changing diapers). The survey estimating daily maternal engagement was administered in two Level III NICUs and one Level IV NICU at study enrollment, at least 2 weeks after admission. Mothers then completed the daily time use diaries until infant discharge. Data were also collected from participants’ EHRs, charted by nursing staff. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for pairwise analysis of the three measures for maternal engagement activities. Results A total of 146 participants had data across all three measurement types and were included in the analysis. In the Level III NICUs (n = 101), EHR data showed significantly more time spent with all engagement activities than the diary data. In the Level IV data, only differences in time holding were significant when comparing EHR data with survey data, with mothers reporting more time doing KC and less time blanket holding. Comparison of EHR data with diary data showed more time in all activities except KC. Discussion In most cases, time spent in engagement activities measured in the EHR was higher than in the surveys or time use diaries. Accuracy of measurements could not be determined because of limitations in data collection, and there is no gold standard for comparison. Nevertheless, findings contribute to ongoing efforts to develop the most valuable and accurate strategies for measuring maternal engagement—a significant predictor of maternal and infant health.

Longitudinal Analysis of Sleep Disturbance in Breast Cancer Survivors

imageBackground Breast cancer survivors (BCS) often report poor sleep quality and wakefulness throughout the night as the greatest challenges experienced during and posttreatment. Objectives This study aimed to elucidate characteristics of sleep disturbances and determine potential predictors that affect sleep disturbances in BCS for 2 years postchemotherapy. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the EPIGEN study, which longitudinally examined sociodemographic and cancer-related factors, lifestyle, symptom characteristics, and epigenetic factors at baseline prior to chemotherapy (T1), the midpoint (T2), 6-month (T3), 1-year (T4), and 2-year (T5) time points postchemotherapy. Temporal lifestyle changes, symptom characteristics, and epigenetic factors were explored using linear mixed-effects models with a random intercept. A linear regression model was fitted to identify significant predictors of sleep disturbances at each time point. Results In 74 BCS with an average age of 51 years and 70% non-Hispanic White, BCS experienced severe sleep disturbances at T2, which gradually improved over time. Significant temporal changes in midsleep awakenings, early awakenings, and fatigue at work were observed, with disturbances being elevated at T2. Anxiety (T1, T2, and T4), fatigue (T3 and T4), and perceived stress (T3) were significant predictors after adjusting for radiation therapy, surgery, and adjuvant endocrine therapy. Discussion This study highlights that predictors of sleep disturbances change over time, with anxiety being a factor earlier in the treatment trajectory (prechemotherapy) and continuing over time with fatigue and perceived stress being involved later in the treatment trajectory. Our results indicate that symptom management strategies to address sleep disturbances should be tailored to the temporal factors that may change in severity during active treatment and early survivorship period. Findings gained from this study on sleep disturbance patterns and the potential risk factors can be incorporated into clinical practice in planning education and developing interventions.

Addressing Challenges in Recruiting Diverse Populations for Research: Practical Experience From a P20 Center

imageBackground Improving the recruitment and retention of underrepresented groups in all research areas is essential for health equity. However, achieving and retaining diverse samples is challenging. Barriers to recruitment and retention of diverse participants include socioeconomic and cultural factors and practical challenges (e.g., time and travel commitments). Objectives The purpose of this article is to describe the successful recruitment and retention strategies used by two related studies within a P20 center funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research focused on precision health research in diverse populations with multiple chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome. Methods To address the complexity, biodiversity, and effect of metabolic syndrome and multiple chronic conditions, we developed culturally appropriate, multipronged recruitment and retention strategies for a pilot intervention study and a longitudinal observational pilot study within our P20 center. The following are the underlying principles that guided the recruitment and retention strategies: (a) flexibility, (b) active listening and bidirectional conversations, and (c) innovative problem solving. Results The intervention study (Pilot 1) enrolled 49 participants. The longitudinal observational study (Pilot 2) enrolled 45 participants. Women and racial/ethnic minorities were significantly represented in both. In Pilot 1, most of the participants completed the intervention and all phases of data collection. In Pilot 2, most participants completed all phases of data collection and chose to provide biorepository specimens. Discussion We developed a recruitment and retention plan building on standard strategies for a general medical population. Our real-world experiences informed the adaption of these strategies to facilitate the participation of individuals who often do not participate in research—specifically, women and racial/ethnic populations. Our experience across two pilot studies suggests that recruiting diverse populations should build flexibility in the research plan at the outset.

