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Efeitos da pandemia da covid 19 no trabalho e na saúde dos profissionais atuantes no serviço pré-hospitalar: revisão integrati-va

Objetivo: Identificar os efeitos da pandemia da COVID 19 nos profissionais atuantes no atendimento pré-hospitalar. Método: revisão integrativa, conduzida de acordo com o protocolo prisma, por meio das bases de dados: Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, SciElo, BDENF, CUIDEN, CINAHAL. Adotaram-se os Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS): “Saúde do trabalhador” “Pandemia” “COVID 19” “Atendimento pré-hospitalar” “Segurança” “Profissionais de saúde” “Trabalho”. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, foram selecionados treze artigos que compuseram a amostra do estudo. Resultados: dezoito artigos foram analisados e duas categorias foram construídas: risco de contaminação e exposição ocupacional dos profissionais da saúde que cuidam de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19 e risco de adoecimento psicoemocional dos profissionais da saúde que cuidam pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. Conclusão: A revisão mostrou os potenciais efeitos sobre a saúde dos profissionais durante o atendimento de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. E a importância da implementação de estratégias de intervenção focadas nos riscos ocupacionais.

Long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation services delivery for Wenchuan earthquake survivors with impairments over a 4-year period: a prospective cohort study

Por: Reinhardt · J. · Zhang · X. · Chen · S. · Li · J. · Zhou · M. · Khan · F.
Objective

To examine long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation services on physical function, pain severity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in earthquake survivors over a 4-year period.

Design

Prospective cohort study with early and late intervention and geographical control group.

Setting

Three counties of Sichuan Province, China.

Participants

591 survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake were followed-up over a 4-year period ranging from 2008 to 2012.

Interventions

In Mianzhu county, a comprehensive hospital-based and community-based rehabilitation programme was implemented in September 2008; in Anxian county, the same programme was implemented 1 year later; in Shifang county, the programme was not implemented and survivors from this county served as a control group.

Outcomes

Physical function was measured using Modified Barthel Index (MBI), pain severity with Visual Analogue Scale and PTSD with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. All outcomes were assessed at three time points (baseline from 2008 to 2009, 2010 and 2012) and analysed with mixed effects regression.

Results

400 patients completed all assessments. In all groups, physical function and pain severity improved over time. MBI improvement per month as compared with control was greater in the late rehabilitation (b=1.69, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.19) than the early rehabilitation group (b=0.96, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.24). This rehabilitation effect was however marginally decreasing over time. Superior improvement as compared with control with regard to pain was only found in the early rehabilitation group (b=–0.05, 95% CI –0.09 to –0.02). PTSD symptoms decreased over time, but the observed differences could not be specifically linked to the rehabilitation intervention.

Conclusion

Physical rehabilitation of earthquake survivors appears to be effective in improving physical function and, if delivered early, pain. Effects on mental health are less clear and need further examination using more consistent and frequent assessments of relevant outcomes and determinants.

Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, the COVID-19 cohort study of people experiencing homelessness in Toronto, Canada: a study protocol

Por: Richard · L. · Nisenbaum · R. · Liu · M. · McGeer · A. · Mishra · S. · Gingras · A.-C. · Gommerman · J. L. · Sniderman · R. · Pedersen · C. · Spandier · O. · Jenkinson · J. I. R. · Baral · S. · Mejia-Lancheros · C. · Agarwal · A. · Jamal · A. J. · Ostrowski · M. · Dhalla · I. · Stewart
Introduction

Initial reports suggest people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated morbidity and mortality. However, there have been few longitudinal evaluations of the spread and impact of COVID-19 among PEH. This study will estimate the prevalence and incidence of COVID-19 infections in a cohort of PEH followed prospectively in Toronto, Canada. It will also examine associations between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics with COVID-19 infection, adverse health outcomes related to infection and vaccination. Finally, the data will be used to develop and parameterise a mathematical model to characterise SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, and the transmission impact of interventions serving PEH.

