The study spotlights a severe uncommon post-burn complication, Marjolin's ulcer, in upper Egypt plastic and wound care centres. This problem is mainly related to inadequate medical care and awareness. No community or race is immune. The underlying malignant transformation mechanism remains unclear. The study aims, according to our experience, to review the prognostic factors through the management protocol of Marjolin's ulcers. This prospective study was conducted in the Aswan University Plastic & Burn surgery department in South Egypt between 2013 and 2020 and investigated 226 patients with chronic post-burn ulceration. Nineteen cases were proved to have Marjolin's ulcer, and the other cases that had been excluded from being malignant went for reconstruction with split-thickness skin graft with/without flap after adequate ulcer debridement. The surgical, oncologic, radiologic indications, and prognostic factors were reviewed according to our management outcome—the assessment with follow-up period extended over 5 years. Histopathology of ulcers ranged among mild, moderate, and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. One scalp ulcer case showed basosquamous pathology. Most cases presented at age above 50, but no age was immune. The mean latent period was 29 years on average. The lesions' sites varied in their anatomic location where they involved the upper extremity, the scalp, and the lower extremity that had a predilection. Although surgical excision is the primary management line for tumour ablation, other factors may change the management course. During the follow-up period, neoplasm recurrence in the form of lymph node enlargement and/or locoregional metastasis was detected in eight cases. Within 1 year after the intervention, six recurrent cases died, and two were saved. In addition to the case study, this paper reviewed the literature and provided our team a good experience in light of the NCCN protocol for non-melanotic cutaneous carcinoma, although we suffered limited medical resources. It is concluded that early accurate diagnosis, low-grade malignancy, and well-planned individualised surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy were the best prognostic factors. The close follow-up for an early sign of disease recurrence is paramount.
To characterise the clinical course of delirium for patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, including postdischarge neuropsychological outcomes.
Retrospective chart review and prospective survey study.
Intensive care units, large academic tertiary-care centre (USA).
Patients (n=148) with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit at Michigan Medicine between 1 March 2020 and 31 May 2020 were eligible for inclusion.
Delirium was the primary outcome, assessed via validated chart review method. Secondary outcomes included measures related to delirium, such as delirium duration, antipsychotic use, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, inflammatory markers and final disposition. Neuroimaging data were also collected. Finally, a telephone survey was conducted between 1 and 2 months after discharge to determine neuropsychological function via the following tests: Family Confusion Assessment Method, Short Blessed Test, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Cognitive Abilities 4a and Patient-Health Questionnaire-9.
Delirium was identified in 108/148 (73%) patients, with median (IQR) duration lasting 10 (4–17) days. In the delirium cohort, 50% (54/108) of patients were African American and delirious patients were more likely to be female (76/108, 70%) (absolute standardised differences >0.30). Sedation regimens, inflammation, delirium prevention protocol deviations and hypoxic-ischaemic injury were likely contributing factors, and the most common disposition for delirious patients was a skilled care facility (41/108, 38%). Among patients who were delirious during hospitalisation, 4/17 (24%) later screened positive for delirium at home based on caretaker assessment, 5/22 (23%) demonstrated signs of questionable cognitive impairment or cognitive impairment consistent with dementia and 3/25 (12%) screened positive for depression within 2 months after discharge.
Patients with COVID-19 commonly experience a prolonged course of delirium in the intensive care unit, likely with multiple contributing factors. Furthermore, neuropsychological impairment may persist after discharge.
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under 5 specifically in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Hypoxaemia is a life-threatening complication among children under 5 with pneumonia. Hypoxaemia increases risk of mortality by 4.3 times in children with pneumonia than those without hypoxaemia. Prevalence of hypoxaemia varies with geography, altitude and severity (9%–39% Asia, 3%–10% African countries). In this protocol paper, we describe research methods for assessing impact of Lady Health Workers (LHWs) identifying hypoxaemia in children with signs of pneumonia during household visits on acceptance of hospital referral in district Jamshoro, Sindh.
