Loneliness is a major public health problem and an estimated 17% of adults aged 18–70 in the USA reported being lonely. We sought to characterise the (online) lives of people who mention the words ‘lonely’ or ‘alone’ in their Twitter timeline and correlate their posts with predictors of mental health.
From approximately 400 million tweets collected from Twitter in Pennsylvania, USA, between 2012 and 2016, we identified users whose Twitter posts contained the words ‘lonely’ or ‘alone’ and compared them to a control group matched by age, gender and period of posting. Using natural-language processing, we characterised the topics and diurnal patterns of users’ posts, their association with linguistic markers of mental health and if language can predict manifestations of loneliness. The statistical analysis, data synthesis and model creation were conducted in 2018–2019.
We evaluated counts of language features in the users with posts including the words lonely or alone compared with the control group. These language features were measured by (a) open-vocabulary topics, (b) Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) lexicon, (c) linguistic markers of anger, depression and anxiety, and (d) temporal patterns and number of drug words. Using machine learning, we also evaluated if expressions of loneliness can be predicted in users’ timelines, measured by area under curve (AUC).
Twitter timelines of users (n=6202) with posts including the words lonely or alone were found to include themes about difficult interpersonal relationships, psychosomatic symptoms, substance use, wanting change, unhealthy eating and having troubles with sleep. Their posts were also associated with linguistic markers of anger, depression and anxiety. A random forest model predicted expressions of loneliness online with an AUC of 0.86.
Users’ Twitter timelines with the words lonely or alone often include psychosocial features and can potentially have associations with how individuals express and experience loneliness. This can inform low-resource online assessment for high-risk individuals experiencing loneliness and interventions focused on addressing morbidities in this condition.
Cognitive impairment and reduced well-being are common manifestations of Graves’ disease (GD). These symptoms are not only prevalent during the active phase of the disease but also often prevail for a long time after hyperthyroidism is considered cured. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in these brain-derived symptoms are currently unknown. The overall aim of the CogThy study is to identify the mechanism behind cognitive impairment to be able to recognise GD patients at risk.
The study is a longitudinal, single-centre, case-controlled study conducted in Göteborg, Sweden on premenopausal women with newly diagnosed GD. The subjects are examined: at referral, at inclusion and then every 3.25 months until 15 months. Examinations include: laboratory measurements; eye evaluation; neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological testing; structural MRI of the whole brain, orbits and medial temporal lobe structures; functional near-infrared spectroscopy of the cerebral prefrontal cortex and self-assessed quality of life questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is the change in medial temporal lobe structure volume. Secondary outcome measures include neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, hormonal and autoantibody variables. The study opened for inclusion in September 2012 and close for inclusion in October 2019. It will provide novel information on the effect of GD on medial temporal lobe structures and cerebral cortex functionality as well as whether these changes are associated with cognitive and affective impairment, hormonal levels and/or autoantibody levels. It should lead to a broader understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and future treatment perspectives.
The study has been reviewed and approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Göteborg, Sweden. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and among patient organisations after an appropriate embargo time.
44321 at the public project database for research and development in Västra Götaland County, Sweden (https://www.researchweb.org/is/vgr/project/44321).
To determine the effects of yoga practice on subclinical cardiovascular measures, risk factors and neuro-endocrine pathways in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following acute coronary events.
3-month, two-arm (yoga +usual care vs usual care alone) parallel randomised mechanistic study.
One general hospital and two primary care CR centres in London. Assessments were conducted at Imperial College London.
80 participants, aged 35–80 years (68% men, 60% South Asian) referred to CR programmes 2012–2014.
A certified yoga teacher conducted yoga classes which included exercises in stretching, breathing, healing imagery and deep relaxation. It was pre-specified that at least 18 yoga classes were attended for inclusion in analysis. Participants and partners in both groups were invited to attend weekly a 6- to 12-week local standard UK National Health Service CR programme.
