To estimate the efficacy of app-based interventions designed to support medication adherence and investigate which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used by the apps are associated with efficacy.
Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with meta-analysis.
Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase and Web of Science were searched from 1990 to November 2018 for RCTs conducted in any healthcare setting.
Studies of participants of any age taking prescribed medication for any health condition and for any duration.
An app-based intervention delivered through a smartphone, tablet computer or personal digital assistant to help, support or advise about medication adherence.
One of (1) usual care, (2) a control app which did not use any BCTs to improve medication adherence or (3) a non-app-based comparator.
The primary outcome was the pooled effect size of changes in medication adherence. The secondary outcome was the association between BCTs used by the apps and the effect size.
The initial search identified 13 259 citations. After title and abstract screening, full-text articles of 83 studies were screened for eligibility. Nine RCTs with 1159 recruited participants were included. The mean age of participants was >50 years in all but one study. Health conditions of target populations included cardiovascular disease, depression, Parkinson’s disease, psoriasis and multimorbidity. The meta-analysis indicated that patients who use mobile apps to support them in taking medications are more likely to self-report adherence to medications (OR 2.120, 95% CI 1.635 to 2.747, n=988) than those in the comparator groups. Meta-regression of the BCTs did not reveal any significant associations with effect size.
App-based medication adherence interventions may have a positive effect on patient adherence. Larger scale studies are required to further evaluate this effect, including long-term sustainability, and intervention and participant characteristics that are associated with efficacy and app usage.
PROSPERO Protocol Registration Number: CRD42017080150.
For patients who are diagnosed with lesions of the rotator cuff that present advanced levels of fatty degeneration, arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff remains controversial. This controversy can be attributed to the frequently reported high failure rate of the tendon fixation and the fact that it remains unclear why repair for these tears results in significant clinical improvement independent of the occurrence of such a re-tear. Recent publications have reported comparable clinical improvements when merely a tenotomy of the long head of the biceps tendon was performed and the rotator cuff tear was left untreated. These observations raise questions on the value of performing the more extensive cuff repairs in degenerative cuff tears. Even more, rehabilitation after an isolated tenotomy is much less cumbersome as compared with rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair and, therefore, might result in improved patient satisfaction. The goal of this trial is to study function and quality-of-life of patients undergoing arthroscopic biceps tenotomy with or without an additional cuff repair and to include an economic evaluation.
This multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, including an economic evaluation, is designed to compare the short-term and long-term outcome of patients who underwent an arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of the biceps tendon with or without a cuff repair. We will include 172 patients with stage 2–3 Goutallier fatty infiltration cuff tears and with clinical symptoms of biceps pathology. Primary outcome is the rotator cuff specific quality-of-life (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index) on the short term (6 months postoperatively). Secondary outcomes are quality-of-life 1, 2 and 5 year postoperatively and function (Constant-Murley score, glenohumeral range of motion), recovery status, pain (visual analogue scale), economic evaluation, satisfaction of treatment on the short-term and long-term and re-tear rate at 6 months determined with an ultrasound.
This trial has been approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U), Nieuwegein, the Netherlands (NL54313.100.15) and will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). The results of this study will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at (inter)national conferences. Furthermore, we will share our findings with the appropriate guideline committees.
The Dutch Trial Registry (NL4010).
To address how different residential situations impact the likelihood of death among mature adults and elderly persons.
Population-based study with administrative data linked to census data.
Spanish population alive on 1 January 2012, observed between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. A 10% random sample of the Spanish population, including 2 054 427 person years and 28 736 deaths, is used.
Registered deaths in the 2012 Spanish vital statistics.
Using a new data set based on linked administrative registers, we estimate unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates by coresidential situation. Differential mortality is measured by rate ratios (RR) estimated with Poisson regression. Cause of death data are used to explore the mechanisms involved in excess mortality by residential status.
Compared with men 45–54 living with partners, the risk of death is much higher for those without partners living with others (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) or for those living alone (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.4). After 84, excess mortality among men living with others persists (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.5), but disappears for those living alone (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.1). Both among women 45–64 living with others but without partner (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.3) and among those living alone (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.1) the pattern is similar to men. At higher ages, however, excess mortality for women living alone decreases (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2), though it persists for women living with others (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7 to 2.0).
