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Cost-free pharmacotherapy in smokers with TIA or stroke: QUIT-MED randomised controlled trial

Por: Reid · R. · Papadakis · S. · Gocan · S. · Bourgoin · A. · Laplante · M. A. · Armstrong · A. · Aitken · D. · Sahlas · D. · Stotts · G. · Cotie · L. · Mullen · K.-A. · Pipe · A. · Mir · H. · Sharma · M.
Objective

To examine whether cost-free (CF) smoking cessation medication was more effective than a prescription for cessation medication in patients after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke.

Design

Two-site randomised trial.

Setting

Stroke prevention clinics (SPCs) in Ontario, Canada.

Participants

Smokers with TIA or stroke, willing to quit smoking.

Intervention

Smoking status was assessed in SPC attendees. Smokers were advised to quit smoking and received recommendations for cessation medication and counselling. Consenting participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a CF medication group or a prescription-only (Rx) group. CF participants immediately received a 12-week supply of cessation medication. Rx participants were given a prescription for 12 weeks of cessation medication. Follow-up counselling was provided for 26 weeks.

Main outcome

The primary outcome was 40-week continuous abstinence verified using a carbon monoxide breath test at 52-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes included abstinence at intermediate timepoints, medication adherence and serious adverse events.

Results

Hundred and ninety-four participants were randomised and 131 (67.5%) completed the trial. The 40-week continuous abstinence rate at 52-week follow-up was 15.5% in the CF group versus 14.0% in the Rx group (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.51 to 2.53). The 14-week continuous abstinence rate at 26-week follow-up was 18.6% in the CF group versus 16.8% in the Rx group (OR=1.20; 95% CI 0.56 to 2.55). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks was 38.1% in the CF group versus 26.9% in the Rx group (OR=1.76; 95% CI 0.94 to 3.28). Medication adherence was higher in the CF group versus the Rx group (47.4%±41.2% vs 25.5±36.8%, p

Conclusions

Our findings were inconclusive; we failed to meet our recruitment target and the effect size was smaller than anticipated. CF medication improved medication adherence.

Trial registration number

NCT00962988; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier.

Exploring COVID-19 circuit breaker (CB) restrictions at a migrant worker dormitory in Singapore: a case study and nested mixed-method analysis of stress management and mental health

Por: Wong · M. C. P. · Tan · C. S. · Chan · A. Y. · Khaled · N. · Hasan · M. T. · Panchapakesan · C. · Tripathi · S. · Afsana · K. · Lwin · M. O. · Chen · M. I.-C. · Hildon · Z. J.-L.
Introduction

Measures to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak in the migrant worker dormitories in Singapore included lockdown and isolation of residents for prolonged periods. In this paper, we explore efforts to ease tensions and support mental health under these conditions.

Methods

Case study of dormitory residents under lockdown from April to August 2020 comprises a nested mixed-method approach using an online questionnaire (n=175) and semistructured interviews (n=23) of migrant workers sampled from the survey (August to September 2020). Logistic regression models were used to analyse survey data. Semistructured interviews were analysed using applied thematic analysis.

Results

Survey and interview data showed that mental health was largely protected despite initial rising tensions over restrictions during lockdown. Sources of tension negatively affecting low stress responses included job related worries, OR=0.07 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.18, p

Interviewees shared how their adaptive capability played a pivotal protective role alongside social support and solidarity; aided by regular use of messaging applications, which supported mental health, OR=4.81 (95% CI 1.54 to 15.21, p

Conclusion

Tensions are mapped to protective solutions informing guidelines for future outbreak stress management response.

Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, the COVID-19 cohort study of people experiencing homelessness in Toronto, Canada: a study protocol

Por: Richard · L. · Nisenbaum · R. · Liu · M. · McGeer · A. · Mishra · S. · Gingras · A.-C. · Gommerman · J. L. · Sniderman · R. · Pedersen · C. · Spandier · O. · Jenkinson · J. I. R. · Baral · S. · Mejia-Lancheros · C. · Agarwal · A. · Jamal · A. J. · Ostrowski · M. · Dhalla · I. · Stewart
Introduction

Initial reports suggest people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated morbidity and mortality. However, there have been few longitudinal evaluations of the spread and impact of COVID-19 among PEH. This study will estimate the prevalence and incidence of COVID-19 infections in a cohort of PEH followed prospectively in Toronto, Canada. It will also examine associations between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics with COVID-19 infection, adverse health outcomes related to infection and vaccination. Finally, the data will be used to develop and parameterise a mathematical model to characterise SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, and the transmission impact of interventions serving PEH.

