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¿Es una morfea? El reto de la piel en la consulta de atención primaria [Gratuito]

Verónica Berkovich Menta, María Luz Martínez Brotóns, María Nieves Acero Guasch
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Descripción de un programa de intercambio educacional internacional para residentes de medicina familiar en México [Gratuito]

Yeyetsy G. Ordóñez Azuara, Raúl F. Gutiérrez Herrera, Rogelio J. Correa Chapa, Luis G. Loyola Rosales, Maricruz J. Montelongo Rodríguez, José M. Ramírez Aranda
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Impacto de la fragilidad y COVID-19 en una cohorte de gente mayor de la ciudad de Barcelona [Gratuito]

María Victoria Feijóo Rodríguez, Francesc Orfila Pernas, Andrea Viviana Sánchez Callejas, Carles Valero García, Isabel Plaza Espuña, José Luis del Val García
Resumen - Texto completo

Réplica de la carta al editor de «Evolution of the stage of cronic kidney disease from the diagnosis of hypertension in primary care» [Gratuito]

Juan Figueroa-García, Víctor Granados-García, Juan Carlos H. Hernández-Rivera, Montserrat Lagunes-Cisneros, Teresa Alvarado-Gutiérrez, José Ramón Paniagua-Sierra
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Factores asociados con una evolución desfavorable en pacientes diagnosticados de COVID-19 y seguidos en atención primaria en 2020 [Gratuito]

María José Fernández Pérez, Fernando Bernad Carbonell, Miguel Ángel Nieves Sanchis, Sergio Calleja Argudo, Ana Martínez González, Inés García de Enterría Ramos, Mª Candelaria Ayuso Raya, Francisco Escobar Rabadán
Resumen - Texto completo

Vigilancia de la salud desde la perspectiva de sus trabajadores

Resumo Objetivo: Compreender a vigilância em saúde (vs) sob a perspectiva de seus trabalhadores. Materiais e método: Estudo qualitativo baseado no método compreensivo-interpretativo, em que foram entrevistados 28 profissionais vinculados à vs de um estado e de sua capital no Brasil. O material coletado por meio de entrevista foi analisado a partir da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Emergiram quatro categorias temáticas com relação à vs: concepção, articulação intrínseca e extrínseca, potencialidades e desafios. Os trabalhadores apresentaram uma concepção ampliada sobre a vs, entretanto a visão tecnicista e biomédica ainda persistiu. Conclusões: Os trabalhadores relataram, como potencialidades, a satisfação e o comprometimento no exercício de suas funções e revelaram, como dificuldades, aspectos desestimulantes no cenário em curso. Nessa direção, os participantes apontaram para a alocação de mais verbas e investimentos no setor, para a valorização de suas carreiras e a necessidade de maior suporte por parte da gestão dos serviços.
Resumen Objetivo: Comprender la vigilancia de la salud (vs) desde la perspectiva de los trabajadores de este sector. Materiales y método: Estudio cualitativo bajo el método de interpretación integral, en el que se entrevistó a 28 profesionales vinculados a la vs en un estado de Brasil. El material recogido se analizó utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido. Resultados: Surgieron cuatro categorías temáticas en relación con vs: concepción; articulación intrínseca y extrínseca; potencialidades y desafíos. Los trabajadores presentaron una concepción ampliada sobre vs, sin embargo, la visión técnica y biomédica aún persiste entre los participantes. Conclusiones: Los trabajadores informaron como potencialidades su satisfacción y el compromiso con el ejercicio de sus funciones. Entre las dificultades, señalaron aspectos desalentadores ante el escenario actual. En este sentido, los participantes ponen de manifiesta la necesidad de asignar más fondos e inversiones en el sector, reconocer el valor de su profesión y brindar mayor apoyo para la gestión de servicios.
Abstract Objective: Understanding health surveillance (sv) from the perspective of workers in this sector. Materials and method: Qualitative study under the comprehensive-interpretative method, in which 28 professionals linked to the sv of a Brazilian State and its capital were interviewed. The collected material was analyzed through the content analysis technique. Results: Four thematic categories emerged in relation to SV: conception; intrinsic and extrinsic articulation; potentialities and challenges. Participants presented an expanded conception about sv, although the technical and biomedical vision still remain as the main approach. Conclusions: Among the potentialities, participants reported satisfaction and commitment in the exercise of their functions. As for the difficulties, they revealed discouraging aspects based on the current scenario. In this direction, participants pointed as key elements the allocation of more funds and investment in the sector, more recognition and value to their careers, and the need for greater support from service management.