A cluster randomised controlled trial using pulse oximetry as intervention for children with severe pneumonia will be conducted in community settings. Children aged 0–59 months with signs of severe pneumonia will be recruited by LHWs during routine visits in both intervention and control arms after consent. Severe pneumonia will be defined as fast breathing and/or chest in-drawing, and, one or more danger sign and/or hypoxaemia (Sa02
Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Review Committee of the Aga Khan University (4722-Ped-ERC-17), Karachi. Study results will be shared with relevant government and non-governmental organisations, presented at national and international research conferences and published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.
by Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Saddaf Naaz Akhtar, Rania Ali Albsoul, Muhammad Ahmed AlshyyabIntroduction
Armed conflicts result in greater vulnerability and socioeconomic inequality of populations besides risking their health and well-being. Conflict intensifies the health needs and risks the life and well-being of individuals at large through displacement. Therefore, our study aims to apprise the interventions to which children under-five living in Jordan are especially at risk for acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, and fever in the conflict circumstances.Materials and methods
Secondary data analysis is used in the present study. We used a weighted sample of around 9650 children from Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS), 2017–18. Bivariate analysis including prevalence rates were used to examine the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics of children. The study has also used multinomial logistic regression model, in order to evaluate the variations in the probability of nationality of under-five children living in Jordan.Results
“Syrian nationalist” children have a higher relative risk of ARI (RRR = 1.19, [1.08, 1.32]), and “Other-nationalist” children have two times greater risk of ARI compared to “Jordanian children.” The relative risk of diarrhea is lower among “Syrian nationalist” and “Other-nationalist” children compared to “Jordanian children.” Children belong “Other-nationalist” are found to be less relative risk of fever (RRR = 0.9, [0.80, 1.01]) than “Jordanian children.”Conclusions
Our study concludes that conflict-driven displacement has an immediate effect on child health through access, availability, and affordability of health care services, resulting in more significant health care risks. However, sufficient investment is required to address such adversities that affect the health care system due to uneven demand as experienced by the Jordanian health care system. Thus, collaborative efforts through global partners can play a significant role in the countries facing the challenges of managing these health care emergencies.
by Ismael Ahmed, Meaza Demissie, Alemayehu Worku, Salem Gugsa, Yemane BerhaneIntroduction
There have been tremendous achievements in scaling-up antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), following universal “test and treat” policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries. However, its effects on virologic outcomes is not yet well investigated. We compared low viral load status in people living with HIV between those who were initiated on ART on the same-day and after 7 days of being diagnosed with HIV infection.Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of persons age ≥15 years-old who were newly diagnosed and started on ART between October 2016 and July 2018 at 11 public health facilities in northwest Ethiopia. Exposure was initiation of ART on the same-day of HIV diagnosis. The outcome was low viral load at 12-months following ART initiation. We used double-robust estimator using inverse-probability-weighted regression adjustment to compare the groups.Results
A total of 398 people who started ART on the same-day of HIV diagnosis and 479 people who started 7 days after the initial diagnosis were included in this study. By 12-months following ART initiation, 73.4% (292) in the same-day group vs 83.7% (401) in the >7 days group achieved low viral load (absolute difference = 10.3% (95% CI: 4.9%, 15.8%)). After adjusting for baseline and follow-up covariates, there was statistically significant difference in low viral load status (adjusted difference = 8.3% (95% CI: 3.5%, 13.0%)) between the same-day group and the >7 days group.Conclusions
Achievement of low viral load by 12-months post-initiation of ART was not optimal among participants who started ART on the same-day of HIV diagnosis. Efforts should be made to reinforce treatment adherence while initiating same-day ART.
To explore healthcare provider’s perspectives and experiences of the barriers and facilitators to treat and manage COVID-19 cases.
We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using a purposive sampling approach, at a private tertiary care teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Study data were analysed manually using the conventional content analysis technique.
Key-informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with senior management and hospital leadership and in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with front-line healthcare providers.
A total of 31 interviews (KIIs=19; IDIs=12) were conducted, between April and May 2020. Three overarching themes emerged. The first was ‘challenges faced by front-line healthcare providers working in COVID-19 wards. Healthcare workers experienced increased anxiety due to the fear of acquiring infection and transmitting it to their family members. They felt overwhelmed due to the exhaustive donning and doffing process, intense work and stigmatisation. The second theme was ‘enablers supporting healthcare providers to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic’. Front liners pointed out several enabling factors that supported hospital staff including a safe hospital environment, adequate training, a strong system of information sharing and supportive management. The third theme was ‘recommendations to support the healthcare workforce during the COVID-19 crisis’. Healthcare workers recommended measures to mitigate current challenges including providing risk allowance to front-line healthcare providers, preparing a backup health workforce, and establishing a platform to address the mental health needs of the healthcare providers.