Review of Fever Management Advice on Government and Hospital Websites in Australia

imageBackground The public often searches the Internet for information about managing symptoms of various diseases, with government and major hospital websites often providing valid and freely available information. Objectives Fever is a common symptom of viral illness, and this review sought to identify information related to fever self-management on government and major hospital websites. Methods Two distinct search strategies were used. The first was an Internet-based search reviewing fever management advice published on Australian government websites (state, territory, and federal). The second search strategy pertained to fever management advice posted by major Australian tertiary adult and children’s hospitals. Results A total of 4,797 results were identified during the two searches, with a total of 12 websites on fever self-management identified for inclusion; four were from either federal or state government, with the remaining eight from tertiary hospital websites. The information identified showed a discordant definition of fever and lack of consistency in self-management advice. Discussion This review identified a lack of consistent online government and hospital information. The information discrepancy across multiple websites was not underpinned by clinical evidence to support the self-management of fever.

A Scoping Review of Biological Pathways of Integrative Interventions Used to Manage Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Children With Cancer

imageBackground As with pharmacological management approaches, characteristics of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions for managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children with cancer should be considered when developing and testing these interventions and reporting the outcomes. Objectives This systematic scoping review aimed to identify gaps and weaknesses in CAM and integrative interventions studies to prevent and manage CINV in children being treated for cancer, according to the CINV biological pathways. Methods This systematic scoping review was conducted under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guideline. Included studies were published in English before May 2020 and examined the effects of integrative interventions on CINV in children being treated for cancer. Two authors performed computerized searches and manual reviews; these authors also extracted data about study characteristics, intervention characteristics, and CINV outcomes from the studies included in the review. Results Twenty-six studies of 29 CAM interventions met eligibility criteria. Most of these studies used randomized controlled trial designs and measured CINV outcomes at least once prior to and then after the intervention. Some studies did not explicate the interval between exposure to the intervention and outcome measurements. The CAM interventions studied included 15 cognitive–behavioral interventions, 8 acupoint stimulation interventions, 5 herb/supplementation interventions, and 1 educational intervention. One study tested two CAMs and clarified the underlying biological pathways, whereas 25 studies (27 CAMs) did not illustrate pathways; the pathways were deduced from information provided in the articles. Discussion Considering the biological pathways underlying CINV while developing integrative interventions, including the CAM component, could improve intervention efficacy. Measurement of biomarkers of activity in these pathways would provide a means to test whether changes in underlying pathways mediate change in CINV. Better reporting of intervention details and study processes is needed to support replication of CAM interventions and inform translation into clinical practice.

Sustainable Science

Por: Pickler · Rita H.
No abstract available

Sleep Characteristics, Mood, Somatic Symptoms, and Self-Care Among People With Heart Failure and Insomnia