Factores asociados a la activación de pacientes en hemodiálisis

Resumo Objetivo: Mensurar a ativação de pacientes em hemodiálise e determinar os fatores associados à ativação dessa população. Materiais e método: Estudo exploratório, de caráter descritivo e corte transversal com 162 pacientes em tratamento hemodialítico no interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados de janeiro a abril de 2019, com instrumentos para avaliação sociode-mográfica, socioeconómica e clínica e da escala Pai\ent Activation Measure de 13 itens. A análise de dados foi realizada por estatística descritiva e regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: A medida de ativação dos pacientes em hemodiálise variou de 39,4 a 90,7 pontos, em que a média é 60,85 + 15,57 pontos e a mediana 53,2 (IC: 58,4-63,3) pontos. Dos participantes, 52,5 % (n = 85) apresentavam baixa ativação, sendo que o menor quantitativo de pessoas (18,5 %, n = 30) se encontrava no nível 3. Foi associado à maior prevalência de alta ativação o fato de apresentar o nível superior de ensino e não necessitar de cuidador. Conclusões: Embora as variáveis associadas à alta ativação não sejam modificadas pelos profissionais de saúde, conhecê-las permite inferir qual o perfil de pacientes em hemodiálise que necessitam de intervenções direcionadas ao aumento dos níveis de ativação.
Resumen Objetivo: Medir la activación de pacientes en hemodiálisis y determinar los factores asociados con la activación de esta población. Materiales y método: Estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y transversal con 162 pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis en el interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos fueron recopilados entre enero y abril de 2019 mediante instrumentos para evaluación sociodemográfica, socioeconómica y ecológica y el uso de la escala de Medición de Activación del Paciente de 13 ítems. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo por medio de estadística descriptiva y regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta. Resultados: La medida de activación de los pacientes en hemodiálisis osciló entre 39,4 y 90,7 puntos, siendo la media de 60,85 ± 15,57 puntos y la mediana de 53,2 (IC: 58,4-63,3) puntos. El 52,5 % (n = 85) de los participantes presentaba baja activación y el 18,5 % (n = 30) de la muestra fue clasificado en el nivel 3. Tener un nivel de educación superior y no requerir de un cuidador fueron variables asociadas a una mayor prevalencia de alta activación en este tipo de pacientes. Conclusiones: Aunque las variables asociadas con una alta activación no pueden ser modificadas por los profesionales de la salud, conocerlas permite inferir el perfil de pacientes en hemodiálisis que requiere intervenciones dirigidas a incrementar sus niveles de activación.
Abstract Objective: To measure the activation of hemodialysis patients and determine the factors associated with the activation of this population. Materials and method: Exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 162 hemodialysis patients residing in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data was collected from January to April 2019, using instruments for sociodemographic, socioeconomic and clinical evaluation and the 13-item Patient Activation Measure scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: The activation measure of the studied patients ranged from 39.4 to 90.7 points, with a mean of 60.85 ± 15.57 points and a median of 53.2 (ci: 58.4-63.3). Among participants, 52.5 % (n = 85) reported low activation, while the smallest share of patients (18.5 %, n = 30) was classified within level 3. A higher level of educational attainment and not requiring a caregiver were the variables associated with a higher prevalence of high activation among these patients. Conclusions: Although the variables associated with high activation cannot be modified by health professionals, recognizing them allows us to infer the profile of hemodialysis patients in need for interventions aimed at increasing their activation levels.

