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Identification of M2-like macrophage-related signature for predicting the prognosis, ecosystem and immunotherapy response in hepatocellular carcinoma

by Qian Feng, Hongcheng Lu, Linquan Wu


Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, representing a big health-care challenge globally. M2-like macrophages are significantly correlated with tumor progression, metastasis and treatment resistance.


Integrative 10 machine learning algorithms were performed to developed a M2-like macrophage related prognostic signature (MRPS). Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis was performed to dissect the ecosystem of HCC. Several approaches, including TIDE score, immunophenoscore, TMB score and tumor escape score were used to evaluate the predictive role of MRPS in immunology response.


The optimal MRPS constructed by the combination of stepCox + superPC algorithm served as an independent risk factor and showed stable and powerful performances in predicting the overall survival rate of HCC patients with 2-, 3-, and 4-year AUCs of 0. 763, 0.751, and 0.699 in TCGA cohort. HCC patients with low risk score possessed a more interaction of immunoactivated cells, including NK, CD8+ cytotoxic T, and activated B, and a less interaction of immunosuppressive cells, including Treg, CD4+ exhauster T, and M2-like macrophage. Low risk score indicated a higher PD1&CTLA4 immunophenoscore, higher TMB score, lower TIDE score and lower tumor escape score in HCC, suggesting a better immunotherapy response. The IC50 value of docetaxel, gemcitabine, crizotinib and Osimertinib in HCC with high risk score were lower versus that with low risk score. HCC patients with high risk score had a higher score of cancer-related hallmarks, including angiogenesis, DNA repair, EMT, glycolysis, and NOTCH signaling.


Our study proposed a novel MRPS for predicting the prognosis, ecosystem and immunotherapy response in HCC.

A randomized trial: The safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary pharmacodynamics of ropivacaine oil delivery depot in healthy subjects

by Wu-dang Lu, Dan-ling Zhao, Mei-xia Wang, Ya-qi Jiao, Ping Chi, Min Zhang, Bo Ma, Jian-ping Dong, Hai-bo Zhang, Yi Yang, Ye Tian, Min-quan Hui, Bo Yang, Yong-xiao Cao


Ropivacaine oil delivery depot (RODD) can slowly release ropivacaine and block nerves for a long timejavascript:;. The aim of the present work was to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary pharmacodynamics of RODD in subcutaneous injection among healthy subjects.


The abdomens of 3 subjects were subcutaneously administered with a single-needle RODD containing 12~30 mg of ropivacaine. The irritation, nerve blocking range and optimum dose were investigated. Forty-one subjects were divided into RODD groups containing 150, 230, 300, 350 and 400 mg of ropivacaine and a ropivacaine hydrochloride injection (RHI) 150 mg group. Multineedle subcutaneous injection of RODD or RHI was performed in the abdomens of the subjects. The primary endpoint was a safe dose or a maximum dose of ropivacaine (400 mg). Subjects’ vital signs were observed; their blood was analyzed; their cardiovascular system and nervous systems were monitored, and their dermatological reactions were observed and scored. Second, the ropivacaine concentrations in plasma were determined, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the anesthetic effects of RODD were studied, including RODD onset time, duration and intensity of nerve block.


Single-needle injection of RODD 24 mg was optimal for 3 subjects, and the range of nerve block was 42.5±20.8 mm. Multineedle subcutaneous injection of RODD in the abdomens of subjects was safe, and all adverse events were no more severe than grade II. The incidence rate of grade II adverse events, such as pain, and abnormal ST and ST-T segment changes on electrocardiography, was approximately 1%. The incidence rate of grade I adverse events, including erythema, papules, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypotension was greater than 10%. Erythema and papules were relieved after 24 h and disappeared after 72 h. Other adverse reactions disappeared after 7 days. The curve of ropivacaine concentration-time in plasma presented a bimodal profile. The results showed that ropivacaine was slowly released from the RODD. Compared with the 150 mg RHI group, Tmax was longer in the RODD groups. In particular, Tmax in the 400 mg RODD group was longer than that in the RHI group (11.8±4.6 h vs. 0.77±0.06 h). The Cmax in the 150 mg RODD group was lower than that in the 150 mg RHI group (0.35±0.09 vs. 0.58±0.13 μg·mL-1). In particular, the Cmax increased by 48% when the dose was increased by 2.6 times in the 400 mg group. Cmax, the AUC value and the intensity of the nerve block increased with increasing doses of RODD. Among them, the 400 mg RODD group presented the strongest nerve block (the percentage of level 2 and 3, 42.9%). The corresponding median onset time was 0.42 h, and the duration median was 35.7⁓47.7 h.