This study provides an initial evidence base of healthcare providers’ experiences of managing patients with COVID-19 in the early stage of the pandemic and highlights measures needed to address the encountered challenges. It offers lessons for hospitals in low-income and middle-income countries to ensure a safe working environment for front-line workers in their fight against COVID-19.
To critically evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Midwifery Initiated Oral Health-Dental Service (MIOH-DS) designed to improve oral health of pregnant Australian women. Previous efficacy and process evaluations of MIOH-DS showed positive outcomes and improvements across various measures.
The evaluation used a cost-utility model based on the initial study design of the MIOH-DS trial in Sydney, Australia from the perspective of public healthcare provider for a duration of 3 months to 4 years.
Data were sourced from pregnant women (n=638), midwives (n=17) and dentists (n=3) involved in the MIOH trial and long-term follow-up.
Data included in analysis were the cost of the time required by midwives and dentists to deliver the intervention and the cost of dental treatment provided. Costs were measured using data on utilisation and unit price of intervention components and obtained from a micro-costing approach.
Utility was measured as the number of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from health-benefit components of the intervention. Three cost-effectiveness analyses were undertaken using different comparators, thresholds and time scenarios.
Compared with current practice, midwives only intervention meets the Australian threshold (A$50 000) of being cost-effective. The midwives and accessible/affordable dentists joint intervention was only ‘cost-effective’ in 6 months or beyond scenarios. When the midwife only intervention is the comparator, the midwife/dentist programme was ‘cost-effective’ in all scenarios except at 3 months scenario.
The midwives’ only intervention providing oral health education, assessment and referral to existing dental services was cost-effective, and represents a low cost intervention. Midwives’ and dentists’ combined interventions were cost-effective when the benefits were considered over longer periods. The findings highlight short and long term economic benefits of the programme and support the need for policymakers to consider adding an oral health component into antenatal care Australia wide.
by Md. Ashrafur Rahman, Yeasna Shanjana, Md. Ismail Tushar, Tarif Mahmud, Ghazi Muhammad Sayedur Rahman, Zahid Hossain Milan, Tamanna Sultana, Ali Mohammed Lutful Hoq Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan, Md. Rabiul Islam, Hasan Mahmud RezaBackground
The hematological abnormalities are assumed to be involved in the disease progression of COVID-19. However, the actual associations between specific blood parameters and COVID-19 are not well understood. Here we aimed to assess the correlations between hematological parameters and the severity of COVID-19.Methods
We included COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Evercare Hospital Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between November 10, 2020, to April 12, 2021, with a confirmed case of RT-PCR test. We recorded demographic information, clinical data, and routine hematological examination results of all COVID-19 patients. We performed statistical analyses and interpretation of data to compare severe COVID-19 patients (SCP) and non-severe COVID-19 patients (NSCP).Results
The age and BMI of the admitted COVID-19 patients were 48.79±8.53 years and 25.82±3.75 kg/m2. This study included a total of 306 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Among them, NSCP and SCP were 198 and 108, respectively. And we recorded 12 deaths from SCP. We observed the alterations of several hematological parameters between SCP and NSCP. Among them, we noticed the increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, and ferritin showed good indicative value to evaluate the severity of COVID-19. Also, there were positive correlations among these parameters. Moreover, we found correlations between the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with patient’s demographics and comorbid diseases.Conclusion
Based on our results, CRP, d-dimer, and ferritin levels at admission to hospitals represent simple assessment factors for COVID-19 severity and the treatment decisions at the hospital setup. These blood parameters could serve as indicators for the prognosis and severity of COVID-19. Therefore, our study findings might help to develop a treatment protocol for COVID-19 patients at the hospital setup.
An umbrella review summarising all safety data from systematic reviews of topical corticosteroids (TCS) in adults and children with atopic eczema.
Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology map of eczema systematic reviews were searched until 7 November 2018 and Epistemonikos until 2 March 2021. Reviews were included if they assessed the safety of TCS in atopic eczema and searched
38 systematic reviews included, 34 low/critically low quality. Treatment and follow-up were usually short (2–4 weeks).