Design, methods and analysis

Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win will follow a random sample of PEH from across Toronto (Canada) for 12 months. 736 participants were enrolled between June and September 2021, and will be followed up at 3-month intervals. At each interval, specimens (saliva, capillary blood) will be collected to determine active SARS-CoV-2 infection and serologic evidence of past infection and/or vaccination, and a detailed survey will gather self-reported information, including a detailed housing history. To examine the association between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics on COVID-19-related infection, adverse outcomes, and vaccination, shelter and healthcare administrative data will be linked to participant study data. Healthcare administrative data will also be used to examine long-term (up to 5 years) COVID-19-related outcomes among participants.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from the Unity Health Toronto and University of Toronto Health Sciences Research Ethics Boards (# 20-272). Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win was designed in collaboration with community and service provider partners and people having lived experience of homelessness. Findings will be reported to groups supporting Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, Indigenous and other community partners and service providers, funding bodies, public health agencies and all levels of government to inform policy and public health programs.

Camrelizumab in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a cost-effective analysis in China

Por: Xie · Q. · Zheng · H. · Su · N. · Li · Q.
Objective

Camrelizumab is a selective, humanised, high-affinity IgG4 kappa monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death 1 that shows effective antitumour activity with acceptable toxicity in multiple tumour types. The CameL trial demonstrated that camrelizumab plus chemotherapy (CC) significantly prolonged the median progression-free survival and median overall survival versus chemotherapy alone (CA) in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study was conducted to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the two strategies in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC.

Design, setting and participants

A Markov simulation model was generated based on the CameL trial. The two simulated treatments included CC and CA.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Utility was derived from published literature, and costs were calculated based on those at our hospital in Chengdu, China. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to compare the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment arms.

Results

In the overall population, the total costs were $27 223.40 and $13 740.10 for CC and CA treatment, respectively. The CC treatment produced 1.37 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the CA treatment produced 1.17 QALYs. Hence, patients who were in the CC group spent an additional $13 483.30 and generated an increase of 0.20 QALYs, resulting in an ICER of $67 416.50 per QALY.

Conclusions

For chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC, CC is not considered a cost-effective treatment versus CA in China when considering a willingness-to-pay threshold of $31 500 per QALY.

Trial registration number

NCT03134872

Cost-effectiveness of a dietary and physical activity intervention in adolescents: a prototype modelling study based on the Engaging Adolescents in Changing Behaviour (EACH-B) programme

Por: Kalita · N. · Cooper · K. · Baird · J. · Woods-Townsend · K. · Godfrey · K. · Cooper · C. · Inskip · H. · Barker · M. · Lord · J. · the EACH-B study group
Objective

To assess costs, health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve quality of diet and level of physical activity in adolescents.

Design

A Markov model was developed to assess four potential benefits of healthy behaviour for adolescents: better mental health (episodes of depression and generalised anxiety disorder), higher earnings and reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes and adverse pregnancy outcomes (in terms of preterm delivery). The model parameters were informed by published literature. The analysis took a societal perspective over a 20-year period. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for 10 000 simulations were conducted.

Participants

A hypothetical cohort of 100 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years.

Interventions

An exemplar school-based, multicomponent intervention that was developed by the Engaging Adolescents for Changing Behaviour programme, compared with usual schooling.

Outcome measure

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as measured by cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.

Results

The exemplar dietary and physical activity intervention was associated with an incremental cost of £123 per adolescent and better health outcomes with a mean QALY gain of 0.0085 compared with usual schooling, resulting in an ICER of £14 367 per QALY. The key model drivers are the intervention effect on levels of physical activity, quality-of-life gain for high levels of physical activity, the duration of the intervention effects and the period over which effects wane.

Conclusions

The results suggested that such an intervention has the potential to offer a cost-effective use of healthcare-resources for adolescents in the UK at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY. The model focused on short-term to medium-term benefits of healthy eating and physical activity exploiting the strong evidence base that exists for this age group. Other benefits in later life, such as reduced cardiovascular risk, are more sensitive to assumptions about the persistence of behavioural change and discounting.

