Pathological scarring is an abnormal outcome of wound healing, which often manifests as excessive proliferation and transdifferentiation of fibroblasts (FBs), and excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix. FBs are the most important effector cells involved in wound healing and scar formation. The factors that promote pathological scar formation often act on the proliferation and function of FB. In this study, we describe the factors that lead to abnormal FB formation in pathological scarring in terms of the microenvironment, signalling pathways, epigenetics, and autophagy. These findings suggest that understanding the causes of abnormal FB formation may aid in the development of precise and effective preventive and treatment strategies for pathological scarring that are associated with improved quality of life of patients.
To investigate the clinical application effects of artificial dermis scaffold and autologous split-thickness skin composite grafts combined with vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C) in refractory wounds. A retrospective analysis was performed on 70 patients with refractory wounds admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from June 2019 to December 2021 (44 males and 25 females, with an average age of 49.3 ± 21.4 years). There were 26 patients with chronic ulcers; 3 patients with cancerous wounds; 16 patients with hot crush injuries; and 25 patients with traumatic wounds, including 21 cases of hands, 33 cases of feet, 6 cases of upper limbs, and 10 cases of lower limbs. The patients were divided into an artificial dermis scaffold group (35 patients, including 21 males and 14 females, aged 49.5 ± 21.3 years) and a skin graft group (35 patients, including 23 males and 11 females, aged 49.1 ± 21.5 years). In the artificial dermis scaffold group, after debridement, the artificial dermis scaffold was transplanted for approximately 2 weeks until the wound surface was well vascularized, after which the autologous split-thick skin graft was transplanted. Negative pressure wound therapy was performed throughout the treatment. In the skin grafting group, after debridement, the autologous split-thickness skin graft (aSTSG) was transplanted, and negative pressure wound therapy was performed continuously. The wound healing rate; skin graft survival rate; postoperative wound infection; exudative fluid volume; subcutaneous haematoma; hospitalisation time; hospitalisation cost; Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) score, used to evaluate the scar of the recipient area at 6 months after the operation; and the sensory disorder grading method, used to evaluate the sensory recovery of the recipient area, were compared between the two groups. All 70 refractory wounds healed. In the artificial dermis scaffold group, the skin graft survival rate was 90% (86%–95%), the hospitalisation time was 38 (29–45) days, the hospitalisation cost was 148 102 (118242–192327) yuan, and the VSS score was 1.9 ± 1.3. There were significant differences in skin graft survival rate (70% [60%–80%]), length of hospital stay (21 [14–28] days), hospitalisation cost (76 201 [39228–135 919] yuan) and VSS score [6.1 ± 3.6] between the skin graft group and the artificial dermis scaffold group (P < .05). The skin graft survival rate, scar hyperplasia and sensory recovery of the recipient area in the artificial dermis scaffold group were better than those in the skin graft group, but the hospitalisation time was relatively longer, and the hospitalisation cost was relatively higher. Wound healing rate, postoperative wound infection, exudate volume, and subcutaneous haematoma of patients in the two groups were similar, and there were no significant differences (P > .05). The artificial dermis scaffold and composite transplantation of autologous aSTSG with V.A.C can promote painless wound healing and improve the skin survival rate, skin colour and lustre, and flexible smooth texture and is conducive to less scar hyperplasia and postoperative functional exercise and recovery. This method provides a reasonable and effective scheme for the treatment of clinical refractory wounds.
There are controversies regarding the management of umbilical pilonidal sinuses. The current study aims to report on the efficacy of a non-operative, umbilical conserving procedure in the treatment of umbilical pilonidal sinus. This is a prospective, single cohort study. The cases were managed in a single private practice center. Patients were assessed and managed throughout the previous nine years (from January 2013 to June 2022). The required information was obtained from the center's medical database. The current study included 114 patients. There were 82 (71.9%) male patients. The patients’ ages varied from 14 to 56 years (mean = 23.24). The umbilicus was retracted under local anesthesia. The sinuses were cleaned with povidone-iodine. Following the drying of the cavity, the mixture was put in the umbilicus, and the area was dressed. The amount of mixture was determined by the size of the cavity. Following treatment, the patients were directly discharged home with instructions to remove all hair from the chest and abdomen and keep the dressing dry for three days. After three days, the patients were advised to use a clean cotton swab to remove the injected mixture. Recurrence was reported in 5 cases (4.4%). The current technique might be used effectively in the treatment of umbilical pilonidal sinus. It is an umbilical preserving technique with a minimal recurrence rate.