TCS versus emollient/vehicle: No meta-analyses identified for skin-thinning. Two 2-week randomised controlled trials (RCTs) found no significant increased risk with very potent TCS (0/196 TCS vs 0/33 vehicle in children and 6/109 TCS vs 2/50 vehicle, age unknown). Biochemical adrenal suppression (cortisol) was 3.8% (95% CI 2.4% to 5.8%) in a meta-analysis of 11 uncontrolled observational studies (any potency TCS, 522 children). Effects reversed when treatment ceased.
TCS versus topical calcineurin inhibitors: Meta-analysis showed higher relative risk of skin thinning with TCS (4.86, 95% CI 1.06 to 22.28, n=4128, four RCTs, including one 5-year RCT). Eight cases in 2068 participants, 7 using potent TCS. No evidence of growth suppression.
Once daily versus more frequent TCS: No meta-analyses identified. No skin-thinning in one RCT (3 weeks potent TCS, n=94) or biochemical adrenal suppression in two RCTs (up to 2 weeks very potent/moderate TCS, n=129).
TCS twice/week to prevent flares (‘weekend therapy’) versus vehicle: No meta-analyses identified. No evidence of skin thinning in five RCTs. One RCT found biochemical adrenal suppression (2/44 children, potent TCS).
We found no evidence of harm when TCS were used intermittently ‘as required’ to treat flares or ‘weekend therapy’ to prevent flares. However, long-term safety data were limited.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and nurse–nurse collaboration among registered nurses in Jordan.
This study used a cross-sectional, quantitative survey design to query 342 nurses who worked in two hospitals in Jordan.
We used Arabic versions of valid, reliable instruments to measure emotional intelligence and nurse–nurse communication.
A total of 311 questionnaires were returned (91% response rate). Nurses’ emotional intelligence was positively and significantly correlated with the nurse–nurse collaboration subscales. The results also indicated a statistically significant mean difference in communication subscale scores by gender and nursing unit.
The present study demonstrated that nurse–nurse collaboration is linked to benefits for nurses in terms of improved job satisfaction, better nurse retention, improved quality of patient care, and enhanced healthcare efficiency and productivity. This suggests that improving nurse–nurse collaboration may have spillover effects of benefits, not only for nurses but for patients, organizations, and the overall healthcare system.
Building an environment that encourages collaboration among nurses can greatly impact the performance of nurses and its benefit to nurses. Encouraging employees to participate in activities and to collaborate in making this an integral part of their evaluation will contribute to improving the teamwork in patient care.
by Romedan Delil, Beakal Zinab, Hassen Mosa, Ritbano Ahmed, Habtamu HassenBackground
Dietary diversity has continued to receive a global attention among pregnant women as they have been considered susceptible to malnutrition because of their increased nutrient demands. Thus, a variety of foodstuffs in their diet are necessary for ensuring the appropriateness of their nutrient consumptions. This study, therefore assessed the dietary diversity practice and its determinants among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Wachemo University Nigist Eleni Mohammed memorial referral hospital, Southern Ethiopia.Methods
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 303 participants from May 1 to June 15, 2019 using a systematic random sampling technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS (version24.0). Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to decide the association of each explanatory variable with the outcome variable. Odds ratio with their 95% confidence intervals was calculated to identify the presence and strength of association, and statistical significance was declared at p Results
The overall prevalence of adequate dietary diversity practices was observed to be 42.6%. The determinants of dietary diversity practice included earning of a monthly income ≥2000 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 1.62; 95%CI:1.19–2.85), maternal educational level (AOR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.05–6.12), educational status of partner (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI:1.20, 9.57), having a partner who was a government employee (AOR = 4; 95% CI:2.18–7.21), and the receiving of nutritional information (AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 3.39–6.94).Conclusions
The study indicated that the overall consumption of adequate dietary diversity practice was found to be low. Therefore, increasing household income, enhancing nutritional related information, advancing the academic level of both wife and her partner is essential to improve women’s dietary diversity practice.