RODD has a sustained release effect. Compared with the RHI group, Tmax was delayed in the RODD groups, and the duration of nerve block was long. No abnormal reaction was found in the RODD group containing 400 mg of ropivacaine after subcutaneous injection among healthy subjects, suggesting that RODD was adequately safe.

Trial registration CTR2200058122; CTR20192280.

Image generation technology for functional occlusal pits and fissures based on a conditional generative adversarial network

by Zhaodan Gu, Zhilei Wu, Ning Dai

The occlusal surfaces of natural teeth have complex features of functional pits and fissures. These morphological features directly affect the occlusal state of the upper and lower teeth. An image generation technology for functional occlusal pits and fissures is proposed to address the lack of local detailed crown surface features in existing dental restoration methods. First, tooth depth image datasets were constructed using an orthogonal projection method. Second, the optimization and improvement of the model parameters were guided by introducing the jaw position spatial constraint, the L1 loss and the perceptual loss functions. Finally, two image quality evaluation metrics were applied to evaluate the quality of the generated images, and deform the dental crown by using the generated occlusal pits and fissures as constraints to compare with expert data. The results showed that the images generated using the network constructed in this study had high quality, and the detailed pit and fissure features on the crown were effectively restored, with a standard deviation of 0.1802mm compared to the expert-designed tooth crown models.

Effects of non-technical skill-based surgical education for trainees on herniorrhaphy outcomes

by Daisuke Koike, Takahiro Nishimura, Yusuke Suka, Motoki Nagai, Yukihiro Nomura, Hiroyuki Kato, Yukio Asano, Masahiro Ito, Satoshi Arakawa, Takuma Ishihara, Akihiko Horiguchi


Non-technical skills are essential for surgical patient safety and are implemented in clinical practice. However, training for non-technical skills has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the learning curve for non-technical skill-based education in herniorrhaphy.


Quality improvement initiatives, including non-technical skill-based intervention, were performed in the department of surgery. The intervention included declaring the patient safety policy, briefing and debriefing, and criterion for the switching of places of the trainee and instructor as defined by the department. Patients who underwent herniorrhaphy from April 2014 to September 2017 were included.


A total of 14 trainees and nine instructors in the pre-intervention period and 14 trainees and seven instructors in the intervention period were included in this study. The median experience of each trainee was 28 and 15 cases in the pre-intervention and intervention groups, respectively. A total of 749 patients were included: 473 in the pre-intervention period and 328 in the intervention period. Demographics and hernia types were mostly similar between groups, and morbidity was not statistically different between the two groups (3.4 vs. 1.2%, p = 0.054). The nonlinear regression model showed an early decline and deep plateau phase of the learning curve in the intervention group. A significant difference was observed in the plateau operation time (61 min in the pre-intervention group and 52 min in the intervention group).


This study demonstrated the effectiveness of non-technical skill-based intervention for surgical training. An early decline and deep plateau of the learning curve can be achieved with well-implemented quality improvement initiatives. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to establish a training program for non-technical skill-based learning.