imageBackground Almost 50% of people with heart failure (HF) experience chronic insomnia and must perform self-care to manage their day-to-day healthcare needs. Understanding multifactorial influences on self-care, including demographic, clinical, and sleep characteristics, and mood and somatic symptoms will help identify people at highest risk for poor self-care. However, past research focused only on the associations of single symptoms and self-care. Multivariate approaches are needed to account for the synergistic associations of self-care with sleep, mood, and somatic symptoms among people with HF. Objectives The aims of the study were to (a) evaluate the levels of self-care maintenance and self-care confidence among people with stable HF and chronic insomnia; (b) identify the clinical and demographic correlates of self-care maintenance and confidence among people with stable HF and chronic insomnia; and (c) identify the associations between sleep characteristics, mood and somatic symptoms, and self-care maintenance and confidence among people with stable HF and chronic insomnia. Methods We utilized a cross-sectional design with 195 adult participants who had chronic HF and insomnia. We assessed for symptoms of anxiety; depression; dyspnea; fatigue; stress; insomnia severity; and sleep disturbance, impairment, and quality. Self-care was measured using the Self-Care for Heart Failure Index v6.2. We used generalized linear models to test the associations between the demographic and clinical factors and self-care maintenance and confidence; exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to identify the factor structure underlying the symptoms; and structural equation modeling to test the combined associations of the demographic and clinical factors and latent factors with self-care maintenance and confidence. Results Self-care maintenance, confidence, and management were inadequate in most participants. We identified three latent factors among the nine symptoms: “sleep characteristics,” “mood,” and “somatic symptoms.” In the structural equation model, “sleep characteristics,” White race, and having a left ventricular ejection fraction of

Experiences With COVID-19

imageBackground Millions of Americans have tested positive for COVID-19. The illness has a range of clinical symptoms with varying degrees of symptom severity; there is limited research about the lived experience of having COVID-19. Objective The study aim was to understand the lived experience of having COVID-19, provide detail on the length and severity of symptoms as well as coping mechanisms of those with the illness, and identify issues individuals face when accessing healthcare. Methods This phenomenological qualitative study included semistructured interviews of 45 people ages 18 years and older living in the United States who tested positive for COVID-19. Inductive content analysis was employed for subjective interpretation of the text through a systematic coding classification to identify themes for analysis and conclusions. Results This study details a variety of symptom presentations of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 as well as mental health concerns related to fear and living with COVID-19. Discussion Individuals expressed varying emotions when finding they tested positive for COVID-19. Many conveyed fear of having COVID-19 and indicated it was a traumatic experience. This fear is an important clinical finding that policymakers and providers should consider when treating acute and chronic COVID-19 patients. Finally, many participants, commonly referred to as “long haulers,” experienced ongoing and lingering symptoms highlighting an area in need of further research.

Culture of Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Nursing Research Training

imageBackground Establishing and maintaining collaborative scientific environments that can cultivate and benefit from a full range of talents is essential for the quality and influence of science. Inclusion of research training and career development interventions to expose nursing PhD students, postdocs, and junior faculty to team science stands to prepare graduates to effectively engage with interdisciplinary colleagues to conduct cutting-edge nursing research and compete successfully for precious research resources. To be effective, nursing research workforce development programs need to recognize and share a culture of interdisciplinarity. Objectives This project aims to develop, validate, and disseminate a theoretically grounded and methodologically rigorous tool for a cultural consensus analysis (CCA) of the culture of interdisciplinary collaboration in nursing research. Methods Culture can be defined as shared cognitive structures and consensus around culturally correct values, attitudes, and normative behaviors. This mixed-methods study employs CCA to assess construct validity and empirically determine a set of underlying socially learned and shared notions about the cultural domain of interdisciplinary collaboration in nursing research. The study will include three phases: (a) qualitative data collection and analysis to define the cultural domain of interdisciplinary collaborations in nursing research; (b) validation of the CCA tool with the use of cultural knowledge statements; and (c) application of the CCA tool to assess cultural differences among nursing trainees, junior faculty, and training directors. The study participant pool consists of National Institutes of Health–National Institute of Nursing Research awardees, including training directors of institutional training grants, pre- and postdoctoral trainees with individual fellowship training grants, and junior faculty with career development awards. Qualitative data will be analyzed to formulate cultural statements about the values and behaviors that promote interdisciplinary collaboration in nursing research. Subsequent survey data will be assessed using matrix algebra, principal component analysis, and the Stuart–Maxwell Marginal Homogeneity Test. Discussion The development and validation of a CCA tool is a novel approach to assess, support, and systematically examine interdisciplinary collaboration and team science in nursing research and training. However, the investigation of culture needs to remain value neutral, refrain from being prescriptive, and be sensitive to the emergence and dominance of one “right” culture.