Chronic exudative wounds are frequently seen in hospitalised patients, consuming hospital resources and leading to increased morbidity. Negative-pressure therapy (NPWT) with topical instillation “NPWTi” may be used to improve the wound healing process, with the unique features (removal of wound exudate, edema reduction, promotion of tissue perfusion and granulation tissue formation, as well as drawing the edges of the wound to facilitate, in addition to the cyclic cleansing mechanism). This report is a descriptive study of our experience with NPWTi on complex infected orthopaedic wounds as a potential method to decrease the need for multiple surgical debridements required for the closure of such wounds. A prospective observational study was conducted. Twenty patients with complex infected orthopaedic wounds were enrolled in our study. These patients were consulted by the Bone and Joint Infection Service and enrolled to receive NPWTi intraoperatively and to be used during their inpatient stay. Twenty patients with 20 complex infected lower limb wounds were included in our study. Of all the 20 wounds, the etiology was post-surgical in 80% (n = 16) and post-traumatic in 20% (n = 4). None of the patients received previous treatment with conventional NPWT before participation in the study. There were 11 males (55%) and 9 females (45%) with an average age of 57 years (22-83). All wounds were located in the lower limbs, with 25% leg (n = 5), 20% thigh (n = 4), 20% knee (n = 4), 20% foot (n = 4), 10% heel (n = 2), and 5% ankle (n = 1). The average length of treatment with NPWTi was 5.2 days (2-10). Successful wound closure within 6 weeks was achieved in 65% of the cases (n = 13). Of the closed wounds (n = 13), 54% (n = 7) were closed primarily and 46% (n = 6) were closed by secondary procedures (skin graft or skin flap). NPWTi is still considered a novel technique that can be used in the management of complex wounds, and the goal of this prospective study is to report our experience with NPWTi in the management of complex infected orthopaedic lower limb wounds. Randomised control studies with optimally matched wounds comparing NPWTi to the conventional methods of treatment are warranted.
Malnutrition remains a major problem among adolescents worldwide, but the types of nutritional problem impacting this group are changing significantly. This study aims to describe and analyse the trends in nutritional status and related epidemiological characteristics of 10 to 19 years old adolescent girls over time (2001 to 2018) in Bangladesh.
We extracted data from the Diarrhoeal Disease- Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh. We performed 2 test for trend to test for statistical significance of the changing trends of undernutrition and overnutrition among the study participants. Multivariable logistic regression model was fit to measure the strength of association, reported as adjusted OR (aOR) and corresponding 95% CIs.
A total of 1224 and 628 adolescent females attended urban and rural treatment facilities, respectively, between 2001 and 2018. The proportion of stunting and thinness decreased substantially, whereas overweight has been observed to increase (1.7% to 7.4%, p
Undernutrition in adolescent girls has decreased with time, but the burden of overweight has increased. Higher literacy and better wealth status were found to be associated with the improved nutritional status of the participants.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are pandemic diseases that lead to a great deal of morbidity and mortality. The most effective treatment for obesity and T2DM is bariatric or metabolic surgery; it can lead to long-term diabetes remission with 4 in 10 of those undergoing surgery having normal blood glucose on no medication 1 year postoperatively. However, surgery carries risks and, additionally, due to resource limitations, there is a restricted number of patients who can access this treatment. Moreover, not all those who undertake surgery respond equally well metabolically. The objective of the current research is to prospectively investigate predictors of T2DM response following metabolic surgery, including those directly involved in its aetiopathogenesis such as fat distribution and genetic variants. This will inform development of a clinically applicable model to help prioritise this therapy to those predicted to have remission.
A prospective multicentre observational cohort study of adult patients with T2DM and obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients will be comprehensively assessed before surgery to determine their clinical, metabolic, psychological, genetic and fat distribution profiles. A multivariate logistic regression model will be used to assess the value of the factors derived from the preoperative assessment in terms of prediction of diabetes remission.
Formal ethics review was undertaken with a favourable opinion (UK HRA RES reference number 18/LO/0931). The dissemination plan is to present the results at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals as well as to lay media and to patient organisations.
ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03842475.
To explore the prevalence and determinants of calendar literacy and last menstrual period (LMP) recall among women in Bangladesh.
Two rural subdistricts and one urban area from three Northern districts of Bangladesh.
We interviewed 2731 women who had a live birth in the last 1 year.
The primary outcome variable was LMP recall and the secondary outcome was calendar literacy.