Trail registration number

ISRCTN74109264.

Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported injuries in Nepal: a secondary analysis of the nationally representative cross-sectional STEPS Survey, 2019

Por: Dhimal · M. · Poudyal · A. · Bista · B. · Dahal · S. · Raj Pant · P. · Gyanwali · P.
Objective

This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injuries in the adult population of Nepal.

Design and participants

Secondary analysis of the data from the cross-sectional WHO STEPwise Approach to NCD Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS) Survey Nepal, 2019. A multistage cluster sample of 5593 adults aged 15–69 years who have been the usual residents of the household for at least 6 months. A binary logistic regression model was employed to identify the determinants of injuries.

Setting

Data were derived from the STEPS Survey Nepal, 2019.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The primary outcome was injured person defined as one who had road traffic injuries (RTIs), had other serious unintentional/accidental injury, or had been seriously injured in a violent incident within the past 12 months. The secondary outcome measure was factors associated with injuries.

Results

Over 11% of the 4996 study participants reported any injuries during the past 12 months. About 3.75% of the participants experienced a RTI, 4.71% had experienced unintentional injuries other than RTI, while 5.33% had been injured in violent incidents. Individuals belonging to the middle wealth quintile (crude OR (COR)=2.95, 95% CI 1.27 to 6.84) were associated with increased odds of RTIs. By occupation, homemaker (COR=0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84) was protective against these injuries. Likewise, currently married individuals (COR=3.74, 95% CI 1.37 to 10.17), ever married individuals (COR=3.49, 95% CI 1.08 to 11.25) and individuals not in employment (COR=2.13, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.91) were associated with an increased likelihood of sustaining an intentional injury. Injuries were higher among rural participants.

Conclusions

This study provides the baseline population-based estimates of the prevalence of injuries in Nepal. It describes the mechanisms and risk factors of these injuries. It is hoped that this evidence will serve as a stimulus for future studies to elucidate comprehensive national information about injuries.

Association between transoesophageal echocardiography monitoring indicators and the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass grafting: a study protocol for a prospective multicenter cohort study

Por: Liu · B. · Lv · M. · Wang · H. · Sun · Y. · Song · X. · Dong · L. · Feng · H. · Wang · Y.
Introduction

Previous studies on transoesophageal echocardiography in coronary artery bypass grafting mainly focused on whether to change the surgical plan rather than improve the clinical prognosis. Currently, there are sparse studies on the relationship between transoesophageal echocardiography indicators and the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary aim of this study is to explore the association between transoesophageal echocardiography monitoring indicators the respiratory variability of inferior vena cava diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and the incidence of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass grafting patients.

Methods and analysis

We designed this prospective multicenter cohort study, which included approximately 150 adult patients (≥18 years) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Different hospitals will be assessed to obtain information on the prevalence, risk factors, management strategies and outcomes in coronary artery bypass surgery. The cohort will be followed after the coronary artery bypass surgery period, up to 30 days after enrolment. The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury and baseline data will be presented by descriptive statistics. We will use Freidman inspection and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between transoesophageal echocardiography monitoring indicators and the incidence of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass grafting patients.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has been approved by the ethics committee of Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, China (approval number: YXLL-KY-2021(067)). This is an observational study that poses no risk to the patients. All participants will obtain informed consent according to the ethics committee before patient enrolment. Funding sources will have no influence on data handling, analyses or writing of the manuscript. The article is planned for submission in an international peer-reviewed journal.

Trial registration number

NCT05139108.

Quality and safety indicators for home care recipients in Australia: development and cross-sectional analyses

Por: Caughey · G. E. · Lang · C. E. · Bray · S. C. E. · Sluggett · J. K. · Whitehead · C. · Visvanathan · R. · Evans · K. · Corlis · M. · Cornell · V. · Barker · A. L. · Wesselingh · S. · Inacio · M. C.
Objectives

To develop and examine the prevalence of quality and safety indicators to monitor care of older Australians receiving home care packages (HCPs), a government-funded aged care programme to support individuals to live at home independently.