Design, methods and analysis

Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win will follow a random sample of PEH from across Toronto (Canada) for 12 months. 736 participants were enrolled between June and September 2021, and will be followed up at 3-month intervals. At each interval, specimens (saliva, capillary blood) will be collected to determine active SARS-CoV-2 infection and serologic evidence of past infection and/or vaccination, and a detailed survey will gather self-reported information, including a detailed housing history. To examine the association between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics on COVID-19-related infection, adverse outcomes, and vaccination, shelter and healthcare administrative data will be linked to participant study data. Healthcare administrative data will also be used to examine long-term (up to 5 years) COVID-19-related outcomes among participants.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from the Unity Health Toronto and University of Toronto Health Sciences Research Ethics Boards (# 20-272). Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win was designed in collaboration with community and service provider partners and people having lived experience of homelessness. Findings will be reported to groups supporting Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, Indigenous and other community partners and service providers, funding bodies, public health agencies and all levels of government to inform policy and public health programs.

Supervisors approaches to the early entrustment of clinical tasks: an observational study in general practice

Objectives

At the very start of medical residency training, entrustment of clinical tasks may be a major challenge, on which current scientific knowledge is scarce. This study therefore aimed to gain insight into the process of supervisors’ decision making underlying the entrustment of clinical tasks at the start of one-on-one supervisor–trainee working relationships.

Setting

This study was performed in a general practice (GP) training department in the Netherlands.

Participants

For this study, we recruited supervisor–trainee pairs who were just about to start the first year of GP residency training. Of 10 eligible supervisor–trainee pairs, 4 participated.

Design

We used a qualitative, social-constructivist research approach. Data from naturalistic non-participant observations and semistructured interviews with supervisors in four GP practices were triangulated and analysed using a thematic analysis approach.

Results

Supervisors’ early entrustment decisions were based on generic trainee qualities such as self-reflexivity, knowing one’s limitations and asking for help in time, rather than on task-specific performance. At the start of residency training, supervisors’ primary concern was to create a safe working and learning environment in which trainees could and would ask for timely supervision while being entrusted with challenging tasks. Supervisors used idiosyncratic entrustment strategies that were influenced by their propensity to trust, previous experiences with trainees, and their perspective on learning and teaching.

Conclusion

Entrustment decisions require high levels of safety for all stakeholders involved. Especially at the beginning of supervisor–trainee relationships, establishing an educational alliance in which entrustment is the subject of ongoing trainee–supervisor conversations is essential to achieve and maintain and optimal balance between trainee learning and patient safety. Additional research may further our understanding of early entrustment decision making and the role of generic trainee qualities in different settings.

Global impact of COVID-19 on surgeons and team members (GlobalCOST): a cross-sectional study

Por: Jaffry · Z. · Raj · S. · Sallam · A. · Lyman · S. · Negida · A. · Yiu · C. F. A. · Sobti · A. · Bua · N. · Field · R. E. · Abdalla · H. · Hammad · R. · Qazi · N. · Singh · B. · Brennan · P. A. · Hussein · A. · Narvani · A. · Jones · A. · Imam · M. A. · The OrthoGlobe Collaborative · Abbas
Objectives

To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the well-being of surgeons and allied health professionals as well as the support provided by their institutions.

Design

This cross-sectional study involved distributing an online survey through medical organisations, social media platforms and collaborators.

Setting

It included all staff based in an operating theatre environment around the world.

Participants

1590 complete responses were received from 54 countries between 15 July and 15 December 2020. The average age of participants was 30–40 years old, 64.9% were men and 32.5% of a white ethnic background. 79.5% were surgeons with the remainder being nurses, assistants, anaesthetists, operating department practitioners or classified other.

Main outcome measures

Participants that had experienced any physical illness, changes in mental health, salary or time with family since the start of the pandemic as well as support available based on published recommendations.

Results

32.0% reported becoming physically ill. This was more likely in those with reduced access to personal protective equipment (OR 4.62; CI 2.82 to 7.56; p

Conclusions

This work has highlighted a need and strategies to improve conditions for the healthcare workforce, ultimately benefiting patient care.

Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported injuries in Nepal: a secondary analysis of the nationally representative cross-sectional STEPS Survey, 2019

Por: Dhimal · M. · Poudyal · A. · Bista · B. · Dahal · S. · Raj Pant · P. · Gyanwali · P.
Objective

This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injuries in the adult population of Nepal.

Design and participants

Secondary analysis of the data from the cross-sectional WHO STEPwise Approach to NCD Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS) Survey Nepal, 2019. A multistage cluster sample of 5593 adults aged 15–69 years who have been the usual residents of the household for at least 6 months. A binary logistic regression model was employed to identify the determinants of injuries.

Setting

Data were derived from the STEPS Survey Nepal, 2019.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The primary outcome was injured person defined as one who had road traffic injuries (RTIs), had other serious unintentional/accidental injury, or had been seriously injured in a violent incident within the past 12 months. The secondary outcome measure was factors associated with injuries.

Results

Over 11% of the 4996 study participants reported any injuries during the past 12 months. About 3.75% of the participants experienced a RTI, 4.71% had experienced unintentional injuries other than RTI, while 5.33% had been injured in violent incidents. Individuals belonging to the middle wealth quintile (crude OR (COR)=2.95, 95% CI 1.27 to 6.84) were associated with increased odds of RTIs. By occupation, homemaker (COR=0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84) was protective against these injuries. Likewise, currently married individuals (COR=3.74, 95% CI 1.37 to 10.17), ever married individuals (COR=3.49, 95% CI 1.08 to 11.25) and individuals not in employment (COR=2.13, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.91) were associated with an increased likelihood of sustaining an intentional injury. Injuries were higher among rural participants.

Conclusions

This study provides the baseline population-based estimates of the prevalence of injuries in Nepal. It describes the mechanisms and risk factors of these injuries. It is hoped that this evidence will serve as a stimulus for future studies to elucidate comprehensive national information about injuries.

Severe COVID-19 outcomes among patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases or transplantation: a population-based matched cohort study

Por: Marozoff · S. · Lu · N. · Loree · J. M. · Xie · H. · Lacaille · D. · Kopec · J. A. · Esdaile · J. · Avina-Zubieta · J. A.
Objectives

To assess the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) and transplant recipients compared with matched general population comparators.

Design

Population-based matched cohort study using administrative health data sets.

Setting

British Columbia, Canada.

Participants

All adults with test-positive SARS-CoV-2 infections. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with ARDs and those with transplantation were matched to SARS-CoV-2-positive general population comparators on age (±5 years), sex, month/year of initial positive SARS-CoV-2 test and health authority.

Outcome measures

COVID-19-related hospitalisations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, invasive ventilation and COVID-19-specific mortality. We performed multivariable conditional logistic regression models adjusting for socioeconomic status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, hypertension, rural address and number of previous COVID-19 PCR tests.

Results

Among 6279 patients with ARDs and 222 transplant recipients, all SARS-CoV-2 test positive, risk of hospitalisation was significantly increased among patients with ARDs (overall ARDs (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.30; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43)); highest within ARDs: adult systemic vasculitides (aOR 2.18; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.05) and transplantation (aOR 10.56; 95% CI 6.88 to 16.22). Odds of ICU admission were significantly increased among patients with ARDs (overall ARDs (aOR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51)); highest within ARDs: ankylosing spondylitis (aOR 2.03; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.50) and transplantation (aOR 8.13; 95% CI 4.76 to 13.91). Odds of invasive ventilation were significantly increased among patients with ARDs (overall ARDs (aOR 1.60; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.01)); highest within ARDs: ankylosing spondylitis (aOR 2.63; 95% CI 1.14 to 6.06) and transplantation (aOR 8.64; 95% CI 3.81 to 19.61). Risk of COVID-19-specific mortality was increased among patients with ARDs (overall ARDs (aOR 1.24; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47)); highest within ARDs: ankylosing spondylitis (aOR 2.15; 95% CI 1.02 to 4.55) and transplantation (aOR 5.48; 95% CI 2.82 to 10.63).

Conclusions

The risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes is increased in certain patient groups with ARDs or transplantation, although the magnitude differs across individual diseases. Strategies to mitigate risk, such as booster vaccination, prompt diagnosis and early intervention with available therapies, should be prioritised in these groups according to risk.