Mediating Effects of Coping Strategies on Quality of Life Following Extremity Injury

imageBackground Few researches have explored the self-regulation process in patients with extremity injuries. Knowledge about the role of coping in the postinjury self-regulation process remains scarce. Objectives We examined the relationships between illness representations, coping, and quality of life (QoL) based on the self-regulation framework, assuming adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies play mediating roles between illness representation and QoL in patients with extremity injuries. Methods A cross-sectional survey with a correlational model testing design was used. A sample of 192 patients with extremity injury was recruited before hospital discharge at trauma centers in Indonesia. Validated questionnaires were used to assess patients’ illness representations, coping, and QoL. Hierarchical regressions were carried out, and multiple mediation analyses were used to identify the mediating role of coping. Results Patients with extremity injuries who harbored negative illness representations were less focused on using adaptive coping strategies, were more focused on using maladaptive coping strategies, and tended to experience reduced QoL. The mediating effects of coping, which manifested as parallel mediations of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, could significantly explain the QoL variance. Discussion In postinjury self-regulation, coping has a parallel mediating role that can facilitate the effect of illness representations and directly influence postinjury QoL. Enhancing adaptive coping strategies, reducing maladaptive coping techniques, and reframing negative illness representations during the early recovery phase could improve postinjury QoL. Early screening and preventive efforts using psychologically driven interventions may help redirect patients’ focus toward adaptive coping strategies and reframe their illness representations before they transition back into the community.

Experiences of Home Care Nurses During the COVID-19 Pandemic

imageBackground The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked several changes in home care. Understanding home care nurses’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic plays an essential role in home care management. Objective This study aimed to explore and articulate the experience of home care nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. Design A qualitative study using hermeneutic phenomenology was carried out. Twenty home care nurses were interviewed by teleconference between January and March 2021. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Results Three main themes with five subthemes emerged from the data analysis: (a) “The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on home care,” with the subtheme “the reorganization of home care nurses’ competencies”; (b) “The role of telehealth in home care,” which included the subthemes “home care nurses’ satisfaction with telehealth” and “barriers to implement telehealth in home care”; and (c) “Effects of the pandemic on home care nurses’ lives,” including the subthemes “working in a pandemic is emotionally draining” and “the continuing fear of infecting others.” Discussion The findings from this study demonstrate the profound effect that home care has experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Home care nurses’ competencies were modified to care for and diagnose COVID-19 patients. Face-to-face home care was replaced by telehealth. All home care nurses experienced physical and psychological symptoms and the fear of infecting others.

What COVID-19 Taught Us

Por: Pickler · Rita H.
No abstract available

Using a Virtual Platform for Conducting Grandfamily Research

imageBackground Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, our research team quickly pivoted from planned face-to-face interaction with participants to virtual interactions. During this transition, we discovered invaluable new practices for conducting research remotely, including collecting physiological data. Objective Our objective was to describe the methodological challenges we encountered when conducting this research virtually with grandparent–grandchild dyads and describe the strategies we developed to overcome those challenges. Of primary focus were procedures for finger-stick blood sample collection. Of secondary focus were procedures for conducting virtual-based research with older adults and across multiple generations. Methods During an observational study utilizing a virtual platform with 11 grandparent–grandchild dyads (mean age: 64.2 ± 5.0 years for grandparents and 9.3 ± 1.9 years for grandchildren), we documented lessons learned (based on the discussion within our team and feedback we have received from participants) that could be applicable for other, similar research endeavors. Results We found several challenges in collecting blood samples, including staff were unfamiliar with providing online instruction and participants needed to develop familiarity with the blood sample collection process (without having in-person assistance), and we had to develop methods for delivering blood sample collection kits to participants safely. We also found that it took longer than expected to run procedures—a challenge that might be encountered when conducting any type of dyadic research utilizing a virtual platform—particularly involving older adults and across multiple generations. In addition, it was challenging to keep child participants engaged in the virtual interactions. We document how we employed targeted strategies to overcome those obstacles. Recommendations for strategies from our team include to provide comprehensive and clear instruction/materials on blood sampling procedure, offer generous support throughout the blood collection process, be prepared to divide study visits into more than one session as needed, proactively anticipate potential roadblocks, and carefully consider the participants’ developmental stages and attention span. Discussion The insights we gained will help inform future research with grandparent–grandchild dyads in remote or rural populations utilizing virtual platforms.

