Objetivo: Identificar os efeitos da pandemia da COVID 19 nos profissionais atuantes no atendimento pré-hospitalar. Método: revisão integrativa, conduzida de acordo com o protocolo prisma, por meio das bases de dados: Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, SciElo, BDENF, CUIDEN, CINAHAL. Adotaram-se os Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS): “Saúde do trabalhador” “Pandemia” “COVID 19” “Atendimento pré-hospitalar” “Segurança” “Profissionais de saúde” “Trabalho”. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, foram selecionados treze artigos que compuseram a amostra do estudo. Resultados: dezoito artigos foram analisados e duas categorias foram construídas: risco de contaminação e exposição ocupacional dos profissionais da saúde que cuidam de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19 e risco de adoecimento psicoemocional dos profissionais da saúde que cuidam pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. Conclusão: A revisão mostrou os potenciais efeitos sobre a saúde dos profissionais durante o atendimento de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. E a importância da implementação de estratégias de intervenção focadas nos riscos ocupacionais.
To examine whether cost-free (CF) smoking cessation medication was more effective than a prescription for cessation medication in patients after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke.
Two-site randomised trial.
Stroke prevention clinics (SPCs) in Ontario, Canada.
Smokers with TIA or stroke, willing to quit smoking.
Smoking status was assessed in SPC attendees. Smokers were advised to quit smoking and received recommendations for cessation medication and counselling. Consenting participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a CF medication group or a prescription-only (Rx) group. CF participants immediately received a 12-week supply of cessation medication. Rx participants were given a prescription for 12 weeks of cessation medication. Follow-up counselling was provided for 26 weeks.
The primary outcome was 40-week continuous abstinence verified using a carbon monoxide breath test at 52-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes included abstinence at intermediate timepoints, medication adherence and serious adverse events.
Hundred and ninety-four participants were randomised and 131 (67.5%) completed the trial. The 40-week continuous abstinence rate at 52-week follow-up was 15.5% in the CF group versus 14.0% in the Rx group (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.51 to 2.53). The 14-week continuous abstinence rate at 26-week follow-up was 18.6% in the CF group versus 16.8% in the Rx group (OR=1.20; 95% CI 0.56 to 2.55). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks was 38.1% in the CF group versus 26.9% in the Rx group (OR=1.76; 95% CI 0.94 to 3.28). Medication adherence was higher in the CF group versus the Rx group (47.4%±41.2% vs 25.5±36.8%, p
Our findings were inconclusive; we failed to meet our recruitment target and the effect size was smaller than anticipated. CF medication improved medication adherence.
NCT00962988; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier.
Measures to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak in the migrant worker dormitories in Singapore included lockdown and isolation of residents for prolonged periods. In this paper, we explore efforts to ease tensions and support mental health under these conditions.
Case study of dormitory residents under lockdown from April to August 2020 comprises a nested mixed-method approach using an online questionnaire (n=175) and semistructured interviews (n=23) of migrant workers sampled from the survey (August to September 2020). Logistic regression models were used to analyse survey data. Semistructured interviews were analysed using applied thematic analysis.
Survey and interview data showed that mental health was largely protected despite initial rising tensions over restrictions during lockdown. Sources of tension negatively affecting low stress responses included job related worries, OR=0.07 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.18, p
Interviewees shared how their adaptive capability played a pivotal protective role alongside social support and solidarity; aided by regular use of messaging applications, which supported mental health, OR=4.81 (95% CI 1.54 to 15.21, p
Tensions are mapped to protective solutions informing guidelines for future outbreak stress management response.
To examine long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation services on physical function, pain severity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in earthquake survivors over a 4-year period.
Prospective cohort study with early and late intervention and geographical control group.
Three counties of Sichuan Province, China.
591 survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake were followed-up over a 4-year period ranging from 2008 to 2012.
In Mianzhu county, a comprehensive hospital-based and community-based rehabilitation programme was implemented in September 2008; in Anxian county, the same programme was implemented 1 year later; in Shifang county, the programme was not implemented and survivors from this county served as a control group.
Physical function was measured using Modified Barthel Index (MBI), pain severity with Visual Analogue Scale and PTSD with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. All outcomes were assessed at three time points (baseline from 2008 to 2009, 2010 and 2012) and analysed with mixed effects regression.
400 patients completed all assessments. In all groups, physical function and pain severity improved over time. MBI improvement per month as compared with control was greater in the late rehabilitation (b=1.69, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.19) than the early rehabilitation group (b=0.96, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.24). This rehabilitation effect was however marginally decreasing over time. Superior improvement as compared with control with regard to pain was only found in the early rehabilitation group (b=–0.05, 95% CI –0.09 to –0.02). PTSD symptoms decreased over time, but the observed differences could not be specifically linked to the rehabilitation intervention.
Physical rehabilitation of earthquake survivors appears to be effective in improving physical function and, if delivered early, pain. Effects on mental health are less clear and need further examination using more consistent and frequent assessments of relevant outcomes and determinants.
Initial reports suggest people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated morbidity and mortality. However, there have been few longitudinal evaluations of the spread and impact of COVID-19 among PEH. This study will estimate the prevalence and incidence of COVID-19 infections in a cohort of PEH followed prospectively in Toronto, Canada. It will also examine associations between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics with COVID-19 infection, adverse health outcomes related to infection and vaccination. Finally, the data will be used to develop and parameterise a mathematical model to characterise SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, and the transmission impact of interventions serving PEH.
Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win will follow a random sample of PEH from across Toronto (Canada) for 12 months. 736 participants were enrolled between June and September 2021, and will be followed up at 3-month intervals. At each interval, specimens (saliva, capillary blood) will be collected to determine active SARS-CoV-2 infection and serologic evidence of past infection and/or vaccination, and a detailed survey will gather self-reported information, including a detailed housing history. To examine the association between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics on COVID-19-related infection, adverse outcomes, and vaccination, shelter and healthcare administrative data will be linked to participant study data. Healthcare administrative data will also be used to examine long-term (up to 5 years) COVID-19-related outcomes among participants.
Ethical approval was obtained from the Unity Health Toronto and University of Toronto Health Sciences Research Ethics Boards (# 20-272). Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win was designed in collaboration with community and service provider partners and people having lived experience of homelessness. Findings will be reported to groups supporting Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, Indigenous and other community partners and service providers, funding bodies, public health agencies and all levels of government to inform policy and public health programs.