Palliative care interventions for people who use substances during communicable disease outbreaks: a scoping review

Por: Lau · J. · Ding · P. · Lo · S. · Fazelzad · R. · Furlan · A. D. · Isenberg · S. R. · Spithoff · S. · Tedesco · A. · Zimmermann · C. · Buchman · D. Z.
Objectives

When resources are strained during communicable disease outbreaks, novel palliative care interventions may be required to optimally support people who use substances with life-limiting illnesses. Therefore, we asked the question, ‘what is known about communicable disease outbreaks, palliative care and people who use substances?’, such as palliative care interventions that can improve the quality of life of patients with life-limiting illnesses.

Design

We conducted a scoping review that involved comprehensive searches in six bibliographic databases from inception to April 2021 (Medline ALL (Medline and Epub Ahead of Print and In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), Embase Classic+Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, PsycInfo all from the OvidSP platform, Scopus from Elsevier) and grey literature searches. We included English and French records about people ≥18 years old with life-limiting illnesses who use substances during communicable disease outbreaks. We identified, summarised and presented the findings about palliative care interventions in figures, tables and narrative descriptions.

Results

We identified 32 records about palliative care interventions for people who use substances during communicable disease outbreaks. The majority focused on palliative care for people who use substances with AIDS during HIV epidemics (n=27, 84.4%), and approximately half were published in the USA (n=15, 46.9%). Most common substances used were alcohol (n=18, 56.3%), opioids (n=14, 43.8%) and cocaine (n=10, 31.3%). Four groups of palliative care interventions were identified: (1) symptom management (n=20, 62.5%), (2) psychosocial support (n=15, 46.9%), (3) advance care planning (n=8, 25.0%) and (4) healthcare provider training (n=6, 18.8%).

Conclusions

Beyond studies on HIV epidemics, there is limited knowledge about palliative care interventions for people who use substances during communicable disease outbreaks. Research and guidance are needed about how best to provide palliative care to this population with complex needs including in resource-limited countries.

Protocol

Buchman DZ, Ding P, Lo S, et al. Palliative care for people who use substances during communicable disease epidemics and pandemics. BMJ Open 2021; 11: e053124

Incidence and prognosis associated with troponin elevation after cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort study

Por: Clement · A. · Daulasim · A. · Souibri · M. · Nguyen · L. S.
Objective

Cardiac troponin is used as a prognostic biomarker after cardiac surgery. However, numerous confounding elements, such as inflammation, liver and renal function biomarkers, have been associated with troponin variations. Furthermore, several thresholds regarding the definition of myocardial infarction have been suggested. We aimed to confirm the accuracy of troponin, analysed as time-dependent variable, to predict mortality independently from other biomarkers; and to assess the incidence and prognosis of a 10 times upper normal value threshold (troponin10N) used in the current fourth definition of myocardial infarction.

Methods

In a prospective cohort of patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac procedures, we assessed the association between serum levels of troponin, creatinine, bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate and in-hospital mortality. Several models were tested, including time-dependent Cox regression, survival and latent class analyses. Repetitive measurements were accounted for.

Results

We included 3857 patients. In-hospital mortality was 2.8%. Troponin was independently associated with mortality in all models, after adjusting for other biomarkers. Of note, troponin10N was reached in 3830/3857 (99.3%) of patients. Similarly, renal function was independently associated with mortality. Conversely, CRP and liver biomarkers were not associated with mortality, once adjusting for other confounders.

Conclusion

We confirmed that troponin increase was independently associated with mortality after cardiac surgery. This association was independent of inflammatory syndrome and renal and liver failure. Troponin10N was reached in almost all patients, questioning the relevance of this criterion to define postoperative myocardial infarctions after cardiac surgery.

Quality and safety indicators for home care recipients in Australia: development and cross-sectional analyses

Por: Caughey · G. E. · Lang · C. E. · Bray · S. C. E. · Sluggett · J. K. · Whitehead · C. · Visvanathan · R. · Evans · K. · Corlis · M. · Cornell · V. · Barker · A. L. · Wesselingh · S. · Inacio · M. C.
Objectives

To develop and examine the prevalence of quality and safety indicators to monitor care of older Australians receiving home care packages (HCPs), a government-funded aged care programme to support individuals to live at home independently.