Narrativas de personas al final de la vida sobre el autocuidado

Abstract Introduction: Cancer mobilizes people and families who search for healing practices that provide relief from physical, emotional, social, and spiritual distress. Objective: To analyze the self-care of cancer ill people at the end of their lives; patients staying under Palliative Care in a home care service. Materials and method: A qualitative study in Interpretative Anthropology and Medical Anthropology carried out in a home care service of a teaching hospital. From September 2015 to January 2016, eleven individuals at the end of their lives took part in the study. Unstructured observation and narrative interviews were the methods used to collect data, in addition to the narrative analysis from Fritz Schutze. Results: The self-care modalities were biomedical, popular, traditional, simultaneous, overlapping, and juxtaposed. None of the participants noticed any defined scheme or practice. Some people assumed adaptation and experimentation depending on the practice's success to alleviate suffering. Conclusions: The patients resorted to various forms of self-care during the disease, based on sociocultural aspects and sought different practices to meet their needs.
Resumen Introducción: El cáncer moviliza a personas y familias en la búsqueda de prácticas que alivien el sufrimiento físico, emocional, social y espiritual. Objetivo: Analizar el uso de formas de autocuidado en personas que padecen cáncer al final de la vida y se encuentran en Cuidados Paliativos en un servicio de atención domiciliaria. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo, en el campo de la Antropología Interpretativa y la Antropología Médica, realizado en un servicio de atención domiciliaria de un hospital escuela. Los participantes del estudio fueron 11 personas al final de su vida, con trabajo de campo realizado desde septiembre de 2015 hasta enero de 2016. Se utilizó observación no estructurada y entrevista narrativa para la recopilación de datos, además del análisis narrativo de Fritz Schütze. Resultados: Las modalidades de autocuidado fueron la atención biomédica, popular y tradicional, concomitante, superpuesta o yuxtapuesta. No hubo esquemas ni prácticas definidas, las personas fueron experimentando e implementando adaptaciones, conforme la práctica les aliviaba o no el sufrimiento. Conclusiones: Los pacientes recurrieron a diversas formas de autocuidado durante la enfermedad, se basaron en aspectos socioculturales y buscaron diferentes prácticas para atender sus necesidades.
Resumo Introdução: O adoecimento por câncer mobiliza pessoas e famílias na busca por práticas que proporcionem alívio ao sofrimento físico, emocional, social e espiritual. Objetivo: Analisar o uso das formas de autoatenção das pessoas que padecem por câncer em final de vida e estão em cuidados paliativos em serviço de atenção domiciliar. Materiais e métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa, no campo antropologia interpretativa e antropologia médica, realizada em serviço de atenção domiciliar de um hospital de ensino. Participaram do estudo 11 pessoas em final de vida, sendo o trabalho de campo realizado no período de setembro de 2015 a janeiro de 2016. Utilizou-se da observação não estruturada e da entrevista narrativa para a coleta de dados e a análise narrativa de Fritz Schutze. Resultados: As formas de autoatenção foram biomédicas, atenção popular e tradicional, concomitante, sobreposta ou justaposta. Não havia esquema nem práticas definidas, as pessoas foram experimentando e realizando adaptações conforme o retorno da prática, a fim de aliviar o sofrimento. Conclusões: Os pacientes recorreram a diversas formas de autoatenção durante o adoecimento, com base em aspectos socioculturais e buscaram diferentes práticas para atender suas necessidades.

Cuidado transpersonal mediado por Reiki: vivencias de familiares de niños con enfermedad falciforme