These findings indicate direct effects of living arrangements on mortality and health-related selection effects influencing residential choices. These effects may be partially affected by age and prevailing societal and cultural contexts.
To investigate the practices of healthcare professionals in relation to best practice recommendations for the multidisciplinary management of people with diabetes and periodontitis, focusing on two clinical behaviours: informing patients about the links between diabetes and periodontitis, and suggesting patients with poorly controlled diabetes go for a dental check-up.
Cross-sectional design utilising online questionnaires to assess self-reported performance and constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and Normalisation Process Theory.
Primary care medical practices (n=37) in North East, North Cumbria and South West of England Clinical Research Networks.
96 general practitioners (GPs), 48 nurses and 21 healthcare assistants (HCAs).
Participants reported little to no informing patients about the links between diabetes and periodontitis or suggesting that they go for a dental check-up. Regarding future intent, both GPs (7.60±3.38) and nurses (7.94±3.69) scored significantly higher than HCAs (4.29±5.07) for SCT proximal goals (intention) in relation to informing patients about the links (p
Despite evidence-informed best practice recommendations, healthcare professionals currently report low levels of informing patients with diabetes about the links between diabetes and periodontitis and suggesting patients go for a dental check-up. However, healthcare professionals, particularly nurses, value these behaviours and consider them appropriate to their role. While knowledge of the evidence is important, future guidelines should consider different strategies to enable implementation of the delivery of healthcare interventions.
Among preterm infants, mother’s own milk feeding reduces neonatal morbidity and decreases the length of hospital stay. However, breastfeeding rates and duration are lower than among term infants. It is reported that peer counselling is effective in increasing breast feeding in term infants in low-income and middle-income countries, but results are mixed in high-income countries. We aim to investigate herein whether peer counselling may be a feasible and effective breastfeeding support among preterm infants in French-speaking high-income countries.
Eight European centres will participate in this stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. We plan to include 2400 hospitalised neonates born before 35 gestational weeks. Each centre will begin with an observational period. Every 3 months, a randomised cluster (centre) will begin the interventional period with peer counsellors until the end of the study. The counsellors will be trained and supervised by the trained nurses. They will have a weekly contact with participating mothers, with a face-to-face meeting at least once every fortnight. During these meetings, peer counsellors will listen to mothers’ concerns, share experiences and help the mother with their own knowledge of breast feeding. The main outcome is breastfeeding rate at 2 months corrected age. Secondary outcomes are breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and at 6 months, breastfeeding duration and severe neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mental health of the mother, mother–infant bonding and infant behaviour will be assessed using self-report questionnaires. A neurodevelopmental follow-up, a cost-effectiveness analysis and a cost–consequence at 2 years corrected age will be performed among infants in a French subgroup.
French, Belgian and Swiss ethics committees gave their agreement. Publications in peer-reviewed journals are planned on breast feeding, mental health and economic outcomes.
To investigate the safety of live attenuated varicella zoster vaccination when administered to immunosuppressed individuals.
Prospective observational cohort study.
The study used anonymised data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), comprising a representative sample of routinely collected primary care data in England between 2013 and 2017 and and linked Hospital Episode Statistics data.
168 767 individuals age-eligible for varicella zoster vaccination registered at a general practice in England contributing data to CPRD.
Electronic health records indicating immunosuppression, zoster vaccination, diagnoses of specific varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-related disease and non-specific rash/encephalitis compatible with VZV-related disease.
Between 1 September 2013 and 31 August 2017, a period of immunosuppression was identified for 9093/168 767 (5.4%; 95% CI: 5.3%–5.5%) individuals age-eligible for zoster vaccination. The overall rate of vaccination while immunosuppressed was 1742/5251 (33.2 per 100 adjusted person years at risk; 95% CI: 31.9%–34.5%). Follow-up of the 1742 individuals who were inadvertently vaccinated while immunosuppressed identified only two cases of VZV-related disease within 8 weeks of vaccination (0.1%; 95% CI: 0.01%–0.4%), both primary care diagnoses of ‘shingles’, neither with a related hospital admission.