SARS-CoV-2 surface contamination in metro-Atlanta grocery stores

by Travis W. Brown, Geun W. Park, Beth Wittry, Leslie Barclay, Margaret Person, Boris Relja, Scott Daly, Preeti Chhabra, Erin Kincaid, Jona Johnson, Ausaf Ahmad, Owen Herzegh, Jan Vinjé, Jennifer Murphy

While the COVID-19 pandemic has had a detrimental impact on many businesses worldwide, essential businesses, such as grocery stores, continued to operate despite potential disease transmission. Although the principal mode by which people are infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is through exposure to respiratory droplets and very small particles carrying infectious virus, contaminated surfaces might play a role in transmission. We collected swab samples from frequently touched surfaces, including grocery carts, touchscreen monitors, credit card keypads, pharmacy counters, self-service food utensils, and refrigerator and freezer handles, in two metro-Atlanta grocery stores over the course of two sampling events in March 2021. Of the 260 swab samples collected, 6 (2.3%) samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were collected from pharmacy (12.0% [3/25] samples), refrigerator/freezer aisles (2.5% [1/39] samples), and self-service food court (5.0% [2/40] samples) areas. Table/counter edge and underside surfaces represented 33% (2/6) of positive samples. These data suggest that risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 from frequently touched surfaces in grocery store settings is likely low; however, more frequent cleaning of surfaces in pharmacy and self-service food courts might be warranted.

Assessing social needs among patients with cardiovascular and psychiatric comorbidities in free community health clinics

by David Haddad, Venkata Sai Jasty, Jacob Ref, Paul Hsu, Patricia Lebensohn, Tze-Woei Tan


Community-related health assessments have been shown to improve several outcomes in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations with comorbid chronic health conditions. However, while it is recognized that modifiable social determinant of health (SDH) factors might be responsible for up to 60% of preventable deaths, it is not yet standard of care to routinely screen and address these at preventive health appointments. The objective of this study was to identify the social needs of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients.


We performed a retrospective review of the socioeconomic screening questionnaires distributed to under- and uninsured patients seen at a medical student-run free primary care-based community clinic. This study included participants of all ages (0 and up), genders, languages, and ethnicities who filled out the social screening questionnaire. Socioeconomic screening questionnaires assessed the need for critical resources such as food, housing, utilities, finances, transportation, childcare, employment, education, legal support, companionship, health literacy, and community assistance. The primary study outcome was to identify unmet social needs of our medical student-run free clinic patients. We secondarily sought to identify associations between these needs and chronic health conditions. We hypothesized that patients with multiple chronic health problems and financial stressors would have the highest requests for resources.


Our retrospective review identified 264 uninsured participants who were evaluated for social needs using a screening questionnaire. Participants who reported unmet social needs had significantly more cardiovascular risk factors than those who did not. Cardiovascular comorbidities and a history of psychiatric illness were the two most common medical problems significantly associated with several unmet social needs.


This study provides support for the preemptive identification and appropriate management of physical, mental, and social care to improve disproportionate disparities in long-term health outcomes.

Examining the subjective fairness of at-home and online tests: Taking <i>Duolingo English Test</i> as an example

Por: Don Yao

by Don Yao

The Duolingo English Test, a language proficiency test offered online, is now getting prevalent worldwide. A recap of existing literature denotes that there is an insufficient examination of the DET, particularly on its issues of fairness. Besides, empirical test fairness research had mainly focused on the objective aspect but may have overlooked the importance of its subjective aspect. Additionally, compared with in-person tests, the fairness research of at-home tests lags far behind. Therefore, the current study investigated the DET fairness from test takers’ perspectives. A DET Fairness Questionnaire based on (Kunnan’s AJ, 2004) Test Fairness Framework (comprising validity, absence of bias, access, administration, and social consequences) was developed. Data were collected from 1,012 Chinese university students and processed through descriptive and factor analyses. The descriptive analyses revealed that test takers perceived the DET to be fair overall. Specifically, they perceived that they had equal access to the test, but the test was invalid; the factor analyses showed that test takers’ perceptions of DET fairness (especially perceived validity and access) had a significant effect on their test performance. Such findings suggest that the subjective test fairness as an essential component could not be neglected in appraising an assessment as it influences test takers’ performance, and DET developers may strive harder to enhance the validity of DET to provide a fairer testing environment for test takers.