To evaluate the effects and safety of intermittent versus continuous control of cuff pressure in patients with mechanical ventilation.
Tracheal cuff pressure management is vital to the prognosis of patients with mechanical ventilation.
This meta-analysis was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA checklist. We searched Pubmed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, BMJ Best Practice, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations, as well as the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang, and China national knowledge infrastructure databases up to 5 August 2022 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the intermittent versus continuous control of cuff pressure. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for relevant data analysis.
A total of 18 RCTs involving 1998 patients with mechanical ventilation were included. The synthesised outcomes indicated that continuous control of cuff pressure is beneficial to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) [RR = 0.41, 95%CI (0.35, 0.49)], aspiration [RR = 0.36, 95%CI (0.21, 0.63)], duration of mechanical ventilation [MD = -3.23, 95%CI (−4.66, −1.79)], length of ICU stay [MD = -4.12, 95%CI (−5.40, −2.83)], and increase the volume of subglottic drainage [MD = 18.54, 95%CI (16.50, 20.58)]. There was no significant difference in the mortality between two groups [RR = 1.01, 95%CI (0.84, 1.21)]. Egger regression analyses showed that there were no obvious publication biases in the synthesised results (all p > .05).
Existing evidence shows that compared with intermittent monitoring of cuff pressure, continuous monitoring of cuff pressure can reduce the occurrence of aspiration and VAP, shorten the patient's duration of mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay.
Continuous monitoring of cuff pressure is more beneficial and should be promoted in clinical nursing care of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.
by Ya-Feng Wen, Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera, Shannon L. Pergament, Yeng Moua, Bai Vue, Toua Yang, Muaj Lo, Boguang Sun, Dan Knights, Robert J. StrakaBackground
Hmong men in Minnesota exhibit a high prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia. Although evidence of vitamin C’s effectiveness as a treatment for gout is mixed, analysis of therapeutic benefit based on an individual’s multiomic signature may identify predictive markers of treatment success.Objectives
The primary objective of the Hmong Microbiome ANd Gout, Obesity, Vitamin C (HMANGO-C) study was to assess the effectiveness of vitamin C on serum urate in Hmong adults with and without gout/hyperuricemia. The secondary objectives were to assess if 1) vitamin C impacts the taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiota; 2) taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiota impact vitamin C’s urate-lowering effects; 3) genetic variations impact vitamin C’s urate-lowering effects; 4) differential microbial biomarkers exist for patients with or without gout; and 5) there is an association between obesity, gut microbiota and gout/hyperuricemia.Methods
This prospective open-labelled clinical trial was guided by community-based participatory research principles and conducted under research safety restrictions for SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to enroll a convenient sample of 180 Hmong adults (120 with gout/hyperuricemia and 60 without gout/hyperuricemia) who provided medical, demographic, dietary and anthropometric information. Participants took vitamin C 500mg twice daily for 8 weeks and provided pre-and post- samples of blood and urine for urate measurements as well as stool samples for gut microbiome. Salivary DNA was also collected for genetic markers relevant to uric acid disposition.Expected results
We expected to quantify the impact of vitamin C on serum urate in Hmong adults with and without gout/hyperuricemia. The outcome will enhance our understanding of how gut microbiome and genomic variants impact the urate-lowering of vitamin C and associations between obesity, gut microbiota and gout/hyperuricemia. Ultimately, findings may improve our understanding of the causes and potential interventions that could be used to address health disparities in the prevalence and management of gout in this underserved population.Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04938024 (first posted: 06/24/2021).
by Kimia Shafighi, Sylvia Villeneuve, Pedro Rosa Neto, AmanPreet Badhwar, Judes Poirier, Vaibhav Sharma, Yasser Iturria Medina, Patricia P. Silveira, Laurette Dube, David Glahn, Danilo BzdokAlzheimer’s disease and related dementias is a major public health burden–compounding over upcoming years due to longevity. Recently, clinical evidence hinted at the experience of social isolation in expediting dementia onset. In 502,506 UK Biobank participants and 30,097 participants from the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging, we revisited traditional risk factors for developing dementia in the context of loneliness and lacking social support. Across these measures of subjective and objective social deprivation, we have identified strong links between individuals’ social capital and various indicators of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias risk, which replicated across both population cohorts. The quality and quantity of daily social encounters had deep connections with key aetiopathological factors, which represent 1) personal habits and lifestyle factors, 2) physical health, 3) mental health, and 4) societal and external factors. Our population-scale assessment suggest that social lifestyle determinants are linked to most neurodegeneration risk factors, highlighting them as promising targets for preventive clinical action.