Abstract Objective: To understand the experiences of family members of children with sickle cell disease during transpersonal nursing care meetings mediated by Reiki. Materials and methods: Convergent care research, underpinned by Watson's Theory on Human Care, developed in a health facility for people with sickle cell disease in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The study was carried out from August to October 2016. Interviews with participants took place before and after six sessions of transpersonal care mediated by Reiki with seven family members. Thematic content analysis was applied to the data collected. Results: Participants realized the importance of cultivating self-recognition, identifying their fears and feelings, valuing self-care, reflecting on their health priorities and needs, and recognizing their potential for transforming their practices. After the meetings, feelings emerged towards valuing the self as a person to be cared for, reducing anxiety and stress, reconnecting with beliefs and deities, acceptance of the disease, the role of caregiver and the future, as well as better interaction with family members in order to manage conflicts harmonically. Conclusions: Transpersonal care favors nursing professionals' autonomy to create their own way of thinking and practicing longitudinal care, which can be applied throughout the process of prevention, diagnosis and rehabilitation of the disease to achieve healing. It is up to these professionals to deepen theoretically on this approach and use the Clinical Caritas Process in the systematization of nursing care.
Resumen Objetivo: Comprender las vivencias de los familiares de niños con enfermedad falciforme durante encuentros de cuidado transpersonal de enfermería mediados por Reiki. Materiales y método: Estudio convergente asistencial con base en la Teoría del Cuidado Humano de Watson, desarrollado en un centro de atención en salud para personas con enfermedad falciforme en el estado de Bahía, Brasil, entre agosto y octubre de 2016. Se llevaron a cabo una serie de entrevistas antes y después de seis encuentros de cuidado mediado por Reiki con siete familiares de niños con enfermedad falciforme. La información recopilada fue sometida a análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Los participantes dieron cuenta de la importancia de cultivar el autorreconocimiento, identificar sus miedos y sentimientos, valorar el autocuidado, reflexionar sobre sus prioridades y necesidades de salud y reconocer el potencial de cada uno para transformar sus prácticas de vida. Tras las reuniones surgieron sentimientos de valoración del yo como persona a cuidar, reducción de la ansiedad y el estrés, reconexión con creencias y deidades, aceptación de la enfermedad, reflexión en torno al rol de cuidador y el futuro, así como deseos de una mejor interacción con sus familiares para gestionar eventuales conflictos de forma armónica. Conclusiones: El cuidado transpersonal favorece la autonomía de los profesionales en enfermería para crear su propia forma de concebir y practicar el cuidado longitudinal, el cual puede ser aplicado en todo el proceso de prevención, diagnóstico y rehabilitación del estado patológico a fin de alcanzar la sanación. Así, corresponde a la enfermería profundizar teóricamente en este enfoque y hacer uso del Proceso Clínico Caritas para la sistematización de la atención de enfermería.
Resumo Objetivo: Compreender as vivências de familiares de crianças com doença falciforme durante os encontros de cuidado transpessoal de Enfermagem mediado pelo Reiki. Materiais e método: Estudo convergente assistencial, fundamentado na Teoria do Cuidado Humano de Watson desenvolvido em um centro de referência a pessoas com doença falciforme no estado da Bahia, Brasil, entre agosto e outubro de 2016. As entrevistas ocorreram antes e após seis encontros de cuidado mediado pelo Reiki com sete familiares. Os relatos foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Os participantes perceberam a importancia de cultivar o autorreconhecimento, identificar seus temores e sentimentos, valorizar o autocuidado, refletir sobre suas prioridades e necessidades de saúde e reconhecer suas potencialidades para a transformação das suas práticas. Após os encontros, emergiram sensações de valorização do eu enquanto pessoa a ser cuidada, diminuição da ansiedade e do estresse, reconexão com as crenças e as divindades, aceitação da doença, do papel de cuidador e do futuro, bem como melhor interação com familiares de modo a gerir conflitos harmonicamente. Conclusões: O cuidado transpessoal favorece a autonomia das enfermeiras para criar um modo de fazer próprio, permite a prática de um cuidado longitudinal, que pode ser aplicado durante todo o processo de prevenção, diagnóstico e reabilitação do estado de adoecimento, a fim de alcançar o healing.. Cabe à enfermagem o aprofundamento teórico e o uso do Clinical Caritas Process na sistematização da assistência de enfermagem.