Trends in U.S. self-reported health and self-care behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

by Madison Hooper, Morgan Reinhart, Stacie B. Dusetzina, Colin Walsh, Kevin N. Griffith


The COVID-19 pandemic represents a unique stressor in Americans’ daily lives and access to health services. However, it remains unclear how the pandemic impacted perceived health status and engagement in health-related behaviors.


To assess changes in self-reported health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore trends in health-related behaviors that may underlie the observed health changes.


Interrupted time series stratified by age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, household income, and employment status.


United States.


All adult respondents to the 2016–2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N = 2,146,384).


Survey completion following the U.S. public health emergency declaration (March-December 2020). January 2019 to February 2020 served as our reference period.

Main outcomes and measures

Self-reported health outcomes included the number of days per month that respondents spent in poor mental health, physical health, or when poor health prevented their usual activities of daily living. Self-reported health behaviors included the number of hours slept per day, number of days in the past month where alcohol was consumed, participation in any exercise, and current smoking status.


The national rate of days spent in poor physical health decreased overall (-1.00 days, 95% CI: -1.10 to -0.90) and for all analyzed subgroups. The rate of poor mental health days or days when poor health prevented usual activities did not change overall but exhibited substantial heterogeneity by subgroup. We also observed overall increases in mean sleep hours per day (+0.09, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.13), the percentage of adults who report any exercise activity (+3.28%, 95% CI 2.48 to 4.09), increased alcohol consumption days (0.27, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37), and decreased smoking prevalence (-1.11%, 95% CI -1.39 to -0.83).

Conclusions and relevance

The COVID-19 pandemic had deleterious but heterogeneous effects on mental health, days when poor health prevented usual activities, and alcohol consumption. In contrast, the pandemic’s onset was associated with improvements in physical health, mean hours of sleep per day, exercise participation, and smoking status. These findings highlight the need for targeted outreach and interventions to improve mental health in individuals who may be disproportionately affected by the pandemic.

Hypotension and cognitive impairment among the elderly: Evidence from the CLHLS

by Xidi Zhu, Zhicheng Luo, Gang Tian, Zhao Hu, Shaojie Li, Qing Mei Wang, Xun Luo, Lizhang Chen


While high blood pressure has been linked to cognitive impairment, the relationship between low blood pressure, especially hypotension, and cognitive impairment has not been well studied. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of hypotension and cognitive impairment in the seniors of China, and the association between hypotension and cognitive function impairment.


The data was derived from the 2018 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Systolic blood pressures (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured by objective examination. The Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) was used to evaluate the cognitive impairment of the elderly. Generalized linear models were conducted to evaluate the association of hypotension with cognitive impairment.


The prevalence of hypotension and cognitive impairment in the Chinese elderly were 0.76% and 22.06%, respectively. Participants with hypotension, lower SBP, and lower DBP, had odds ratios of 1.62, 1.38, and 1.48 for cognitive impairment, respectively. Besides, the CMMSE scores decreased by 2.08, 0.86, and 1.08 in the elderly with hypotension, lower SBP, and DBP, compared with those with non-hypotension, higher SBP, and DBP, respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that the association of cognitive impairment with hypotension was stronger in Chinese elderly who had decreased activity of daily living. Moreover, there was statistical evidence of a nonlinear dose-response relationship of SBP and DBP with cognitive impairment (Pnonlinear Conclusion

Hypotension was a potential risk factor for cognitive impairment of the Chinese elderly, especially for those having decreased activity of daily living. Blood pressure management should be conducted to prevent them from cognitive impairment.