Design

Cross-sectional.

Setting

Home care recipients, Australia.

Participants

90 650 older individuals (aged ≥65 years old and ≥50 years old for people of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent) who received a HCP between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2016 nationally were included.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The Registry of Senior Australians developed 15 quality and safety indicators: antipsychotic use, high sedative load, chronic opioid use, antimicrobial use, premature mortality, home medicines reviews, chronic disease management plan, wait-time for HCP, falls, fractures, medication-related adverse events, weight loss/malnutrition, delirium/dementia-related hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) presentations and pressure injuries. Risk adjusted prevalence (%, 95% CI) and geographical area (statistical level 3) variation during 2016 were examined.

Results

In 2016, a total of 102 590 HCP episodes were included for 90 650 individuals, with 66.9% (n=68 598) level 1–2 HCP episodes (ie, for basic care needs) and 33.1% (n=33 992) level 3–4 HCP (ie, higher care needs). The most prevalent indicators included: antibiotic use (52.4%, 95% CI 52.0 to 52.7), chronic disease management plans (38.1%, 95% CI 37.8 to 38.4), high sedative load (29.1%, 95% CI 28.8 to 29.4) and ED presentations (26.4%, 95% CI 25.9 to 26.9). HCP median wait time was 134 days (IQR 41–406). Geographical variation was highest in chronic disease management plans and ED presentations (20.7% of areas outside expected range).

Conclusion

A comprehensive outcome monitoring system to monitor the quality and safety of care and variation for HCP recipients was developed. It provides a pragmatic, efficient and low burden tool to support evidence-based quality and safety improvement initiatives for the aged care sector.

Time intervals from first symptom recognition to pathological diagnosis among patients with oesophageal cancer in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Por: Dessalegn · B. · Getachew · S. · Yirgu · R. · Enqueselassie · F. · Assefa · M. · Addissie · A.
Objective

The aim of this study was to estimate the time intervals from first symptom recognition to pathological diagnosis among patients with oesophageal cancer in Ethiopia.

Methods

Design

A cross-sectional study design was employed.

Settings and participants

Patients with oesophageal cancer aged ≥18 years were included from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (n=338) from February 2019 to August 2020. The participants were selected consecutively from six health facilities that provided cancer care nearly for 90% of patients.

Main outcomes and measurements

The Aarhus statement criteria were applied to classify patient intervals (time from first symptom recognition to presentation) and diagnostic intervals (time from first presentation to diagnosis). Patient and diagnostic intervals >60 and >30 days were considered as delays, respectively. For tumour classification, the American Joint Committee on Cancer was used. Data were analysed using SPSS V.24. Descriptive statistics were applied to describe patients’ characteristics. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to compute prevalence ratios. In all statistical tests, significance was declared at a p value of

Results

The mean (SD) age of the participants was 54.30±12.49 years.

Approximately 78% of study participants had never heard of oesophageal cancer and thought they had gastritis. Dysphagia was the commonly mentioned symptom. About 76% of the cases were diagnosed at advanced stages (III and IV). Median patient interval was 108.5 (60.5–215) days and median diagnostic interval was 77.5 (39–133) days. After adjusting confounders, being single and unawareness of oesophageal cancer had association with consultation delay; cost of transportation and medical consultation had association with diagnostic delay; and patient delay of >2 months had association with late-stage diagnosis.

Conclusion

Patients with oesophageal cancer in Ethiopia had prolonged patient and diagnostic intervals. Increasing awareness of symptoms of oesophageal cancer and shortening time to diagnosis will help to improve the outcome of oesophageal cancer care in Ethiopia.

Using codesign focus groups to develop an online COmmunity suPporting familiEs after Sudden Cardiac Death (COPE-SCD) in the young

Por: Yeates · L. · Gardner · K. · Do · J. · van den Heuvel · L. · Fleming · G. · Semsarian · C. · McEwen · A. · Adlard · L. · Ingles · J.
Objective

To codesign an online support intervention for families after sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young (

Design

Codesign of an SCD family intervention by stakeholder focus groups.

Setting

Families and healthcare professionals with experience in SCD in the young.

Participants

Semistructured online focus groups were held with key stakeholders, that is, family members who had experienced young SCD, healthcare professionals and researchers based in New South Wales, Australia. Guided discussions were used to develop an online support intervention. Thematic analysis of discussions and iterative feedback on draft materials guided content development.