(i) Estimated left ventricular filling pressure (E/e'), (ii) distance walked, fatigue and breathlessness in a 6 min walk test, (iii) blood pressure, heart rate and estimated peak VO2 following a 3 min step-test. Effects on the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis, autonomic function, body fat, blood lipids and glucose, stress and general health were also explored.
25 participants in the yoga + usual care group and 35 participants in the usual care group completed the study. Following the 3-month intervention period, E/e' was not improved by yoga (E/e': between-group difference: yoga minus usual care:–0.40 (–1.38, 0.58). Exercise testing and secondary outcomes also showed no benefits of yoga.
In this small UK-based randomised mechanistic study, with 60 completing participants (of whom 25 were in the yoga + usual care group), we found no discernible improvement associated with the addition of a structured 3-month yoga intervention to usual CR care in key cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures shown to be responsive to yoga in previous mechanistic studies.
To assess the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) and blindness (BL) due to cataract and cataract surgical outcomes in remote dispersed and high-altitude Tibetan areas of China.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among people aged 50 and above in Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Kandze (TAPK), China, in 2017. The Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness protocol was followed.
Of 5000 eligible participants, 4764 were examined (response rate 95.3%).
Cataract VI was defined as lens opacity at visual acuity (VA) levels of
The estimated prevalence of cataract BL was 0.61% (95% CI 0.42 to 0.87). With best corrected VA, the estimated prevalence of SVI from cataract was 0.86% (95% CI 0.63 to 1.17); MVI was 2.39% (95% CI 2.00 to 2.87) and EVI was 5.21% (95% CI 4.61 to 5.87). Women in TAPK had a significantly higher prevalence of cataract BL (0.82%, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.15) than men (0.34%, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.70). Women had lower cataract surgical coverage (CSC) by eyes (60.8%, 95% CI 55.5 to 65.8) compared with men (70.1%; 95% CI 63.7 to 75.7). The prevalence of cataract BL was higher among Tibetan (2.28%; 95% CI 1.98 to 2.62) than Han Chinese (1.01%%; 95% CI 0.54% to 1.87%). Overall CSC by person with BL (by better eye) was 82.0% (95% CI 75.2 to 87.6). Among cataract-operated participants, 71.2% had VA equal to or better than 6/18.
The study detected a low prevalence of VI and BL due to cataract with high CSC in the study area compared with many other places in China. Further actions should be taken to improve cataract surgical outcome.
To examine lessons learnt from the implementation of five Vanguard initiatives in the North East of England.
Data collection comprised semistructured interviews with key informants at each site.
The study took place across six local authority areas in the North East of England and within six clinical commissioning groups responsible for the delivery of each Vanguard’s aims and objectives.
Sixty-six interviewees with participants from five Vanguard initiatives in the North East of England, including senior clinicians, project leads and directors, commissioners, and healthcare managers.
While the context for each Vanguard is separate and distinct, there also exists a set of common issues which have a regional dimension. Participants felt that the national programme helped to raise the profile of local change initiatives and also contributed to the wider understanding of regional service integration issues. At the same time our findings demonstrate that all five sites experienced, and were subject to, unrealistic pressure placed on them to deliver outcomes. Of particular concern among all sites was the sheer scale and pace of change occurring at the same time as the National Health Service was being tasked with making significant, if unrealistic, efficiency savings.
It is too early to conclude with any confidence that a successful outcome for the new care models programme will be forthcoming. While early indications show some encouraging signs of promise, the overall context in which the complex and ambitious changes are being implemented remains both fragile and fluid.
Migration is a stressful process of resettlement and acculturation that can often negatively impact the mental health of migrants. International migration to Japan, a country with dominant ethnic homogeneity, is growing steadily amid an ageing domestic population and severe labour shortages.
To identify the contemporary barriers to, and facilitators of, mental well-being among the migrant population in Japan.
PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, Ichushi and J-Stage
Research articles examining the mental well-being of international migrants in Japan that were published in English or Japanese between January 2000 and September 2018 were included.