Ecological urbanism as a condition underpinning urban life for internally displaced peoples in Colombia

by Paula Andrea Valencia Londoño, Diana Valencia Londoño, Phoenix Storm Paz

This paper employs the concepts of sustainability and habitability to define and measure ecological urbanism in informal settlements founded by people who have been forcibly displaced by violence. The objective is to identify the obstacles in meeting the tenets of ecological urbanism in informal settlements. We offer primary research from La Primavera, an informal settlement founded by internally displaced people in the late 1970s, located in the corregimiento El Hatillo of Barbosa, Antioquia in northwestern Colombia. Primary research includes qualitative and quantitative data gathered through 72 surveys and 45 technical assessments of properties and houses in the settlement. Situated between the Aburrá River and the northbound highway, above a gas pipeline and under an electricity pylon, La Primavera exists in a state of extreme risk, exacerbated by increasing migration which threatens to exceed the carrying capacity of the territory. Moreover, in Article 35 of Law 388 of 1997, the territory was declared a protected or restricted area and earmarked for the development of the regional commuter train, called the Tren de Cercanías, in 2017. The case study highlights the contradictions in the development agenda in Colombia by showing how development projects designed for the economic betterment and environmental conservation of the region negatively impact the quality of life for the most vulnerable inhabitants and expose them to greater environmental, economic, and social risk.

Adaptation and measurement invariance of the 13-item version of Patient Activation Measure across Japanese young adult cancer survivors during and after treatment: A cross-sectional observational study

by Takafumi Soejima, Mari Kitao

The 13-item version of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) is a frequently used measure that gauges the level of self-management in an individual. However, its applicability across Japanese young adult (YA) cancer survivors during and after their treatment remains unclear. This study confirmed the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Japanese version of PAM-13 across them during and after treatment. We used cross-sectional observational data collected through an online survey from 500 survivors in January 2022. We determined feasibility, internal consistency, concurrent validity against physical fatigue and depression, and known-groups validity regarding educational level. Structural validity was also found using Rasch analysis for survivors both during and after treatment. Furthermore, measurement invariance of the PAM-13 was examined using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Rasch fit statistics were acceptable for the unidimensional structure of PAM-13. It was found to be internally consistent for survivors during (McDonald’s omega: 0.88, item-total correlations: 0.48–0.62) and after treatment (McDonald’s omega: 0.90, item-total correlations: 0.32–0.72). The PAM-13 was concurrently valid with physical fatigue (Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients: -0.25 and -0.18 for survivors during and after treatment, respectively) and depression (Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients: -0.20 and -0.19 for survivors during and after treatment, respectively). Known-groups validity showed that survivors after treatment with a higher educational level reported a higher patient activation score than those with a lower educational level (p = 0.001); however, there was no difference due to the education level between survivors during treatment. The configural and metric invariance of the PAM-13 were confirmed, but scalar invariance was rejected. It was found that the PAM-13 is applicable for Japanese YA cancer survivors during and after treatment. However, given the lack of scalar invariance in the PAM-13, the scores of particular items between YA cancer survivors during and after treatment should be interpreted with caution.

Assessment of antibody dynamics and neutralizing activity using serological assay after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination

by Toshihiro Takahashi, Tomohiko Ai, Kaori Saito, Shuko Nojiri, Maika Takahashi, Gene Igawa, Takamasa Yamamoto, Abdullah Khasawneh, Faith Jessica Paran, Satomi Takei, Yuki Horiuchi, Takayuki Kanno, Minoru Tobiume, Makoto Hiki, Mitsuru Wakita, Takashi Miida, Atsushi Okuzawa, Tadaki Suzuki, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Toshio Naito, Yoko Tabe

The COVID-19 antibody test was developed to investigate the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we examined whether S antibody titers measured using the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (S-IgG), a high-throughput test method, reflects the neutralizing capacity acquired after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. To assess the antibody dynamics and neutralizing potency, we utilized a total of 457 serum samples from 253 individuals: 325 samples from 128 COVID-19 patients including 136 samples from 29 severe/critical cases (Group S), 155 samples from 71 mild/moderate cases (Group M), and 132 samples from 132 health care workers (HCWs) who have received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 vaccinations. The authentic virus neutralization assay, the surrogate virus neutralizing antibody test (sVNT), and the Anti-N SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (N-IgG) have been performed along with the S-IgG. The S-IgG correlated well with the neutralizing activity detected by the authentic virus neutralization assay (0.8904. of Spearman’s rho value, p p