Efeitos da pandemia da covid 19 no trabalho e na saúde dos profissionais atuantes no serviço pré-hospitalar: revisão integrati-va

Objetivo: Identificar os efeitos da pandemia da COVID 19 nos profissionais atuantes no atendimento pré-hospitalar. Método: revisão integrativa, conduzida de acordo com o protocolo prisma, por meio das bases de dados: Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, SciElo, BDENF, CUIDEN, CINAHAL. Adotaram-se os Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS): “Saúde do trabalhador” “Pandemia” “COVID 19” “Atendimento pré-hospitalar” “Segurança” “Profissionais de saúde” “Trabalho”. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, foram selecionados treze artigos que compuseram a amostra do estudo. Resultados: dezoito artigos foram analisados e duas categorias foram construídas: risco de contaminação e exposição ocupacional dos profissionais da saúde que cuidam de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19 e risco de adoecimento psicoemocional dos profissionais da saúde que cuidam pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. Conclusão: A revisão mostrou os potenciais efeitos sobre a saúde dos profissionais durante o atendimento de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. E a importância da implementação de estratégias de intervenção focadas nos riscos ocupacionais.

Cost-free pharmacotherapy in smokers with TIA or stroke: QUIT-MED randomised controlled trial

Por: Reid · R. · Papadakis · S. · Gocan · S. · Bourgoin · A. · Laplante · M. A. · Armstrong · A. · Aitken · D. · Sahlas · D. · Stotts · G. · Cotie · L. · Mullen · K.-A. · Pipe · A. · Mir · H. · Sharma · M.
Objective

To examine whether cost-free (CF) smoking cessation medication was more effective than a prescription for cessation medication in patients after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke.

Design

Two-site randomised trial.

Setting

Stroke prevention clinics (SPCs) in Ontario, Canada.

Participants

Smokers with TIA or stroke, willing to quit smoking.

Intervention

Smoking status was assessed in SPC attendees. Smokers were advised to quit smoking and received recommendations for cessation medication and counselling. Consenting participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a CF medication group or a prescription-only (Rx) group. CF participants immediately received a 12-week supply of cessation medication. Rx participants were given a prescription for 12 weeks of cessation medication. Follow-up counselling was provided for 26 weeks.

Main outcome

The primary outcome was 40-week continuous abstinence verified using a carbon monoxide breath test at 52-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes included abstinence at intermediate timepoints, medication adherence and serious adverse events.

Results

Hundred and ninety-four participants were randomised and 131 (67.5%) completed the trial. The 40-week continuous abstinence rate at 52-week follow-up was 15.5% in the CF group versus 14.0% in the Rx group (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.51 to 2.53). The 14-week continuous abstinence rate at 26-week follow-up was 18.6% in the CF group versus 16.8% in the Rx group (OR=1.20; 95% CI 0.56 to 2.55). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks was 38.1% in the CF group versus 26.9% in the Rx group (OR=1.76; 95% CI 0.94 to 3.28). Medication adherence was higher in the CF group versus the Rx group (47.4%±41.2% vs 25.5±36.8%, p

Conclusions

Our findings were inconclusive; we failed to meet our recruitment target and the effect size was smaller than anticipated. CF medication improved medication adherence.

Trial registration number

NCT00962988; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier.

Exploring COVID-19 circuit breaker (CB) restrictions at a migrant worker dormitory in Singapore: a case study and nested mixed-method analysis of stress management and mental health

Por: Wong · M. C. P. · Tan · C. S. · Chan · A. Y. · Khaled · N. · Hasan · M. T. · Panchapakesan · C. · Tripathi · S. · Afsana · K. · Lwin · M. O. · Chen · M. I.-C. · Hildon · Z. J.-L.
Introduction

Measures to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak in the migrant worker dormitories in Singapore included lockdown and isolation of residents for prolonged periods. In this paper, we explore efforts to ease tensions and support mental health under these conditions.

Methods

Case study of dormitory residents under lockdown from April to August 2020 comprises a nested mixed-method approach using an online questionnaire (n=175) and semistructured interviews (n=23) of migrant workers sampled from the survey (August to September 2020). Logistic regression models were used to analyse survey data. Semistructured interviews were analysed using applied thematic analysis.