Full texts of relevant articles were screened and references of the included studies were hand-searched for further admissible articles. Study characteristics, mental well-being facilitators and barriers, as well as policy recommendations were synthesised into categorical observations and were then thematically analysed.
Fifty-five studies (23 published in English), surveying a total of 8649 migrants, were identified. The most commonly studied migrant nationalities were Brazilian (36%), followed by Chinese (27%) and Filipino (8%). Thematic analysis of barriers to mental well-being among migrants chiefly identified ‘language difficulties’, ‘being female’ and ‘lack of social support’, whereas the primary facilitators were ‘social networks’ followed by ‘cultural identity’. Policy recommendations for authorities generally described more migrant support services and cross-cultural awareness among the Japanese public.
Access to social support networks of various types appears to be an influential factor affecting the mental well-being of international migrants in Japan. More research is necessary on how to promote such connections to foster a more inclusive and multicultural Japanese society amid rapid demographic change.
We sought to investigate the concept and practices of ‘clinician presence’, exploring how physicians and professionals create connection, engage in interpersonal interaction, and build trust with individuals across different circumstances and contexts.
In 2017–2018, we conducted qualitative semistructured interviews with 10 physicians and 30 non-medical professionals from the fields of protective services, business, management, education, art/design/entertainment, social services, and legal/personal services.
Physicians were recruited from primary care clinics in an academic medical centre, a Veterans Affairs clinic, and a federally qualified health centre.
Participants were 55% men and 45% women; 40% were non-white.
Qualitative analyses yielded a definition of presence as a purposeful practice of awareness, focus, and attention with the intent to understand and connect with individuals/patients. For both medical and non-medical professionals, creating presence requires managing and considering time and environmental factors; for physicians in particular, this includes managing and integrating technology. Listening was described as central to creating the state of being present. Within a clinic, presence might manifest as a physician listening without interrupting, focusing intentionally on the patient, taking brief re-centering breaks throughout a clinic day, and informing patients when attention must be redirected to administrative or technological demands.
Clinician presence involves learning to step back, pause, and be prepared to receive a patient’s story. Building on strategies from physicians and non-medical professionals, clinician presence is best enacted through purposeful intention to connect, conscious navigation of time, and proactive management of technology and the environment to focus attention on the patient. Everyday practice or ritual supporting these strategies could support physician self-care as well as physician-patient connection.
The aim of this study was to estimate alcohol and tobacco use prevalence and their correlates among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DU) in Togo.
A cross-sectional bio-behavioural study was conducted among 2115 MSM, FSW and DU in 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling method, in the eight biggest towns of Togo. Selection criteria for the MSM were being male and having had oral or anal intercourse with a man in the previous 12 months; for FSW, being a female and having exchanged sex for money in the previous 12 months; and for DU, consuming heroin, cocaine or hashish for MSM, FSW and DU, respectively. All participants had to be at least 18 years old and residing in the territory for the past 3 months.
The prevalence of alcohol consumption, hazardous/harmful consumption and binge drinking was 64.8%, 38.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Current tobacco use was reported by 30.6% of participants and HIV prevalence was estimated at 12.5%. DU were more likely to engage in binge drinking compared with other key populations (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8; p=0.001). Participants who were identified as having hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption had almost three times the odds of tobacco consumption than those with no risky consumption (aOR=2.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 3.4; p=0.001). Hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption was three times more likely among participants with severe psychological distress compared with those with no psychological distress (aOR=3.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.1; p=0.001).
Findings from this study demonstrate the need for the integration of mental health and substance abuse reduction interventions into HIV prevention programme, particularly those geared towards key populations.
To use wrist-worn accelerometers (Axivity AX3) to establish normative physical activity (PA) and acceptability data for the high-risk elderly preoperative population, to assess whether PA could be modified by a prehabilitation intervention as part of routine care, to assess any correlation between accelerometer-measured PA and self-reported PA and to assess the acceptability of wearing wrist-worn accelerometers in this population.
Prospective, observational, pilot study.
Single National Health Service Hospital.