Design

Cross-sectional.

Setting

Home care recipients, Australia.

Participants

90 650 older individuals (aged ≥65 years old and ≥50 years old for people of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent) who received a HCP between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2016 nationally were included.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The Registry of Senior Australians developed 15 quality and safety indicators: antipsychotic use, high sedative load, chronic opioid use, antimicrobial use, premature mortality, home medicines reviews, chronic disease management plan, wait-time for HCP, falls, fractures, medication-related adverse events, weight loss/malnutrition, delirium/dementia-related hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) presentations and pressure injuries. Risk adjusted prevalence (%, 95% CI) and geographical area (statistical level 3) variation during 2016 were examined.

Results

In 2016, a total of 102 590 HCP episodes were included for 90 650 individuals, with 66.9% (n=68 598) level 1–2 HCP episodes (ie, for basic care needs) and 33.1% (n=33 992) level 3–4 HCP (ie, higher care needs). The most prevalent indicators included: antibiotic use (52.4%, 95% CI 52.0 to 52.7), chronic disease management plans (38.1%, 95% CI 37.8 to 38.4), high sedative load (29.1%, 95% CI 28.8 to 29.4) and ED presentations (26.4%, 95% CI 25.9 to 26.9). HCP median wait time was 134 days (IQR 41–406). Geographical variation was highest in chronic disease management plans and ED presentations (20.7% of areas outside expected range).

Conclusion

A comprehensive outcome monitoring system to monitor the quality and safety of care and variation for HCP recipients was developed. It provides a pragmatic, efficient and low burden tool to support evidence-based quality and safety improvement initiatives for the aged care sector.

How can equitable video visit access be delivered in primary care? A qualitative study among rural primary care teams and patients

Por: Goldstein · K. M. · Perry · K. R. · Lewinski · A. · Walsh · C. · Shepherd-Banigan · M. E. · Bosworth · H. B. · Weidenbacher · H. · Blalock · D. V. · Zullig · L. L.
Objective

The COVID-19 pandemic sparked exponential growth in video visit use in primary care. The rapid shift to virtual from in-person care exacerbated digital access disparities across racial groups and rural populations. Moving forward, it is critical to understand when and how to incorporate video visits equitably into primary care. We sought to develop a novel clinical algorithm to guide primary care clinics on how and when to employ video visits as part of care delivery.

Design

Qualitative data collection: one team member conducted all patient semistructured interviews and led all focus groups with four other team members taking notes during groups.

Setting

3 rural primary care clinics in the USA.

Participants

24 black veterans living in rural areas and three primary care teams caring for black veterans living in rural areas.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Findings from semistructured interviews with patients and focus groups with primary care teams.

Results

Key issues around appropriate use of video visits for clinical teams included having adequate technical support, encouraging engagement during video visits and using video visits for appropriate clinical situations. Patients reported challenges with broadband access, inadequate equipment, concerns about the quality of video care, the importance of visit modality choice, and preferences for in-person care experience over virtual care. We developed an algorithm that requires input from both patients and their care team to assess fit for each clinical encounter.

Conclusions

Informed matching of patients and clinical situations to the right visit modality, along with individual patient technology support could reduce virtual access disparities.

Prognostic associations of ECG tracings in hospitalised patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

Por: Interior · J. S. · Garcia · J. G. · Yu · G. S. G. · Regencia · Z. J. G. · Baja · E. S. · Ligsay · A. D. · Gerodias · F. R.
Introduction

COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Although most COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic or mild, a significant number of patients experienced adverse outcomes. In addition, studies have shown that cardiac abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. This finding sets a precedent for the potential use of ECG tracing as an indicator of patient mortality and morbidity. This study aims to determine associations between the 12-lead ECG findings and various clinical outcomes of hospitalised patients with COVID-19, measured as incidence of endotracheal intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate.