EquiPrEP: An implementation science protocol for promoting equitable access and uptake of long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (LAI-PrEP)

by Christina M. Kaul, Brandi E. Moore, Emma Kaplan-Lewis, Eunice Casey, Robert A. Pitts, Patricia Pagan Pirallo, Sahnah Lim, Farzana Kapadia, Gabriel M. Cohen, Maria Khan, Ofole Mgbako


Long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (LAI-PrEP) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 2021. This initial phase of implementation represents a prime opportunity to ensure equitable LAI-PrEP provision to communities often underrepresented in PrEP care before disparities in access and uptake emerge. Herein, we describe the EquiPrEP Project which utilizes an equity-oriented implementation science framework to optimize LAI-PrEP rollout in an urban safety-net clinic in New York City.


The primary objectives of this project are to: (1) increase LAI-PrEP initiation overall; (2) increase uptake among groups disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic; (3) preserve high PrEP retention while expanding use; and (4) identify barriers and facilitators to LAI-PrEP use. EquiPrEP will enroll 210 PrEP-eligible participants into LAI-PrEP care with planned follow-up for one year. We will recruit from the following priority populations: Black and/or Latine men who have sex with men, Black and/or Latine cisgender women, and transgender women and nonbinary individuals. To evaluate implementation of LAI-PrEP, we will utilize equity-focused iterations of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), in addition to longitudinal surveys and qualitative interviews.


Novel LAI-PrEP formulations carry tremendous potential to revolutionize the field of HIV prevention. Implementation strategies rooted in equity are needed to ensure that marginalized populations have access to LAI-PrEP and to address the structural factors that hinder initiation and retention in care.

Efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions targeting social function in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

by Zhili Yu, Peiming Zhang, Chenyang Tao, Liming Lu, Chunzhi Tang

Background and aims

This paper aimed to evaluate the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the management of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The effects of acupuncture and behavioural therapy, two nonpharmalogical interventions, on social function in ASD patients are still controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the impact of these two treatments and compared their effects.


Seven electronic databases were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of acupuncture or behavioural therapy for ASD. A meta-analysis was carried out using Review Manager 5.4 software. Continuous data are reported as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An assessment of methodological quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias (ROB) tool for trials was carried out. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was applied to evaluate the quality (certainty) of evidence for results regarding social function indicators.


Thirty RCTs on acupuncture and 36 on behavioural therapy were included. Compared with the control condition, body acupuncture (SMD: 0.76, 95% CI: [0.52, 1.01]; low certainty), modern acupuncture technology (SMD: 0.84, 95% CI: [0.32, 1.35]; low certainty), cognitive behavioural therapy (SMD: 0.42, 95% CI: [0.26, 0.58]; high certainty), the Denver model (SMD: 0.61, 95% CI: [0.23, 0.99]; moderate certainty) and social skills training (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: [0.41, 0.71]; moderate certainty) improved social functioning.


Behavioural therapies (such as CBT, the Denver model, social skills training), improved the social functioning of patients with ASD in the short and long term, as supported by high- and moderate-quality evidence. Acupuncture (including scalp acupuncture, body acupuncture and use of modern acupuncture technology) also improved social functioning, as supported by low- and very low-quality evidence. More high-quality evidence is needed to confirm the effect of acupoint catgut embedding and Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI).

Effect of suture closure and staple closure on postoperative wound complications in patients undergoing knee replacement surgery: A meta‐analysis