Frail patients≥65 years awaiting major surgery referred to a multidisciplinary preoperative clinic at which they received a routine intervention aimed at improving their PA. 35 patients were recruited. Average age 79.9 years (SD=5.6).
Normative PA data measured as a mean daily Euclidean norm minus one (ENMO) in milli-gravitational units (mg).
Measure PA levels (mg) following a routine preoperative intervention. Determine correlation between patient-reported PA (measured using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) and accelerometer-measured PA (mg). Assess acceptability of wearing a wrist-worn accelerometer measured using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire and device wear time (hours).
Median baseline daily PA was 14.3 mg (IQR 9.75–22.04) with an improvement in PA detected following the intervention (median ENMO post intervention 20.91 mg (IQR 14.83–27.53), p=0.022). There was no significant correlation between accelerometer-measured and self-reported PA (baseline =0.162 (p=0.4), post intervention =–0.144 (p=0.5)). We found high acceptability ratings (median score of 10/10 on VAS, IQR 8–10) and wear-time compliance (163.2 hours (IQR 150–167.5) preintervention and 166.1 hours (IQR 162.5–167) post intervention).
Accelerometery is acceptable to this population and increases in PA levels measured following an unoptimised routine clinical intervention which indicates that health behavioural change interventions may be successful during the preoperative period. Accelerometers may therefore be a useful tool to design and validate interventions for improving PA in this setting.
To investigate the relation between mode of birth and women’s long-term sexual health.
Maternal follow-up of the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002) in 2013–2014 including questions on sexual health. Logistic regression was used to relate registry-based information about mode of birth and perineal tears with data on sexual problems.
Of 82 569 eligible mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort, 43 639 (53%) completed the follow-up. Of these, 37 417 women had a partner, and answered at least one question on sexual health.
Self-reported sexual health.
Participants were on average 44 years old, and 16 years after their first birth. The frequency of sexual problems among women with only spontaneous vaginal births, the reference group, was 37%. For women who only had caesarean sections, more problems were reported (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28). For women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth subsequent to a caesarean, and for women with only vaginal births who had experienced one or more instrumental vaginal births, the odds of sexual problems did not differ from women with only spontaneous vaginal births (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.11) and (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.08), respectively.
These findings indicate that caesarean section does not protect against long-term sexual problems. Rather, vaginal birth, even after caesarean section, was associated with fewer long-term sexual problems.
A consensus study from 2017 developed 15 response-specific quality indicators (QIs) for physician-staffed emergency medical services (P-EMS). The aim of this study was to test these QIs for important characteristics in a real clinical setting. These characteristics were feasibility, rankability, variability, actionability and documentation. We further aimed to propose benchmarks for future quality measurements in P-EMS.
In this prospective observational study, physician-staffed helicopter emergency services registered data for the 15 QIs. The feasibility of the QIs was assessed based on the comments of the recording physicians. The other four QI characteristics were assessed by the authors. Benchmarks were proposed based on the quartiles in the dataset.
Nordic physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services.
16 physician-staffed helicopter emergency services in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway.
The dataset consists of 5638 requests to the participating P-EMSs. There were 2814 requests resulting in completed responses with patient contact. All QIs were feasible to obtain. The variability of 14 out of 15 QIs was adequate. Rankability was adequate for all QIs. Actionability was assessed as being adequate for 10 QIs. Documentation was adequate for 14 QIs. Benchmarks for all QIs were proposed.
All 15 QIs seem possible to use in everyday quality measurement and improvement. However, it seems reasonable to not analyse the QI ‘Adverse Events’ with a strictly quantitative approach because of a low rate of adverse events. Rather, this QI should be used to identify adverse events so that they can be analysed as sentinel events. The actionability of the QIs ‘Able to respond immediately when alarmed’, ‘Time to arrival of P-EMS’, ‘Time to preferred destination’, ‘Provision of advanced treatment’ and ‘Significant logistical contribution’ was assessed as being poor. Benchmarks for the QIs and a total quality score are proposed for future quality measurements.