Despite evidence of inadvertent vaccination of immunosuppressed individuals with live zoster vaccination, there is a lack of evidence of severe consequences including hospitalisation. This should reassure primary care staff and encourage vaccination of mildly immunosuppressed individuals who do not meet current thresholds for contraindication. These findings support a review of the extent to which live zoster vaccination is contraindicated among the immunosuppressed.
People with depression often experience disabilities that limit their social and physical capacity, daily function, and quality of life. Depressive symptoms and their implications on daily activities are often measured retrospectively using subjective measurement tools. Recently, more objective and accurate electronic data collection methods have been used to describe the daily life of people with depressive disorders. The results, however, have not yet been systematically reviewed. We aim to provide a knowledge basis for the use of tracking technologies in examining life-space mobility among adults with depression and those with anxiety as a comorbidity.
A systematic review with a narrative approach for different types of study design will be conducted. The following databases will be used to gather data from 1994 to the present: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Health Technology Assessment Database and IEEE Xplore. The study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. Methodological appraisal of studies will be performed using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool as well as the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool for randomised controlled trials. A narrative synthesis of all included studies will be conducted.
Because there will be no human involvement in the actual systematic review, no ethical approval will be required. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and in a conference presentation.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection and is associated with several types of cancer. The number of cases of HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), especially oropharyngeal carcinomas, has increased significantly in recent years despite decreased tobacco smoking rates. Currently, no data concerning the risk factors and prevalence of HPV in HNSCC patients in all regions of Brazil are available, making it difficult to promote advances in this field of public health. Therefore, our goal is to determine the impact of infection by HPV, including HPVs with different genotypes, on head and neck cancer and the risk factors associated with the development of head and neck cancer in all regions of Brazil.
This is a case–control study that will include 622 patients and 622 controls from all regions of Brazil. A questionnaire will be applied to gather information on sociodemographic, behavioural and health factors. Oral, cervical or penile/scrotal, and anal specimens and serum samples will be collected from all participants. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from tumour biopsies will be analysed only in the case group. Molecular and serological analyses will be performed to evaluate the presence and role of HPV in the development of head and neck cancer.
This project was approved by the research ethical committee of the proposing institution (Hospital Moinhos de Vento, number 2.852.060). Ethical approval from the collaborators is currently under evaluation and is not yet complete. The results of this study will be presented at meetings with the Brazilian Ministry of Health through technical reports and to the scientific community at national and international events, with subsequent publication of scientific articles.
Myeloma, a blood cancer originating from plasma cells, is the most common indication for autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients with myeloma undergoing autologous SCT (ASCT) experience treatment-related morbidity and reduction in function and well-being for many months post-treatment. Interventions targeting physical functioning delivered prior to and during SCT have shown promising results in mixed haematological populations and may offer a non-pharmacological solution to physically optimising and preparing patients for SCT. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a physiotherapist-led exercise intervention as an integral part of the myeloma ASCT pathway at a UK tertiary centre.
PERCEPT is a single-site, pilot randomised controlled trial of an exercise intervention embedded within the myeloma ASCT pathway, compared with usual care. The primary study end points will be feasibility measures of study and intervention delivery including recruitment rates, acceptability of intervention, study completion rate and any adverse events. Secondary end points will evaluate differences between the exercise intervention group and the usual care control group in cancer-related fatigue, quality of life, functional capacity (6 min walk test; handheld dynamometry; a timed sit-to-stand test) and objective and self-reported physical activity. Outcomes will be assessed at four time points, approximately 6–8 weeks prior to SCT, on/around day of SCT, on discharge from SCT hospital admission and 12 weeks post-discharge. The exercise intervention comprises of partly supervised physiotherapist-led aerobic and resistance exercise including behaviour change techniques to promote change in exercise behaviour. The primary outcomes from the trial will be summarised as percentages or mean values with 95% CIs. Group differences for secondary outcomes at each time point will be analysed using appropriate statistical models.