Parental Worrying, Family Functioning, and Quality of Life During the COVID-19 Pandemic

imageBackground The 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic has affected many aspects of American life, with reported increases in parental anxiety and adverse health outcomes among children. However, it is unknown how family functioning and parental anxiety may be associated with child health outcomes during this pandemic. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore associations among parental worrying, family functioning, and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of middle and high school-aged children in the United States during the 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic. Methods Ninety-three parent–child dyads were recruited via snowball sampling through the WhatsApp messenger from December 2020 to February 2021 in this exploratory cross-sectional study. Each family completed a series of self-report measures, including the General Functioning Scale–Family Assessment Device and the Worry Domains Questionnaire for parent respondents and the KIDSCREEN-10 for child respondents. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine effects of parental worrying and family functioning on the HRQoL of middle and high school-aged children. Results Lower levels of parental worrying and better family functioning predicted better child HRQoL, whereas parental worrying was associated with worse family functioning. The relationship between family functioning and child HRQoL did not differ by levels of parental worrying. Increased child age and parental education were associated with worse child HRQoL. Discussion The high socioeconomic status sample reported healthy family functioning during the 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic. Family functioning appears to improve child HRQoL consistently, even as parental worrying increases or decreases, although increased worrying would likely decrease family functioning and child HRQoL. The inverse relationships of parental educational attainment with family functioning and child HRQoL are surprising; they may be due to pandemic circumstances and the nature of the sample being high-socioeconomic status families with middle and high school-aged children.

Conducting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Research During a Pandemic: Challenges and Lessons Learned

imageBackground The coronavirus pandemic disrupted normal clinical operations and research. Nurse scientists conducting research studies in the neonatal intensive care unit experienced significant challenges to continuing their research studies amid national lockdowns and hospital visitation restrictions. Objectives The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges encountered by nurse scientists conducting research studies in the neonatal intensive care unit during the pandemic, the creative solutions devised to overcome these barriers, and the lessons learned during this unprecedented time. Methods Using our pandemic area studies as exemplars, we highlight the barriers encountered in continuing our research in the intense environment of the neonatal intensive care unit. Results Visitor restrictions limited the presence of parents and researchers in the neonatal intensive care unit during the pandemic, causing disruptions to participant recruitment and data collection. Laboratory closures further limited research activities during the pandemic. Strategies to overcome these barriers include building formal collaborations among researchers and clinicians, creating the infrastructure to support virtual recruitment and electronic consent, and developing contingency plans for studies involving the analysis of biological samples. Discussion The neonatal intensive care unit is a unique environment because of vulnerable patient population and need for researchers to interact with parents to recruit study participants. Implementing the strategies developed during the coronavirus pandemic may allow for the continuation of research activities during future public health crises.

Health Promotion, Functional Abilities, and Quality of Life Before and During COVID-19 in People With Multiple Sclerosis