The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine if the application of stitching in the closed area of the knee arthroplasty remains significantly superior to that of the staples. Data sources: EMBASE, Cochrane Libraryand, publications, and the Web of Science. Patients were treated with staples for closure of their wounds, or with conventional stitches for closure of wounds. The main findings were surgical site infection, wound dehiscence, and cutting time. The secondary results were the time to completion, the duration of the hospitalization, and the time to discharge. We incorporated the SIX trial into the meta-analyses with Review Manager V.5.3. The hazard ratio was computed as a therapeutic outcome with respect to the heterogeneity. For more than 50% of heterogeneous samples, we employed a stochastic effect model. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the degree of infection, the degree of dehiscence, the length of the cut and the degree of satisfaction of the wound. But the time to close the wound and the time to operate were significantly different. The time needed to close the wound was shorter than that of the suture (OR, −227. 22; 95% CI, −238. 74, −215. 69 p < 0. 0001); The time taken to replace the knee was also significantly lower among those who had been stapled sutures (OR, −5.46; 95% CI, −10. 43, −0.49 p = 0. 03). Wound closing materials are an afterthought for many orthopaedic surgeons. Together, the findings from a number of comparative studies indicate that the selection of wound closure materials might affect the outcome of the surgery. The evidence, however, is weak because of the heterogeneous approach adopted in earlier research. This study program is intended to provide guidance on how to select the best wound closure material for the purpose of identifying if there is any difference in the incidence of injuries among traditional stitches and staples.

Early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis: Imaging techniques and their combined application


Necrotizing fasciitis is a clinical, surgical emergency characterized by an insidious onset, rapid progression, and a high mortality rate. The disease's mortality rate has remained high for many years, mainly because of its atypical clinical presentation, which prevents many cases from being diagnosed early and accurately, resulting in patients who may die from uncontrollable septic shock and multi-organ failure. But unfortunately, no diagnostic indicator can provide a certain early diagnosis of NF, and clinical judgement of NF is still based on the results of various ancillary tests combined with the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, and the physician's experience. This review provides a brief overview of the epidemiological features of NF and then discusses the most important laboratory indicators and scoring systems currently employed to diagnose NF. Finally, the latest progress of several imaging techniques in the early diagnosis of NF and their combined application with other diagnostic indices are highlighted. We point out promising research directions based on an objective evaluation of the advantages and shortcomings of different methods, which provide a basis for further improving the early diagnosis of NF.

Wound infection in robotic‐assisted radical prostatectomy compared with retropubic radical prostate surgery: A meta‐analysis


A meta-analysis investigation was executed to measure the wound infection (WI) in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RRP) compared with retropubic radical prostate surgery (RRPS). A comprehensive literature investigation till February 2023 was applied, and 1197 interrelated investigations were reviewed. The 19 chosen investigations enclosed 107 153 individuals with prostate cancer (PC) at the starting point. 72 008 of them were utilising RRP, and 35 145 were utilising RRPS. Odds ratio (OR) in addition to 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was utilised to compute the value of the WI in RRP compared with RRPS by the dichotomous approaches and a fixed or random model. RRP had significantly lower surgical site wound infection (SSWI) (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21–0.52, P < .001) and infected lymphoceles (ILs) (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22–0.92, P = .03) compared with RRPS in individuals with PC. RRP had significantly lower SSWI and ILs compared with RRPS in individuals with PC. However, care must be exercised when dealing with its values because of the low sample size of some of the nominated investigations for the meta-analysis.

The effects of scar in psychological disorder: A bibliometric analysis from 2003 to 2022


Scars are fibrous tissues that replace normal tissue during the wound healing process. Scarring can lead to low self-esteem, social impairment, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric and psychological distress, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of the latest perspectives, topical research, and directions in scarring-mental health. This is a biblioshiny and VOSviewer based bibliometric analysis study. All data were obtained from the Web of Science, and a total of 664 articles from 2003 to 2022 met the criteria. The last 7 years have been a period of rapid growth in the field, with 2022 having the highest number of articles. The United States is the core country with the highest production and citation rate. The most cited literature was written in 2003 by Van Loey NE et al. Van Loey NE is the most prolific and influential author in this field. The top five popular keywords include “quality of life”, “depression”, “management”, “anxiety”, and “prevalence”. The paper concludes that the current focus of scholars in the field is on the treatment of scars and that multidisciplinary treatment of such patients is worth exploring. These findings provide relevant researchers with the current state of research and possible future directions in this field.