This study has NHS REC approval (Camden and Kings Cross, 19/LO/0204). Results will be disseminated through publication and presentations at haematology and rehabilitation-related meetings.
To determine prevalences of underweight and overweight as well as low and high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in three prospective follow-ups and to explore tracking of these measures of nutritional status from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. The influence of socioeconomic status, remoteness, maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight on weight status was assessed.
Longitudinal birth cohort study of Indigenous Australians.
Data derived from three follow-ups of the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study with mean ages of 11.4, 18.2 and 25.4 years for the participants.
Of the 686 Indigenous babies recruited to the study between 1987 and 1990, 315 had anthropometric measurements for all three follow-ups and were included in this study.
BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity),WHtR categories (low and high), sex, areal socioeconomic disadvantage as defined by the Indigenous Relative Socioeconomic Outcomes index, urban/remote residence, maternal BMI and birth weight. Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs for belonging to a certain BMI category in adolescence and adulthood according to BMI category in childhood and adolescence.
Underweight was common (38% in childhood and 24% in adulthood) and the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased with age (12% in childhood and 35% in adulthood). Both extremes of weight status as well as low and high WHtR tracked from childhood to adulthood. Underweight was more common and overweight was less common in remote and more disadvantaged areas. Birth weight and maternal BMI were associated with later weight status. There were significant sex differences for prevalences and tracking of WHtR but not for BMI.
Socioeconomic factors, remoteness and gender must be addressed when assessing nutrition-related issues in the Indigenous communities due to the variation in nutritional status and its behaviour over time within the Indigenous population.
The use of social media has risen steadily since its introduction in the early 2000s, and today there are between 2 and 3 billion users worldwide. Research on the link between use of social media and mental health has resulted in a vast number of studies covering diverse aspects of the link between them. The existing body of knowledge on use of social media, and mental health and well-being among adolescents is complex and difficult to follow. In this paper, we present a protocol for a scoping review to systematically identify and summarise the central research foci and knowledge gaps in the research field of social media use, and mental health and well-being among adolescents.
The current scoping review will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. The first step is to search relevant databases for eligible studies. Relevant databases are CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sociological Services Abstracts, ERIC, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CRD (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), NHS EED, HTA and Epistemonikos. Next, two reviewers from the research team will independently screen the identified studies for eligibility. Data extraction and data synthesis will be performed and result in summarised themes based on the findings.
A scoping review can be described as a method of gaining an overview and understanding of a research area, with its strengths and weaknesses, and as it involves peer-reviewed and published articles, a scoping review does not require ethical approval. We expect that the results from the current scoping review will produce a consolidated overview of existing studies and research gaps, and gather this knowledge into a coherent review. The results will be disseminated through relevant journals and conferences.
The introduction of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) has enabled enhanced risk stratification for men at risk of prostate cancer, through accurate prebiopsy identification of clinically significant disease. However, approximately 10%–20% of significant prostate cancer may be missed on mpMRI. It appears that the genomic basis of lesion visibility or invisibility on mpMRI may have key implications for prognosis and treatment. Here, we describe a protocol for the first systematic review and novel bioinformatic analysis of the genomic basis of prostate cancer conspicuity on mpMRI.
A systematic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases will be conducted. Screening, data extraction, statistical analysis and reporting will be performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Included papers will be full text articles, written between January 1980 and December 2019, comparing molecular characteristics of mpMRI-visible lesions and mpMRI-invisible lesions at the DNA, DNA-methylation, RNA or protein level. Study bias and quality will be assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Additionally, we will conduct a novel bioinformatic analysis of supplementary material and publicly available data, to combine transcriptomic data and reveal common pathways highlighted across studies. To ensure methodological rigour, this protocol is written in accordance with the PRISMA Protocol 2015 checklist.
Ethical approval will not be required, as this is an academic review of published literature. Findings will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals, and presentations at national and international conferences.