imageBackground Because multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease and many individuals with MS take disease-modifying drugs that suppress immune response, serious concerns have been expressed about the potential effect of COVID-19 on those with this chronic condition. Objectives The purpose of this research was to utilize the most recent 5 years of data from an ongoing longitudinal study of health promotion and quality of life (QoL) among people with long-standing MS to investigate changes across time in functional limitations, health promotion, and health-related QoL. Methods Participants are mailed an annual survey to complete about their health promotion, depressive symptoms, health status, social support, MS-related functional limitations, and QoL. Differences across time were analyzed with repeated measures of analysis of variances and planned contrasts. Results In 2021, the 141 participants had a mean age of 69 years and had been diagnosed with MS for 34 years, on average. Most had attended college, were married/partnered women, and reported adequate economic resources. Thirty-seven percent reported they were in poor to fair health. Physical activity and health responsibility scores decreased significantly during 2020–2021 compared with 2017–2019. Significant changes in depressive symptoms, social support, and functional limitation scores followed a different pattern, with the largest changes occurring between 2018 and 2019. QoL and other health promotion scores did not change significantly across time. Discussion The relatively small changes in health indicators revealed here suggest that older people with long-standing MS may have generally been able to maintain their health promotion, functional abilities, and QoL from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, nurses and other providers should support them to resume their physical activity and regular provider contact as COVID-19 restrictions are eased. The patterns observed here demonstrate the importance of examining changes across an extended period, rather than simply looking at 1 year before and 1 year after a major event, such as COVID-19. These findings can help nurses understand how to help their patients with chronic health conditions maximize their health as they move forward.

Emerging Frontline Leaders’ Voices in Response to COVID-19 Crisis

imageBackground The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected healthcare institutions, introducing new challenges for nurse leaders and their colleagues. However, little is known about how the pandemic has specifically affected the lives of these leaders and what methods and strategies they are using to overcome pandemic-related challenges. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the 2019 pandemic on emerging healthcare leaders and highlight methods and strategies they used to overcome pandemic-related challenges. Methods The participants in this study represent a diverse group of interprofessional healthcare faculty enrolled in a transformational leadership course (Paths to Leadership) when the pandemic first appeared. Three months into the pandemic, the leadership cohort was invited to participate in this qualitative study, exploring four questions: Q1: How have you transformed your working styles in response to the pandemic? Q2: How have you adjusted your personal life in response to the pandemic? Q3: How have you used leadership skills learned from Paths to Leadership during the pandemic? Q4: What lessons have you learned from the pandemic? Participant narratives were analyzed by a team of nurse researchers using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results Themes for Q1 (working styles) included shifted from face-to-face to telework, faced novel disease and decisions, worked more from home, and challenged to maintain contact with professional peers and team. Themes for Q2 (personal life) included accommodate adults working and children learning from home, looked for and found the positive, and continue to struggle. Themes for Q3 (leadership skills) included reflective practice, listening, holding, and reframing. Finally, themes for Q4 (pandemic lessons) included leadership, human connection, be prepared, taking care of ourselves, and connecting with nature. Discussion The 2019 pandemic brought hardships and opportunities to faculty members enrolled in an interprofessional transformational leadership course. In conjunction with this course, the pandemic provided a unique opportunity for participants to apply newly acquired relationship building, positive organizational psychology, and reframing skills during a time of crisis. Nursing leaders, whose educational offerings may be immediately “put to the test,” may find our lessons learned helpful as they develop strategies to cope with unanticipated future challenges.

Post-COVID-19 Syndrome

imageBackground Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many individuals have reported persistent symptoms and/or complications lasting beyond 4 weeks, which is now called post-COVID-19 syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and injury to the lungs is expected; however, there is often damage to numerous other cells and organs, leading to an array of symptoms. These long-term symptoms occur in patients with mild to severe COVID-19; currently, there is limited literature on the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome. Objectives The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize and evaluate post-COVID-19 syndrome from a biological perspective. Methods An integrative review was conducted using Whittemore and Knafl’s methodology for literature published through August 30, 2021. The PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles published as of August 30, 2021, using combinations of the following key words: post-COVID-19 syndrome, post-SARS-CoV-2, long COVID-19, long COVID-19 syndrome, and pathophysiology of post-COVID-19. Data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results The search generated 27,929 articles. After removing duplicates and screening abstracts and full-text reviews, we retained 68 articles and examined 54 specific articles related to the pathophysiology of post-COVID-19 syndrome. The findings from our review indicated that there were four pathophysiological categories involved: virus-specific pathophysiological variations, oxidative stress, immunologic abnormalities, and inflammatory damage. Discussion Although studies examining the pathophysiology of post-COVID-19 syndrome are still relatively few, there is growing evidence that this is a complex and multifactorial syndrome involving virus-specific pathophysiological variations that affect many mechanisms but specifically oxidative stress, immune function, and inflammation. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology, pathogenesis, and longer term consequences involved in post-COVID-19 syndrome.