Results

Four focus groups were held (4–6 participants per group, 12 unique participants). Stakeholder involvement facilitated development of high-level ideas and priority issues. Creative content and materials were developed based on user preference for stories, narratives and information reflecting everyday experience of families navigating the legal and medical processes surrounding SCD, normalising and supporting grief responses in the context of family relationships and fostering hope. Emphasis on accessibility led to the overarching need for digital information and online engagement. These insights allowed development of an online intervention—COPE-SCD: A COmmunity suPporting familiEs after Sudden Cardiac Death—which includes a website and online support programme.

Conclusion

Using codesign with stakeholders we have developed a support intervention that addresses the needs of SCD families and aims to fill a large gap in existing healthcare. We will evaluate COPE-SCD to determine whether this is an effective intervention for support of families following a young SCD.

Examining virtual visit use during a pandemic and perspectives of primary care providers, patients and caregivers: a mixed-methods research protocol

Por: Halas · G. · Singer · A. · Katz · A. · Labine · L. · Baldwin · A. · Wong · S. T. · Kirby · S. · Bohm · E. · Abrams · E. · MacKay · K. · Francois · J. · Talpade · S.
Introduction

COVID-19 prompted rapid shifts to virtual primary care; however, the secondary implications and ideal applications of this change require further consideration. Patient and public stakeholder input has been bypassed. To integrate virtual care (VC) in what currently appears to be a lengthier battle against COVID-19 and related sequelae, further investigation is needed to support ideal implementation and use. This study aims to describe factors associated with the use of virtual visits in primary care practices, along with more in-depth description of users’ experiences and perspectives.

Methods and analysis

This study will be conducted in three phases, using a mixed-methods approach and in consultation with community advisors. Phase 1 will analyse data from electronic medical records (EMRs) to characterise the use and users of VC in primary care during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis will be primarily descriptive; regression modelling will assess associations between patient and provider factors with a virtual visit. In phase 2, we will use an EMR-facilitated process to automate the distribution of patient surveys within an estimated 10 clinics. These surveys aim to describe care experiences, transactional use and perspectives of VC. In phase 3, focus groups with patients, caregivers and primary care clinicians will seek more in-depth exploration of VC regarding accessibility of care, acceptability and perceptions of quality care. Interpretive phenomenological analysis will be used for thematic analysis. The framework method will employ a matrix structure to organise the data and to facilitate comparison, integration and further interpretation.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has been approved by the University of Manitoba’s Health Research Ethics Board (HS24197). A co-designed dissemination strategy will include reports and infographics to policymakers and the public, manuscripts and presentations to academic and clinician audiences, and contributions to a learning plan for professional development.

Practices and challenges of community engagement in health research in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

Por: Solomon · K. · Jibat · N. · Bekele · A. · Abdissa · A. · Kaba · M.
Objective

The role of the community in the research process in Ethiopia has not been documented. This study aims to explore the existing practices and challenges of community engagement in health research in Ethiopia.

Design

A qualitative study with a narrative approach was conducted. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, inductively coded and analysed thematically.

Setting

Participants were recruited from members of institutional review boards, academic and research staff of Addis Ababa and Jimma universities, research institutions and key development partners.

Participants

Thirty-six participants were involved in the study. They were purposively selected on the basis of their diverse research experiences and disciplinary profiles with clinical, biomedical and public health representation.

Data collection

Twenty-two key informant interviews were conducted with members of the institutional review board, community representatives in the institutional review board, community engagement officers, and research focal persons of the universities, research intuitions and key development partners. Fourteen participants who were senior PhD students or senior researchers in academic and research institutions were involved in the in-depth interviews.

Results

Despite differences of justification, all participants believed in the importance of the participating research community not only to own the research outcome but also contribute to the research planning, sharing of evidence, managing the research process and dissemination of findings. However, it was argued that lack of guidance, skills and experience on how to engage the community at different levels of the research process and limitation of resources affect community engagement in research.

Conclusion

As an important component of the research process, community engagement facilitates the research process and ensures community ownership of the outcome. Nevertheless, lack of experience and limitation of resources affect operationalisation of community engagement in health research. This calls for building capacity and advocacy to consider community engagement as an integral component of the research process.