In October 2018, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration funded 21 sites throughout the USA to develop, implement and evaluate specialised care programmes for individuals at clinical high risk for developing a psychotic disorder (CHR-P). Per the funding requirements, such programmes were required to provide ‘step-based care’—a model in which individuals are initially provided with low-intensity, non-psychosis-specific and more benign (ie, least side effects) interventions and only progress onto higher-intensity, psychosis-specific interventions with a greater risk of more severe side effects should they not meet a priori criteria for clinical response to such lower-intensity interventions. Here, we outline the evaluation component of the step-based care programme for individuals at CHR-P at The Ohio State University Early Psychosis Intervention Center (EPICENTER).
The EPICENTER CHR-P programme provides a step-based care model comprising psychotherapy, medication management, family support/education, peer support and vocational/educational support. All participants who opt to receive care at the EPICENTER will complete a standardised assessment battery as part of usual care. This battery will be administered on enrolment and will be re-administered at 6-month intervals throughout individuals’ participation in EPICENTER clinical services. Participants will have the opportunity to allow for data from these usual care assessments to be used as part of an evaluation project for this new clinical service. The primary outcome for this evaluation project is time to remission of symptomatic and functional deficits commonly experienced by individuals at CHR-P. Participants will also have the opportunity to participate in a supplemental research project designed to further evaluate treatment outcomes and patient characteristics among individuals participating in EPICENTER clinical services.
This project was approved by The Ohio State University Institutional Review Board. Results from this project will be disseminated through publications and presentations.
This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of telehealthcare in heart failure patients as add-on to usual care.
A cost-utility analysis was conducted from a public payer perspective alongside the randomised controlled TeleCare North trial.
The North Denmark Region, Denmark.
The study included 274 heart failure patients with self-reported New York Heart Association class II-IV.
Patients in the intervention group were provided with a Telekit consisting of a tablet, a digital blood pressure monitor, and a scale and were instructed to perform measurements one to two times a week. The responsibility of the education, instructions and monitoring of the heart failure (HF) patients was placed on municipality nurses trained in HF and telemonitoring. Both groups received usual care.
Cost-effectiveness was reported as incremental net monetary benefit (NMB). A micro-costing approach was applied to evaluate the derived savings in the first year in the public health sector. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained were estimated using the EuroQol 5-Dimensions 5-Levels questionnaire at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up.
Data for 274 patients were included in the main analysis. The telehealthcare solution provided a positive incremental NMB of £5164. The 1-year adjusted QALY difference between the telehealthcare solution and the usual care group was 0.0034 (95% CI: –0.0711 to 0.0780). The adjusted difference in costs was -£5096 (95% CI: –8736 to –1456) corresponding to a reduction in total healthcare costs by 35%. All sensitivity analyses showed the main results were robust.
The TeleCare North solution for monitoring HF was highly cost-effective. There were significant cost savings on hospitalisations, primary care contacts and total costs.
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess resilience, professional quality of life and coping mechanisms in UK doctors. It also aimed to assess the impact of demographic variables, such as sex, grade and specialty on these factors.
During October and November 2018, medical doctors in the UK were eligible to complete an online survey made up of validated psychological instruments. Royal Colleges and other medical organisations invited their membership to participate via newsletters, email invitations, websites and social media.
1651 doctors participated from a wide range of specialties and grades across the UK. The mean resilience score was 65.01 (SD 12.3), lower than population norms. Of those who responded, 31.5% had high burnout (BO), 26.2% had high secondary traumatic stress and 30.7% had low compassion satisfaction (CS). Doctors who responded from emergency medicine were more burned out than any other specialty group (F=2.62, p=0.001, df 14). Those who responded from general practice scored lowest for CS (F=6.43, p
One-third of UK doctors who responded are burned out and suffering from STS. Those who responded from emergency medicine and general practice appear to be suffering the most. Over 100 doctors fell into the at-risk category of high BO, high STS and low CS. Future analysis of the free text responses from doctors may help to identify factors that are playing a role in the high levels of BO and STS being reported by medical staff.
Moore HC, de Klerk N, Blyth CC, et al. Temporal trends and socioeconomic differences in acute respiratory infection hospitalisations in children: an intercountry comparison of birth cohort studies in Western Australia, England and Scotland. BMJ Open 2019;9:e028710. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028710
This article was previously published with incomplete information in the funding.