Methods and analysis

An electronic literature search will identify all potentially relevant articles using specific databases and websites. The search will be limited to studies published from December 2019 to May 2021. In addition, studies will include hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with normal and abnormal 12-lead ECG findings assessed for clinical outcomes, including the incidence of endotracheal intubation, ICU admission and mortality rate. The risk of bias in individual studies will be evaluated using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool or the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis will be conducted if at least two studies indicate a prognostic factor’s effect. Moreover, subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be performed accordingly to address heterogeneity. Reporting the review results will comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The quality of evidence generated will be assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has been exempted from ethics review. There will be no patient or public involvement in this study. Furthermore, the findings will be disseminated via conferences, seminars, symposia and congresses on top of peer-reviewed journals.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42021257155.

Evaluating the Management of chronic Pelvic girdle Pain following pregnancy (EMaPP): study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial to compare a customised pelvic orthosis with standard care

Por: Halliday · B. J. · Chatfield · S. · Cameron · L. · Hosking · J. · Shawe · J. · Hawton · A. · Hayward · C. · Carter · K. · Freeman · J. A.
Introduction

An estimated 10% of women experience severe, chronic pelvic girdle pain post partum. This has significant physical, psychological and socioeconomic consequences. Typically, such pain is recalcitrant to conservative management; hence the need to identify effective management strategies. Customised Dynamic Elastomeric Fabric Orthoses may be an option to address this gap; designed to improve pain by providing support while optimising movement and function. Currently, no studies have evaluated the clinical and cost-effectiveness, or acceptability of these customised orthoses in postpartum women.

Methods and analysis

EMaPP is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled feasibility trial with an embedded qualitative study and economic evaluation. Sixty participants with pregnancy-related severe pelvic girdle pain >3 months post partum will be recruited. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio (stratified by centre and presence/absence of lumbo-pelvic pain pre pregnancy) to receive either standard care (standardised information and exercise) or intervention (orthosis plus standard care). All participants will be asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires (including pain, function, health-related quality of life and health and social care resource use), via a web-based application at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Pain levels and medication usage will be reported fortnightly. Feasibility and acceptability of the trial procedures will be determined in terms of recruitment and retention rates, data completion rates and intervention adherence. Five clinicians and 10 participants will be interviewed to explore their experiences of the trial procedures and receiving the intervention.

Ethics and dissemination

This study was approved by: National Research Ethics Scheme (NRES Committee Health and Care Research Wales Research Ethics Committee (21/WM/0155) and University of Plymouth Faculty of Health Research Ethics and Integrity Committee (ref:2966). Results will be made available to participants, the funders, staff, general public and other researchers through a range of mechanisms.

Trial status

Currently recruiting.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN67232113.

Hepatitis E virus infection in the United States: Seroprevalence, risk factors and the influence of immunological assays

by María Belén Pisano, Christopher Campbell, Chimaobi Anugwom, Viviana Elizabeth Ré, José D. Debes

In the United States (U.S.), a hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence between 6 and 21% has been described, with a decreasing trend. We aimed to investigate HEV infection in the U.S. population from 2009 to 2016, and examine the differences in seroprevalence using different assays. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-CDC) to estimate HEV seroprevalence and analyze demographic variables related to the infection. Additionally, we compared 4 serological tests used. The estimated HEV seroprevalence between 2009–2016 was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.6%-7.0%) for IgG and 1.02% (0.8%-1.2%) for IgM. Higher HEV IgG prevalences were found in older people, females, non-Hispanic Asians and those born outside of the U.S. The in-house immunoassay and the Wantai HEV-IgG ELISA presented the highest sensitivity values in the tested population. The highest specificity values corresponded to the DSI-EIA-ANTI-HEV-IgG assay. The kappa statistical values showed concordances no greater than 0.64 between the assays. HEV prevalence in our study was similar to previously reported, and a decline in the prevalence was observed through the NHANES assessments (from 1988 to 2016). The sensitivity and specificity of the assays varied widely, making comparisons difficult and highlighting the need to develop a gold standard assay.