How can equitable video visit access be delivered in primary care? A qualitative study among rural primary care teams and patients

Por: Goldstein · K. M. · Perry · K. R. · Lewinski · A. · Walsh · C. · Shepherd-Banigan · M. E. · Bosworth · H. B. · Weidenbacher · H. · Blalock · D. V. · Zullig · L. L.
Objective

The COVID-19 pandemic sparked exponential growth in video visit use in primary care. The rapid shift to virtual from in-person care exacerbated digital access disparities across racial groups and rural populations. Moving forward, it is critical to understand when and how to incorporate video visits equitably into primary care. We sought to develop a novel clinical algorithm to guide primary care clinics on how and when to employ video visits as part of care delivery.

Design

Qualitative data collection: one team member conducted all patient semistructured interviews and led all focus groups with four other team members taking notes during groups.

Setting

3 rural primary care clinics in the USA.

Participants

24 black veterans living in rural areas and three primary care teams caring for black veterans living in rural areas.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Findings from semistructured interviews with patients and focus groups with primary care teams.

Results

Key issues around appropriate use of video visits for clinical teams included having adequate technical support, encouraging engagement during video visits and using video visits for appropriate clinical situations. Patients reported challenges with broadband access, inadequate equipment, concerns about the quality of video care, the importance of visit modality choice, and preferences for in-person care experience over virtual care. We developed an algorithm that requires input from both patients and their care team to assess fit for each clinical encounter.

Conclusions

Informed matching of patients and clinical situations to the right visit modality, along with individual patient technology support could reduce virtual access disparities.

Diabetes among adults in Bangladesh: changes in prevalence and risk factors between two cross-sectional surveys

Por: Chowdhury · M. A. B. · Islam · M. · Rahman · J. · Uddin · M. J. · Haque · M. R.
Objective/research question

To investigate the change in the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes among adults in Bangladesh between 2011 and 2018.

Design

The study used two waves of nationally representative cross-sectional data extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys in 2011 and 2017–2018.

Setting

Bangladesh.

Participants

14 376 adults aged ≥35 years.

Primary outcome

Diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes).

Results

From 2011 to 2018, the diabetes prevalence among adults aged ≥35 years increased from 10.95% (880) to 13.75% (922) (p

Conclusion

A high prevalence of diabetes was observed and it has been steadily increasing over time. To enhance diabetes detection and prevention among adults in Bangladesh, population-level interventions focusing on health education, including a healthy diet and lifestyle, are required.

Models of comprehensive care for older persons with chronic diseases: a systematic review with a focus on effectiveness

Introduction

Ageing entails a variety of physiological changes that increase the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these diseases leads to an increase in the use of health services. The care models implemented by health systems should provide comprehensive long-term healthcare. We conducted this systematic review to determine whether any model of care for older persons have proven to be effective.

Methods

A systematic review of literature was carried out to identify randomised clinical trials that have assessed how effective a care model for older patients with chronic diseases. A searches electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Turning Research Into Practice Database, Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of controlled Trials was conducted from January 1966 to January 2021. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of the studies. Interventions were identified and classified according to the taxonomies developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care and Cochrane Consumers and Communication groups.

Results

Of the 4952 bibliographic references that were screened, 577 were potentially eligible and the final sample included 25 studies that evaluated healthcare models in older people with chronic diseases. In the 25 care models, the most frequently implemented interventions were educational, and those based on the provision of healthcare. Only 22% of the outcomes of interventions were identified as being effective, whereas 21% were identified as being partially effective; thus, more than 50% of the outcomes were identified as being ineffective.

Conclusions

It was not possible to determine a care model as effective. The interventions implemented in the models are variable. The most effective outcomes were focused on improving the patient–healthcare professional relationship in the early stages of the intervention. The interventions addressed in the studies were similar to public health interventions as their main objectives focused on promoting health. Most studies were of low methodological quality.

Live well, die well - an international cohort study on experiences, concerns and preferences of patients in the last phase of life: the research protocol of the iLIVE study

Por: Yildiz · B. · Allan · S. · Bakan · M. · Barnestein-Fonseca · P. · Berger · M. · Boughey · M. · Christen · A. · De Simone · G. G. · Egloff · M. · Ellershaw · J. · Elsten · E. E. C. M. · Eychmüller · S. · Fischer · C. · Fürst · C. J. · Geijteman · E. C. T. · Goldraij · G. · Goossense
Introduction

Adequately addressing the needs of patients at the end of life and their relatives is pivotal in preventing unnecessary suffering and optimising their quality of life. The purpose of the iLIVE study is to contribute to high-quality personalised care at the end of life in different countries and cultures, by investigating the experiences, concerns, preferences and use of care of terminally ill patients and their families.