Results

Survey and interview data showed that mental health was largely protected despite initial rising tensions over restrictions during lockdown. Sources of tension negatively affecting low stress responses included job related worries, OR=0.07 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.18, p

Interviewees shared how their adaptive capability played a pivotal protective role alongside social support and solidarity; aided by regular use of messaging applications, which supported mental health, OR=4.81 (95% CI 1.54 to 15.21, p

Conclusion

Tensions are mapped to protective solutions informing guidelines for future outbreak stress management response.

Long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation services delivery for Wenchuan earthquake survivors with impairments over a 4-year period: a prospective cohort study

Por: Reinhardt · J. · Zhang · X. · Chen · S. · Li · J. · Zhou · M. · Khan · F.
Objective

To examine long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation services on physical function, pain severity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in earthquake survivors over a 4-year period.

Design

Prospective cohort study with early and late intervention and geographical control group.

Setting

Three counties of Sichuan Province, China.

Participants

591 survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake were followed-up over a 4-year period ranging from 2008 to 2012.

Interventions

In Mianzhu county, a comprehensive hospital-based and community-based rehabilitation programme was implemented in September 2008; in Anxian county, the same programme was implemented 1 year later; in Shifang county, the programme was not implemented and survivors from this county served as a control group.

Outcomes

Physical function was measured using Modified Barthel Index (MBI), pain severity with Visual Analogue Scale and PTSD with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. All outcomes were assessed at three time points (baseline from 2008 to 2009, 2010 and 2012) and analysed with mixed effects regression.

Results

400 patients completed all assessments. In all groups, physical function and pain severity improved over time. MBI improvement per month as compared with control was greater in the late rehabilitation (b=1.69, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.19) than the early rehabilitation group (b=0.96, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.24). This rehabilitation effect was however marginally decreasing over time. Superior improvement as compared with control with regard to pain was only found in the early rehabilitation group (b=–0.05, 95% CI –0.09 to –0.02). PTSD symptoms decreased over time, but the observed differences could not be specifically linked to the rehabilitation intervention.

Conclusion

Physical rehabilitation of earthquake survivors appears to be effective in improving physical function and, if delivered early, pain. Effects on mental health are less clear and need further examination using more consistent and frequent assessments of relevant outcomes and determinants.

Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, the COVID-19 cohort study of people experiencing homelessness in Toronto, Canada: a study protocol

Por: Richard · L. · Nisenbaum · R. · Liu · M. · McGeer · A. · Mishra · S. · Gingras · A.-C. · Gommerman · J. L. · Sniderman · R. · Pedersen · C. · Spandier · O. · Jenkinson · J. I. R. · Baral · S. · Mejia-Lancheros · C. · Agarwal · A. · Jamal · A. J. · Ostrowski · M. · Dhalla · I. · Stewart
Introduction

Initial reports suggest people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated morbidity and mortality. However, there have been few longitudinal evaluations of the spread and impact of COVID-19 among PEH. This study will estimate the prevalence and incidence of COVID-19 infections in a cohort of PEH followed prospectively in Toronto, Canada. It will also examine associations between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics with COVID-19 infection, adverse health outcomes related to infection and vaccination. Finally, the data will be used to develop and parameterise a mathematical model to characterise SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, and the transmission impact of interventions serving PEH.

Design, methods and analysis

Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win will follow a random sample of PEH from across Toronto (Canada) for 12 months. 736 participants were enrolled between June and September 2021, and will be followed up at 3-month intervals. At each interval, specimens (saliva, capillary blood) will be collected to determine active SARS-CoV-2 infection and serologic evidence of past infection and/or vaccination, and a detailed survey will gather self-reported information, including a detailed housing history. To examine the association between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics on COVID-19-related infection, adverse outcomes, and vaccination, shelter and healthcare administrative data will be linked to participant study data. Healthcare administrative data will also be used to examine long-term (up to 5 years) COVID-19-related outcomes among participants.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from the Unity Health Toronto and University of Toronto Health Sciences Research Ethics Boards (# 20-272). Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win was designed in collaboration with community and service provider partners and people having lived experience of homelessness. Findings will be reported to groups supporting Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, Indigenous and other community partners and service providers, funding bodies, public health agencies and all levels of government to inform policy and public health programs.

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