Health insurance and financial hardship in cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic

by Courtney P. Williams, Gabrielle B. Rocque, Nicole E. Caston, Kathleen D. Gallagher, Rebekah S. M. Angove, Eric Anderson, Janet S. de Moor, Michael T. Halpern, Anaeze C. Offodile II, Risha Gidwani

Uninsured or underinsured individuals with cancer are likely to experience financial hardship, including forgoing healthcare or non-healthcare needs such as food, housing, or utilities. This study evaluates the association between health insurance coverage and financial hardship among cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional analysis used Patient Advocate Foundation (PAF) survey data from May to July 2020. Cancer survivors who previously received case management or financial aid from PAF self-reported challenges paying for healthcare and non-healthcare needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between insurance coverage and payment challenges were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, which allowed for estimation of adjusted relative risks (aRR). Of 1,437 respondents, 74% had annual household incomes

Influence of intrauterine factors on birth weight and on child linear growth in rural Ethiopia: A prospective cohort study

by Meselech Roro, Wakgari Deressa, Bernt Lindtjørn

Introduction

Little is known about the influence of intrauterine fetal factors on childhood growth in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of intrauterine fetal growth on child linear growth in rural Ethiopia.

Methods

We conducted a prospective community-based cohort study from July 2016 to October 2018. All pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or below living in 13 kebeles, in central Ethiopia were enrolled. The fetuses were followed from pregnancy up to 11–24 months after birth. We measured biparietal diameter, head circumference, femoral length, and abdominal circumference at 26, 30 and 36 weeks of pregnancy. At birth, we measured infant weight. At 11–24 months of age, z-scores of length- for- age, and weight-for-length were calculated. A multilevel, mixed-effect, linear regression model was used to examine the influence of fetal, newborn, maternal, household factors and residence area on child linear growth.

Results

We included 554 children. The prevalence rate of stunting was 54.3% and that of wasting was 10.6%. Fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference, were significantly associated with birth weight. Femoral length z-score in early pregnancy, gestational age at delivery and child age were significantly associated with length-for-age z-score. Family size was significantly associated with length-for-age z-score. Family size and maternal height were associated with weight-for-height z-score. There was a large variation in length-for-age z-score (Intra cluster correlation, or ρ (rho) = 0.30) and weight-for-length z-score (ρ = 0.22) than of birth weight of new-born (ρ = 0.11) in kebeles indicating heterogeneity in clusters for length-for-age z-score and weight-for-length z-score than birth weight.

Conclusions

Child linear growth was influenced by fetal growth, duration of pregnancy, maternal height, and family size. Environmental factors that are associated with the area of residence play a bigger role for linear growth than for birth weight.

Clinical performance of the Roche Cobas 4800 HPV test for primary cervical cancer screening in a Chinese population

by Stephanie S. Liu, Karen K. L. Chan, Tina N. Wei, Ka Yu Tse, Siew F. Ngu, Mandy M. Y. Chu, Lesley S. K. Lau, Annie N. Y. Cheung, Hextan Y. S. Ngan

High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing has become an increasing important strategy in primary cervical cancer screening in recent years. It warrants the evaluation of molecular-based HPV tests for accuracy and efficacy of screening. The performance of Roche Cobas 4800 HPV test was validated and compared with Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) high-risk HPV DNA test for primary screening in a large Chinese screening cohort. Of 6345 women screened, overall agreement between Cobas and HC2 was 92.23% (95% CI: 91.57–92.89). The inter-assay agreement was correlated with the severity of underlying biology, with an increasing concordance found in samples with more severe abnormalities. Most of the discordant samples had the test signal strength closer to the test limits of the detection than concordant samples, reflecting a low viral load and infection of a cluster of low-risk HPV in these samples. The Cobas test demonstrated significantly higher specificity in identifying CIN2+/CIN3+ cases than HC2 test (66.46% vs 43.67% and 65.42% vs 42.86%, p

Validity, reliability, and acceptability of the Evidence-Informed Decision-Making (EIDM) competence measure

by Emily Belita, Kathryn Fisher, Jennifer Yost, Janet E. Squires, Rebecca Ganann, Maureen Dobbins