Cervical cancer rates are higher in low-resourced countries than high, partly due to lower rates of screening. Incidence in Thailand is nearly three times higher than in the USA (16.2 vs 6.5 age-standardised incidence), even with Thailand’s universal health coverage, which includes screening, suggesting that alternative methods are needed to reduce the burden. We investigated barriers to screening, as well as acceptability of self-collection human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a primary form of cervical cancer screening among Buddhist and Muslim communities in Southern Thailand.
267 women from the Buddhist district of Ranot and Muslim district of Na Thawi, Songkhla were recruited to complete a survey assessing knowledge and risk factors of HPV and cervical cancer. Participants were offered an HPV self-collection test with a follow-up survey assessing acceptability. Samples were processed at Prince of Songkhla University and results were returned to participants.
267 women participated in the study (132 Buddhist, 135 Muslim), 264 (99%) self-collecting. 98% reported comfort and ease, and 70% preferred it to doctor-facilitated cytology. The main predictor of prior screening was religion (92% Buddhist vs 73% Muslim reporting prior Pap). After adjustment with multivariate logistic models, Muslim women had an OR of prior Pap of 0.30 compared with Buddhist (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.66).
Self-collection HPV testing was highly acceptable across religious groups, suggesting that it could be beneficial for cervical cancer reduction in this region. Focus should be put into educating women from all backgrounds about the importance of screening to further improve screening rates among Thai women.
The occurrence and mortality of vasospastic angina pectoris (VAP) is largely unknown in western countries. Our objective was to clarify the occurrence, gender-distribution and mortality of VAP in Finland using a population-based hospital registry.
We studied consecutive patients aged ≥18 years hospitalized with VAP as the primary cause of admission in Finland during 2004–2014. The data were collected from obligatory nationwide registries. During the study period 1762 admissions were recorded.
Majority of all VAP patients were male (59.7%) and mean age was 65.7±12.0 years. Annual admission rate for VAP was 2.29/100 000 person-years. Men were in higher risk for VAP than women (admission rate 3.00/100 000 vs 1.68/100 000; RR 1.70; p
Men have higher risk for vasospastic angina caused admissions. Likelihood of vasospastic angina admission was highest in aged population. The 3-year all-cause mortality was 15.5%. Mortality was associated with increasing age, comorbidities and non-obstructive VAP diagnosis but was similar between genders.
Ageing patients are discharged from the hospital ‘quicker and sicker’ than before, and hospital discharge is a critical step in patient care. Older patients form a particularly vulnerable group due to multimorbidity and frailty. Patient participation in healthcare is influenced by government policy and an important part of quality improvement of care. There is need for greater insights into the complexity of patient participation for older patients in discharge processes based on aggregated knowledge.
The aim of this study was to review reported evidence concerning the experiences of older patients aged 65 years and above regarding their participation in the hospital discharge process.
We conducted a qualitative metasummary. Systematic searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycINFO and SocINDEX were conducted. Data from 18 studies were included, based on specific selection criteria. All studies explored older patients’ experience of participation during the discharge process in hospital, but varied when it came to type of discharge and diagnosis. The data were categorised into themes by using thematic analysis.
Our analysis indicated that participation in the discharge process varied among elderly patients. Five themes were identified: (1) complexity of the patients state of health, (2) management and hospital routines, (3) the norm and preference of returning home, (4) challenges of mutual communication and asymmetric relationships and (5) the significance of networks.
Collaboration between different levels in the health systems and user-friendly information between staff, patient and families are crucial. The complexity of patient participation for this patient group should be recognised to enhance user involvement during discharge from hospital. Interventions or follow-up studies of how healthcare professionals can improve their communication skills and address the tension between client-centred goals and organisational priorities are requested. Organisational structure may need to be restructured to ensure the participation of elderly patients.
Cancer (and survival) is known to affect the quality of life. Strategies as physical activity and exercise during and after cancer may improve health-related qualify of life (HRQOL) outcomes and are, therefore, of clinical and public health importance. To the best of our knowledge, comparative evidence of the effect of the different types of exercise on improving HRQOL in cancer patients has not been synthesised thus far. We aim to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis in order to synthesise all available evidence regarding the effect of different types of exercise interventions on HRQOL during and after cancer treatment.
MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Embase, The Cochrane Library and SPORTDiscus will be searched from inception to December 2018 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. Studies assessing physical activity and exercise interventions in cancer patients (during treatment) and survivors (after treatment) will be selected. Two independent reviewers will identify eligible studies. After quality appraisal and data extraction, we will conduct meta-analyses for outcomes of interest, including data from mental and physical dimensions of cancer-specific and/or generic HRQOL questionnaires. Risk of bias assessments will be completed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Study heterogeneity will be measured by the I2 statistic. Bayesian (and traditional approach) network meta-analysis will be performed when possible to determine the comparative effect of the different physical activity or exercise interventions.
This systematic review and network meta-analysis will synthesise evidence on the effect of different types of exercise interventions on HRQOL during and after cancer treatment. The results will be disseminated by publication in a peer-reviewed journal and through scientific conferences and symposia. Ethical approval will not be required because the data used for this work will be exclusively extracted from published studies.
Obstruction release from urolithiasis can be delayed with a lack of suggested time for preventing the deterioration of renal function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of obstruction duration, concomitant acute kidney injury (AKI) or acute pyelonephritis (APN) during the obstruction on the prognosis of renal function.
Retrospective cohort study.
1607 patients from a urolithiasis-related obstructive uropathy cohort, between January 2005 and December 2015.
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrease ≥30% and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and eGFR decrease ≥50% and/or ESRD, according to obstruction duration, AKI and APN accompanied by obstructive uropathy.
When the prognosis was divided by obstruction duration quartile, the longer the obstruction duration the higher the probability of eGFR reduction >50% (p=0.02). In patients with concomitant APN or severe AKI during hospitalisation with obstructive uropathy, an eGFR decrease of >30% and >50% occurred more frequently, compared with others (p7 days for multivariate analysis, we found that concomitant APN (HR 3.495, 95% CI 1.942 to 6.289, p7 days (HR 1.854, 95% CI 1.095 to 3.140, p=0.001) were independently associated with an eGFR decrease >50%. Tree analysis also showed that AKI grade 3, APN and an obstruction duration >7 days were the most important factors affecting renal outcome.
In patients with urolithiasis-related obstructive uropathy, concomitant APN was strongly associated with deterioration of renal function after obstruction release. The elapsed time to release the obstruction also affected renal function.
Individuals in rural areas face critical health disparities, including limited access to mental healthcare services and elevated burden of chronic illnesses. While disease outcomes are often worse in individuals who have both physical and mental comorbidities, few studies have examined rural, chronically-ill older adults’ experiences accessing mental health services. The aim of the study was to determine barriers to finding, receiving and adhering to mental health treatments in this population to inform future interventions delivering services.
We conducted a qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to mental healthcare access. 19 interviews were analysed deductively for barriers using a modified version of Penchansky and Thomas’s theory of access as an analytical framework.
This study was conducted remotely using telephonic interviews. Patients were located in various rural Iowa towns and cities.
15 rural Iowan older adults with multiple physical comorbidities as well as anxiety and/or depression.
We found that while patients in this study often felt that their mental health was important to address, they experienced multiple, but overlapping, barriers to services that delayed care or broke their continuity of receiving care, including limited knowledge of extant services and how to find them, difficulties obtaining referrals and unsatisfactory relationships with mental health service providers.
Our findings indicate that intervention across multiple domains of access is necessary for successful long-term management of mental health disorders for patients with multiple chronic comorbidities in Iowa.
Fever is an integral part of the inflammatory response and has therefore likely a physiological role in fighting infections. Nevertheless, whether fever in itself is beneficial or harmful in adults is unknown. This protocol for a systematic review aims at identifying the beneficial and harmful effects of fever control interventions in adults.