The updated funding is below:
This work was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant (1045668), a University of Western Australia Research Collaboration Award (to HCM) and a Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Seed Grant (to HCM, CCB, and PH). CCB and HCM are supported by National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowships (1 034 254 to HCM and 1 111 596 to CCB). PH was funded by a National Institute for Health Research postdoctoral fellowship, reference number PDF-2013-06-004. AZ’s PhD studentship is funded by awards to establish the Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London, from...
Abrams AL, Falkenberg T, Rautenbach C, et al. Legislative landscape for traditional health practitioners in Southern African development community countries: a scoping review. BMJ Open 2020;10:e029958. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029958.
This article was previously published with incorrect funding information.
The correct funding statement is below:
This research project was jointly funded by the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) and Forte, the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare.
Aguilar-Palacio I, Malo S, Lallana M, et al. Co-prescription patterns of cardiovascular preventive treatments: a cross-sectional study in the Aragon worker’ health study (Spain) BMJ Open 2019;9:e023571. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023571.
This article was previously published with incomplete information in the funding. The updated funding is below:
This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Investigation of Sanitary Funding (Spain) and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). Grant number PI13/01668 and PI17/01704. Also, GRISSA group, ARiHSP group and Unidad de Prevención Cardiovascular are co-funded by the Aragon Regional Governemnt Fund as reference group (codes B09_17R, B02_17R and B12_17R respectively).
Implant-based breast reconstruction is the most commonly performed reconstructive technique worldwide. Subpectoral reconstruction with mesh is the current standard of care but new prepectoral techniques have recently been introduced. Prepectoral breast reconstruction (PPBR) may improve outcomes for patients but robust evaluation is required. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) are ideally needed but the short-term safety of PPBR is yet to be established; the technique and its indications are evolving and it has yet to be adopted by a sufficient number of surgeons for an RCT to be feasible.
The Pre-BRA study aims to determine the feasibility of using mixed-methods within an IDEAL 2a/2b (IDEAL, Idea-Development-Exploration-Assessment-Long-term) study to explore the short-term safety of PPBR and determine when the technique is sufficiently stable for evaluation in a pragmatic RCT.
Pre-BRA is an IDEAL stage 2a/2b prospective multicentre cohort study with embedded qualitative research.
Consecutive patients electing to undergo immediate PPBR at participating centres will be invited to participate. Demographic, operative, oncology and complication data will be collected and patient-reported outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 18 months postoperatively. The primary safety endpoint will be implant loss at 3 months.
Surgeons performing PPBR will be asked to complete questionnaires regarding their practice and report any modifications made to the procedure or learning arising from complications via free-text response fields on electronic case-report forms. Semistructured will explore surgeons’ experiences in detail to identify emerging best practice. This will be fed back to participating surgeons to promote shared learning.
The Pre-BRA study will aim to recruit 341 patients from 30 to 40 UK centres over a 12-month period. Recruitment will commence Spring 2019.
The study has full ethical approval from OXFORD-B South Central Committee Ref:19/SC/0129. Results will be presented at national and international meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals.
This study assessed the impact of a Dementia Education Workshop on the confidence and attitudes of general practitioner (GP) registrars (GPR) and GP supervisors (GPS) in relation to the early diagnosis and management of dementia.
Pretest post-test research design.
Continuing medical education in Australia.
332 GPR and 114 GPS.
Registrars participated in a 3-hour face-to-face workshop while supervisors participated in a 2-hour-modified version designed to assist with the education and supervision of registrars.
The General Practitioners Confidence and Attitude Scale for Dementia was used to assess overall confidence, attitude to care and engagement. A t-test for paired samples was used to identify differences from preworkshop (T1) to postworkshop (T2) for each GP group. A t-test for independent samples was undertaken to ascertain differences between each workshop group. A Cohen’s d was calculated to measure the effect size of any difference between T1 and T2 scores.
Significant increases in scores were recorded for Confidence in Clinical Abilities, Attitude to Care and Engagement between pretest and post-test periods. GPR exhibited the greatest increase in scores for Confidence in Clinical Abilities and Engagement.
Targeted educational interventions can improve attitude, increase confidence and reduce negative attitudes towards engagement of participating GPs.