Valid, reliable, and acceptable tools for assessing self-reported competence in evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) are required to provide insight into the current status of EIDM knowledge, skills, attitudes/beliefs, and behaviours for registered nurses working in public health. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the EIDM Competence Measure. A psychometric study design was employed guided by the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and general measurement development principles. All registered nurses working across 16 public health units in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete the newly developed EIDM Competence Measure via an online survey. The EIDM Competence Measure is a self-reported tool consisting of four EIDM subscales: 1) knowledge; 2) skills; 3) attitudes/beliefs; and 4) behaviours. Acceptability was measured by completion time and percentage of missing data of the original 40-item tool. The internal structure of the tool was first assessed through item-subscale total and item-item correlations within subscales for potential item reduction of the original 40-item tool. Following item reduction which resulted in a revised 27-item EIDM Competence Measure, a principal component analysis using an oblique rotation was performed to confirm the four subscale structure. Validity based on relationships to other variables was assessed by exploring associations between EIDM competence attributes and individual factors (e.g., years of nursing experience, education) and organizational factors (e.g., resource allocation). Internal reliability within each subscale was analyzed using Cronbach’s alphas. Across 16 participating public health units, 201 nurses (mean years as a registered nurse = 18.1, predominantly female n = 197; 98%) completed the EIDM Competence Measure. Overall missing data were minimal as 93% of participants completed the entire original 40-item tool (i.e., no missing data), with 7% of participants having one or more items with missing data. Only one participant (0.5%) had >10% of missing data (i.e., more than 4 out of 40 items with data missing). Mean completion time was 7 minutes and 20 seconds for the 40-item tool. Extraction of a four-factor model based on the 27-item version of the scale showed substantial factor loadings (>0.4) that aligned with the four EIDM subscales of knowledge, skills, attitudes/beliefs, and behaviours. Significant relationships between EIDM competence subscale scores and education, EIDM training, EIDM project involvement, and supportive organizational culture were observed. Cronbach’s alphas exceeded minimum standards for all subscales: knowledge (α = 0.96); skills (α = 0.93); attitudes/beliefs (α = 0.80); and behaviours (α = 0.94).

Effectiveness of exercise intervention during pregnancy on high-risk women for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention: A meta-analysis of published RCTs

by Georgios I. Tsironikos, Konstantinos Perivoliotis, Alexandra Bargiota, Elias Zintzaras, Chrysoula Doxani, Athina Tatsioni

Objective

We aimed at investigating the preventive role of exercise intervention during pregnancy, in high-risk women for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Materials and methods

We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, and Scopus for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated exercise interventions during pregnancy on women at high risk for GDM. Data were combined with random effects models. Between study heterogeneity (Cochran’s Q statistic) and the extent of study effects variability [I2 with 95% confidence interval (CI)] were estimated. Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of population, intervention, and study characteristics. We also evaluated the potential for publication bias.

Results

Among the 1,508 high-risk women who were analyzed in 9 RCTs, 374 (24.8%) [160 (21.4%) in intervention, and 214 (28.1%) in control group] developed GDM. Women who received exercise intervention during pregnancy were less likely to develop GDM compared to those who followed the standard prenatal care (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.52, 0.93; P-value 0.02) [Q 10.08, P-value 0.26; I2 21% (95%CI 0, 62%]. Studies with low attrition bias also showed a similar result (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.51, 0.97; P-value 0.03). A protective effect was also supported when analysis was limited to studies including women with low education level (OR 0.55; 95%CI 0.40, 0.74; P-value 0.0001); studies with exercise intervention duration more than 20 weeks (OR 0.54; 95%CI 0.40, 0.74; P-value 0.0007); and studies with a motivation component in the intervention (OR 0.69, 95%CI 0.50, 0.96; P-value 0.03). We could not exclude large variability in study effects because the upper limit of I2 confidence interval was higher than 50% for all analyses. There was no conclusive evidence for small study effects (P-value 0.31).