Methods and analysis

The iLIVE study is an international cohort study in which patients with an estimated life expectancy of 6 months or less are followed up until they die. In total, 2200 patients will be included in 11 countries, that is, 200 per country. In addition, one relative per patient is invited to participate. All participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire, at baseline and after 4 weeks. If a patient dies within 6 months of follow-up, the relative will be asked to fill in a post-bereavement questionnaire. Healthcare use in the last week of life will be evaluated as well; healthcare staff who attended the patient will be asked to fill in a brief questionnaire to evaluate the care that was provided. Qualitative interviews will be conducted with patients, relatives and healthcare professionals in all countries to gain more in-depth insights.

Ethics and dissemination

The cohort study has been approved by ethics committees and the institutional review boards (IRBs) of participating institutes in all countries. Results will be disseminated through the project website, publications in scientific journals and at conferences. Within the project, there will be a working group focusing on enhancing the engagement of the community at large with the reality of death and dying.

Trial registration number

NCT04271085.

Prognostic associations of ECG tracings in hospitalised patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

Por: Interior · J. S. · Garcia · J. G. · Yu · G. S. G. · Regencia · Z. J. G. · Baja · E. S. · Ligsay · A. D. · Gerodias · F. R.
Introduction

COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Although most COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic or mild, a significant number of patients experienced adverse outcomes. In addition, studies have shown that cardiac abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. This finding sets a precedent for the potential use of ECG tracing as an indicator of patient mortality and morbidity. This study aims to determine associations between the 12-lead ECG findings and various clinical outcomes of hospitalised patients with COVID-19, measured as incidence of endotracheal intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate.

Methods and analysis

An electronic literature search will identify all potentially relevant articles using specific databases and websites. The search will be limited to studies published from December 2019 to May 2021. In addition, studies will include hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with normal and abnormal 12-lead ECG findings assessed for clinical outcomes, including the incidence of endotracheal intubation, ICU admission and mortality rate. The risk of bias in individual studies will be evaluated using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool or the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis will be conducted if at least two studies indicate a prognostic factor’s effect. Moreover, subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be performed accordingly to address heterogeneity. Reporting the review results will comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The quality of evidence generated will be assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has been exempted from ethics review. There will be no patient or public involvement in this study. Furthermore, the findings will be disseminated via conferences, seminars, symposia and congresses on top of peer-reviewed journals.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42021257155.

Decision aids for home and community care: a systematic review

Por: Lognon · T. · Plourde · K. V. · Aubin · E. · Giguere · A. M. C. · Archambault · P. M. · Stacey · D. · Legare · F.
Objectives

Decision aids (DAs) for clients in home and community care can support shared decision-making (SDM) with patients, healthcare teams and informal caregivers. We aimed to identify DAs developed for home and community care, verify their adherence to international DA criteria and explore the involvement of interprofessional teams in their development and use.

Design

Systematic review reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

Data sources

Six electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library) from inception to November 2019, social media and grey literature websites up to January 2021.

Eligibility criteria

DAs designed for home and community care settings or including home care or community services as options.

Data extraction and synthesis

Two reviewers independently reviewed citations. Analysis consisted of a narrative synthesis of outcomes and a thematic analysis. DAs were appraised using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS). We collected information on the involvement of interprofessional teams, including nurses, in their development and use.

Results

After reviewing 10 337 database citations and 924 grey literature citations, we extracted characteristics of 33 included DAs. DAs addressed a variety of decision points. Nearly half (42%) were relevant to older adults. Several DAs did not meet IPDAS criteria. Involvement of nurses and interprofessional teams in the development and use of DAs was minimal (33.3% of DAs).

Conclusion

DAs concerned a variety of decisions, especially those related to older people. This reflects the complexity of decisions and need for better support in this sector. There is little evidence about the involvement of interprofessional teams in the development and use of DAs in home and community care settings. An interprofessional approach to designing DAs for home care could facilitate SDM with people being cared for by teams.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42020169450.

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