This protocol for a systematic review was conducted following the recommendations of Cochrane, GRADE and the eight-step assessment suggested by Jakobsen and colleagues for better validation of meta-analytical results in systematic reviews. We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials comparing any fever control intervention with placebo, sham or no intervention in adults. We plan to search CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection to identify relevant trials. Any eligible trial will be assessed and classified as either at high risk of bias or low risk of bias, and our primary conclusions will be based on trials at low risk of bias. We will perform our meta-analyses of the extracted data using Review Manager 5.3 and Trial Sequential Analysis. For all our outcomes, we will create a ‘Summary of Findings’ table based on GRADE assessments of the certainty of the evidence.
No formal approval or review of ethics is required for this systematic review as individual patient data will not be included. This systematic review has the potential to highlight (1) whether one should believe fever to be beneficial, harmful or neither in adults; (2) the existing knowledge gaps on this topic; and (3) whether the recommendations from guidelines and daily clinical practice are correct. These results will be disseminated through publication in a leading peer-reviewed journal.
Difficult airway management during tracheal intubation can lead to severe hypoxic sequelae. Routine intubation practice is to use a strict supine position, whereas a 25° head-up or reverse Trendelenburg position increases efficacy of preoxygenation, seems more comfortable for the anaesthetist and may also provide better intubation conditions in direct laryngoscopy. The 25° head-up position could be used for the whole population rather than only for obese patients, but there is no prospective randomised controlled trial with a robust design and large number of patients comparing strict supine against 25° intubation in operating room. The objective of the InSize25 study is to test the effect of these two patient positions on intubation conditions during laryngoscopy in scheduled surgery on non-obese patients.
InSize25 is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, open-label, two-arm, randomised controlled trial. The InSize25 study will randomise 1000 adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia requiring intubation with neuromuscular-blocking drugs, candidates for direct laryngoscopy. The primary outcome variable is the view obtained during the first laryngoscopy without any external manipulation assessed using percentage of glottic opening. Important secondary outcomes are: Cormack-Lehane classification, number of attempts at laryngoscopy and at tracheal intubation, use of ancillary equipment (eg, bougies, alternative laryngoscope blades, videolaryngoscope) and manoeuvres (eg, laryngeal manipulation), comfort score for the anaesthetist, episodes of postinduction hypotension or desaturation and mechanical complications of intubation.
The trial received appropriate approval from the ‘CPP Sud-Est II’ ethical review board. Informed consent is required. If the 25° head-up position proves superior for tracheal intubation without more complications, it may become the routine-standard intubation position rather than only for use with obese patients. The final results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Clinicaltrials.gov identifier (NCT03339141).
There is increasing attention on the cancer burden for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Emerging evidence suggests there are differences in cancer experiences and outcomes for individuals living with IDD, from risk through survivorship. These differences may be attributed to features of the IDD, such as cognitive deficits and communication, as well as social determinants of health-like lower education levels and ableism. However, there is no comprehensive overview of the literature quantifying these potential disparities and describing the influencing factors. In this paper, we describe a scoping review protocol to systematically review published literature on cancer for adults with IDD. The purpose of this review is to identify differences in cancer risk, stage at diagnosis, treatment and survival along the cancer continuum for adults with IDD and outline potential contributing factors creating these disparities.
We will follow Arksey and O’Malley’s expanded framework for scoping reviews to conduct this review. We will systematically search electronic databases for peer-reviewed, published journal articles to identify appropriate studies in collaboration with a health science librarian. Two reviewers will independently review titles and abstracts followed by a full-text review to determine whether it meets inclusion criteria. A data chart for collecting and sorting information will be developed in consultation with the team. Results will be collated and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews: PRISMA-Scoping Reviews. Extracted information will be summarised quantitatively and qualitatively to meet review objectives.
This scoping review will employ a methodology to identify literature related to cancer outcomes and experiences for adults with IDD. Results will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders who care for and support individuals with IDD at local, provincial and national levels and through publishing findings. By highlighting the disparities in the cancer system and gaps in the research, this scoping review can provide direction for future action.