Conclusions

Our study might support a protective effect of exercise intervention during pregnancy for high-risk women to prevent GDM. The protective result should be corroborated by large, high quality RCTs.

Patient-reported factors associated with avoidance of in-person care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from a national survey

by Bengt B. Arnetz, Courtney Goetz, John vanSchagen, William Baer, Stacy Smith, Judith E. Arnetz

Background

There has been a substantial decline in in-person care in inpatient and outpatient settings during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Avoidance of needed in-person care may contribute to an avoidable decline in patient health and an increase in mortality. While several systems and behavioral theories have been put forward to explain the decline, there is a lack of studies informed by patients’ own experiences. The current study applied a socio-ecological model encompassing patient, environmental, and institutional-related variables to examine patient-reported factors associated with avoidance of in-person care.

Methods

Between October and December 2020, a total of 3840 persons responded to a nationwide online questionnaire that was administered using ResearchMatch and Facebook. Self-reported avoidance of in-person care among those who needed it was the main outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with avoidance of needed care.

Findings

Out of a total of 3372 respondents who reported that they needed in-person care during the early phase of the pandemic, 257 (7.6%) avoided it. Patient-related variables associated with avoiding needed care included younger age (odds ratio (OR), 1.46, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.94, p Conclusions

These results suggest that care avoidance of in-person care during the initial phase of the pandemic was influenced by a patient’s demographics as well as environmental and healthcare institutional factors. Patients’ previous experiences and their awareness of healthcare systems’ safety protocols are important factors in care avoidance.

Scoping review to evaluate the effects of peer support on the mental health of young adults

Por: Richard · J. · Rebinsky · R. · Suresh · R. · Kubic · S. · Carter · A. · Cunningham · J. E. A. · Ker · A. · Williams · K. · Sorin · M.
Objectives

Young adults report disproportionality greater mental health problems compared with the rest of the population with numerous barriers preventing them from seeking help. Peer support, defined as a form of social-emotional support offered by an individual with a shared lived experience, has been reported as being effective in improving a variety of mental health outcomes in differing populations. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of the literature investigating the impact of peer support on the mental health of young adults.

Design

A scoping review methodology was used to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines across six databases and Google/Google Scholar. Overall, 17 eligible studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review.

Results

Overall, studies suggest that peer support is associated with improvements in mental health including greater happiness, self-esteem and effective coping, and reductions in depression, loneliness and anxiety. This effect appears to be present among university students, non-student young adults and ethnic/sexual minorities. Both individual and group peer support appear to be beneficial for mental health with positive effects also being present for those providing the support.

Conclusions

Peer support appears to be a promising avenue towards improving the mental health of young adults, with lower barriers to accessing these services when compared with traditional mental health services. The importance of training peer supporters and the differential impact of peer support based on the method of delivery should be investigated in future research.

Efficacy of a new day surgery management mode based on WeChat: a study protocol for randomised controlled trials

Por: Shi · Y. · Yan · J. · Wang · S. · Li · Y. · Deng · X.
Introduction

There is an enormous imbalance between the rapid development of day surgery and the current conventional medical services. Hence, an effective day surgery management mode should be developed that can be used to constantly follow up on patients both preoperatively and postoperatively. In this study, WeChat was chosen as the platform. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new day surgery management mode.

Methods and analysis

This randomised controlled study investigated the efficacy of a new day surgery management mode based on WeChat. The target number of participants was 1000 per group. The application (app) will send personalised information based on the medical history of the patient and the type of surgery at different time points preoperatively and postoperatively. The healthcare worker can follow up the patient and acquire clinical data by simply signing into the app. The patient and the healthcare worker can also engage in video or voice chats using the app when necessary. Multiple departments, including anaesthesiology, internal medicine, surgery, nursing and psychology, will participate in this new mode.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from the West China Hospital of Sichuan University Biomedical Research Ethics Committee. Results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences.

Trial registration number

ChiCTR2100050793.

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