The majority of participants (65%) correctly mentioned the current date according to the English calendar while 12% mentioned according to the Bengali calendar. During the interview sessions, we used three different calendars: Bengali, English and Hijri to assess calendar literacy. We asked women to mark the current date using the calendar on the day of the interview. Almost 61% women marked the English calendar, 16% marked the Bengali calendar and 4% marked the Hijri calendar correctly. Sixty-three per cent women were found as calendar literate who marked any of the calendars. Among the participants, 58% had calendars available at their home and only 10% of women used calendars to track their LMPs. Overall, 53% women were able to recall their recent LMP. Among the calendar literate, 60% could recall their LMPs. Factors found associated with recalling LMP were: completed eight or more years of schooling (adj.OR 1.39), primigravida (adj.OR 1.88), the richest wealth quintile (adj.OR 1.55) and calendar literacy (adj.OR 1.59).
Despite having reasonable calendar literacy and availability, the use of calendars for tracking LMP found very low. Calendar literacy and sociodemographic characteristics were found as the key factors associated with LMP recall. Maternal, neonatal and child health programmes in low-resource settings can promote a simple tool like calendar and target the communities where ultrasound is not available to ensure accurate LMP recall for early pregnancy registration and timely antenatal care coverage.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent and to identify the determinants of food insecurity and coping strategies in urban and rural households of Bangladesh during the month-long, COVID-19 lockdown period.
Selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.
106 urban and 106 rural households.
Household food insecurity status and the types of coping strategies were the outcome variables for the analyses. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were done to identify the determinants.
We found that around 90% of the households were suffering from different grades of food insecurity. Severe food insecurity was higher in urban (42%) than rural (15%) households. The rural households with mild/moderate food insecurity adopted either financial (27%) or both financial and food compromised (32%) coping strategies, but 61% of urban mild/moderate food insecure households applied both forms of coping strategies. Similarly, nearly 90% of severely food insecure households implemented both types of coping strategies. Living in poorest households was significantly associated (p value
Both urban and rural households suffered from moderate to severe food insecurity during the month-long lockdown period in Bangladesh. But, poorest, poorer and even the richer households adopted different coping strategies that might result in long-term economic and nutritional consequences.
The aim of this systematic review is to examine the use of telemedicine in the delivery and teaching of gynaecological clinical practice. To our knowledge, no other systematic review has assessed this broad topic.
Systematic review of all studies investigating the use of telemedicine in the provision of gynaecological care and education. The search for eligible studies followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and focused on three online databases: PubMed, Science Direct and SciFinder.
Only studies within gynaecology were considered for this review. Studies covering only obstetrics and with minimal information on gynaecology, or clinical medicine in general were excluded. All English language, peer-reviewed human studies were included. Relevant studies published up to the date of final submission of this review were considered with no restrictions to the publication year.
Data extracted included author details, year of publication and country of the study, study aim, sample size, methodology, sample characteristics, outcome measures and a summary of findings. Data extraction and qualitative assessment were performed by the first author and crossed checked by the second author. Quality assessment for each study was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.
A literature search carried out in August 2020 yielded 313 records published between 1992 and 2018. Following a rigorous selection process, only 39 studies were included for this review published between 2000 and 2018. Of these, 19 assessed gynaecological clinical practice, eight assessed gynaecological education, one both, and 11 investigated the feasibility of telemedicine within gynaecological practice. 19 studies were classified as good, 12 fair and eight poor using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Telecolposcopy and abortion care were two areas where telemedicine was found to be effective in potentially speeding up diagnosis as well as providing patients with a wide range of management options. Studies focusing on education demonstrated that telementoring could improve teaching in a range of scenarios such as live surgery and international teleconferencing.
The results of this review are promising and demonstrate that telemedicine has a role to play in improving clinical effectiveness and education within gynaecology. Its applications have been shown to be safe and effective in providing remote care and training. In the future, randomised controlled studies involving larger numbers of patients and operators with measurable outcomes are required in order to be able to draw reliable conclusions.
Diabetes Intervention Accentuating Diet and Enhancing Metabolism-I (DIADEM-I) is the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region testing the effectiveness of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss and diabetes remission. We report on the recruitment process and baseline characteristics of the DIADEM-I cohort based on origin (Middle East vs North Africa), and waist circumference.