Revising Recruitment for Focus Groups to Meet Shifting Needs During COVID-19

imageBackground The COVID-19 pandemic forced researchers to modify recruitment strategies to meet accrual goals for qualitative studies. Traditional methods of in-person recruiting and using paper marketing material were eliminated almost overnight at the onset of the pandemic. Researchers quickly adapted their recruitment strategies, but researchers had to shift local, in-person recruitment efforts to solely using online platforms. The shifting recruitment strategies were accompanied with unexpected challenges, but we were able to meet our accrual goal for focus groups. Objectives The objective of this brief report is to explore new recruitment strategies that developed during the COVID-19 pandemic and offer suggestions for future online-based qualitative studies. Results Prior to COVID-19, we designed four main strategies (research registry, marketing material, social media, and provider endorsement) to recruit potential participants for focus groups as part of a qualitative, descriptive study involving young women breast cancer survivors. After the onset of COVID-19, we successfully adapted each of our initial four strategies to recruit potential participants in an incremental process. Using these adapted strategies, a total of 62 young women completed the first part of the data collection process prior to participating in a focus group. Thirty-three women participated in the focus groups, and the remaining 29 participants were lost to follow-up. The vast majority of participants were recruited through marketing material and social media after making strategic changes to recruitment. Discussion The most effective method of recruitment was the strategic use of marketing material and social media, and we offer suggestions for researchers considering online recruitment methods. We recommend that researchers use various social media platforms and specific hashtags and target their sample population at the onset of the study. The data collection changes initiated by the effects of COVID-19 may remain, and researchers can consider implementing permanent recruitment strategies to best meet the needs of this new landscape of conducing online focus groups.

Adapting Research to a Global Pandemic: A Fully Remote Actigraphy and Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

imageBackground Mandated social distancing practices and quarantines in response to COVID-19 have resulted in challenges for research on healthcare workers, such as hospital nurses. It remains unknown whether nursing studies utilizing complex methodology like sleep actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can be conducted remotely without compromising data quality. Objectives We aimed to (a) disseminate our remote study protocol for sleep actigraphy and EMA data from hospital nurses during COVID-19, (b) assess feasibility and acceptability of this approach for studies on hospital nurses, and (c) examine the reliability and ecological validity of sleep characteristics measured across 14 days. Methods Using an online platform, we provided 86 outpatient nurses from a cancer hospital with detailed video/text instructions regarding the study and facilitated virtual study onboarding meetings. Feasibility was assessed by comparing adherence rates to a similar in-person study of nurses from the same hospital; acceptability was evaluated through content analysis of qualitative study feedback. Multilevel modeling was conducted to assess changes in sleep characteristics as a function of study day and daily stressful experiences. Results Adherence to EMA (91.8%) and actigraphy (97.9%) was high. EMA adherence was higher than the in-person study of inpatient day-shift nurses from the same hospital. Content analyses revealed primarily positive feedback, with 51.2% reporting “easy, clear, simple onboarding” and 16.3% reporting the website was “helpful.” Six participants provided only negative feedback. Sleep characteristics did not change as a function of study day except for self-reported quality, which increased slightly during Week 1 and regressed toward baseline after that. A higher incidence of stressor days or higher stressor severity followed nights with shorter-than-usual time in bed or poorer-than-usual sleep quality, supporting the ecological validity for these methods of assessing sleep in nurses. Discussion Findings suggest that a fully remote study protocol for EMA and actigraphy studies in nursing yields robust feasibility, acceptability, reliability, and validity. Given the busy schedules of nurses, the convenience of this approach may be preferable to traditional in-person data collection. Lessons learned from COVID-19 may apply to improving nursing research postpandemic.