DIADEM-I is an open-label randomised, controlled, parallel group RCT recruiting young individuals (18–50 years) with early type 2 diabetes (≤3 years since diagnosis) originating from MENA. Individuals from primary care were randomised to usual medical care or ILI (total dietary replacement phase using meal replacement products, followed by staged food reintroduction and physical activity support). The primary outcome is weight loss at 12 months. Other outcomes are glycaemic control and diabetes remission.
Primary care, Qatar.
147 (73% men) randomised within DIADEM-I who were included in the final trial data analysis.
Recruitment metrics, and baseline clinical and metabolic characteristics.
Of 1498 people prescreened, 267 (18%) were invited for screening and 209 (78%) consented. 173 (83%) were eligible. 15 (7%) withdrew before randomisation and the remaining 158 were randomised. Mean age was 42.1 (SD 5.6) years and mean body mass index was: 36.3 (5.5) kg/m2 (women) and 34.4 (5.4) kg/m2 (men). Mean diabetes duration was 1.8 (1.0) years and mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 7.0% (1.30) (52.5 mmol/mol (SD 14.3)). Participants originated from 13 countries. Those from North Africa reported greater physical activity and had lower family history of diabetes. 90% of subjects were taking diabetes medications and 31% antihypertensives. Those with greater waist circumference had significantly higher insulin resistance and lower quality of life.
Recruitment of participants originating from the MENA region into the RCT was successful, and study participation was readily accepted. While DIADEM-I participants originated from 13 countries, there were few baseline differences amongst participants from Middle East versus North Africa, supporting generalisability of RCT results.
Disparities in health outcomes and access to maternal neonatal and child health (MNCH) are apparent among urban poor compared with national, rural or urban averages. A fundamental first step in addressing inequities in MNCH services is knowing what services exist in urban areas, where these are located, who provides them and who uses them. This study aims to institutionalise the Urban Health Atlas (UHA)—a novel information and communications technology (ICT) tool—to strengthen health service delivery and oversight and generate critical evidence to inform health policy and planning in urban Bangladesh.
This mixed-method implementation research will be conducted in four purposively selected urban sites representing larger and smaller cities. Research activities will include an assessment of information needs and task review analysis of information users, stakeholder mapping and cost estimation. To document stakeholder perceptions and experiences, key informant interviews and in-depth interviews will be conducted along with desk reviews to understand MNCH planning and referral decisions. The UHA will be refined to increase responsiveness to user needs and capacities, and hands-on training will be provided to health managers. Cost estimation will be conducted to assess the financial implications of UHA uptake and scale-up. Systematic documentation of the implementation process will be undertaken. Policy decision-making and ICT health policy process flowcharts will be prepared using desk reviews and qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis of qualitative data will involve both emergent and a priori coding guided by WHO PATH toolkit and Policy Engagement Framework. Stakeholder analysis will apply standard techniques and measurement scales. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and cost estimation analysis will also be performed.
The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of icddr,b (# PR-16057). Study findings will be disseminated through national and international workshops, conferences, policy briefs and peer-reviewed publications.
To assess the cost-effectiveness of universal repeat screening for syphilis in late pregnancy, compared with the current strategy of single screening in early pregnancy with repeat screening offered only to high-risk women.
A decision tree model was developed to assess the incremental costs and health benefits of the two screening strategies. The base case analysis considered short-term costs during the pregnancy and the initial weeks after delivery. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses and scenario analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results.
UK antenatal screening programme.
Hypothetical cohort of pregnant women who access antenatal care and receive a syphilis screen in 1 year.
The primary outcome was the cost to avoid one case of congenital syphilis (CS). Secondary outcomes were the cost to avoid one case of intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) or neonatal death and the number of women needing to be screened/treated to avoid one case of CS, IUFD or neonatal death. The cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was assessed in scenario analyses.
Base case results indicated that for pregnant women in the UK (n=725 891), the repeat screening strategy would result in 5.5 fewer cases of CS (from 8.8 to 3.3), 0.1 fewer cases of neonatal death and 0.3 fewer cases of IUFD annually compared with the single screening strategy. This equates to an additional £1.8 million per case of CS prevented. When lifetime horizon was considered, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the repeat screening strategy was £120 494.
Universal repeat screening for syphilis in pregnancy is unlikely to be cost-effective in the current UK setting where syphilis prevalence is low. Repeat screening may be cost-effective in countries with a higher syphilis incidence in pregnancy, particularly if the cost per screen is low.