by Jill E. Lavigne, Jason B. GibbonsObjectives
The purpose of this study is to determine the associations between Vitamin D supplementation, 25(OH) blood serum levels, suicide attempts, and intentional self-harm in a population of veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).Methods
A retrospective cohort study of US Veterans supplemented with Vitamin D. Veterans with any Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) fill between 2010 and 2018 were matched 1:1 to untreated control veterans having similar demographics and medical histories. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the time from the first Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) prescription fill to the first suicide attempt or intentional self-harm. Analyses were repeated in stratified samples to measure associations by race (Black or White), gender (male or female), blood levels (0–19 ng/ml, 20–39 ng/ml, and 40+ ng/ml), and average daily dosage.Results
Vitamin D3 and D2 supplementation were associated with a 45% and 48% lower risk of suicide attempt and self-harm ((D2 Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.512, [95% CI, 0.457, 0.574]; D3 HR = 0.552, [95% CI, 0.511, 0.597])). Supplemented black veterans and veterans with 0–19 ng/ml vitamin D serum levels were at ~64% lower risk relative to controls (Black Veteran HR: 0.362 [95% CI: 0.298,0.440]; 0–19 ng/ml HR: 0.359 [95% CI: 0.215,0.598]). Supplementation with higher vitamin D dosages was associated with greater risk reductions than lower dosages (Log Average Dosage HR: 0.837 [95% CI: 0.779,0.900]).Conclusions
Vitamin D supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of suicide attempt and self-harm in Veterans, especially in veterans with low blood serum levels and Black veterans.
by Brenda L. Beagan, Kaitlin R. Sibbald, Stephanie R. Bizzeth, Tara M. PrideDisclosure of LGBTQ+ identities at work may reap benefits, but may also exacerbate harms. Faced with ambiguous outcomes, people engage in complex concealment/disclosure decision-making. For health professionals, in contexts of pervasive heteronormativity where disclosure to patients/clients is deemed to violate professional boundaries, stakes are high. This qualitative study with 13 LGBTQ+ health professionals across Canada used semi-structured interviews to explore factors affecting disclosure decision-making, particularly attending to power structures at multiple levels. Most participants engaged in constant risk-benefit assessment, disclosing strategically to colleagues, rarely to clients/patients. At the individual level they were affected by degree of LGBTQ+ visibility. At the institutional level they were affected by the culture of particular professional fields and practice settings, including type of care and type of patients/clients, as well as colleague interactions. Professional power–held by them, and held by others over them–directly affected disclosures. Finally, intersections of queer identities with other privileged or marginalized identities complicated disclosures. Power relations in the health professions shape LGBTQ+ identity disclosures in complex ways, with unpredictable outcomes. Concepts of professionalism are infused with heteronormativity, serving to regulate the gender and sexual identity expression of queer professionals. Disrupting heteronormativity is essential to forge more open professional cultures.
by Issei Ichimiya, Hiroko IchimiyaDeutsch’s scale illusion demonstrates that the overall pitch range is the preferred organization when in competition with both local (note-to-note) pitch proximity and laterality (differences in the input ear). Such intricate factors can make it difficult to mimic this illusion. If a note is under a condition in which grouping by the overall pitch range and the local pitch proximity do not conflict, we hypothesized that an illusion would be perceived simply as the result of the competition between pitch proximity and laterality. In this paper, we aimed to replicate such a condition by modifying Deutsch’s scale illusion. Psychophysical studies were conducted with healthy subjects. In the first half of the study, the C major scale with successive tones was presented in ascending form, alternating between the right and left ears; counterpart notes were simultaneously presented to the opposite ear, and the subjects were asked to listen to these dichotic tone patterns. Several counterpart notes were applied; we found that when the sequences of counterpart notes were close in note-to-note pitch proximity and were not overlapped with the ascending scale in pitch, the subjects appeared to perceive the scale clearly. In the latter half of the study, we applied this condition in music and devised auditory illusions such that melodies of the passages of "Lightly Row," "Cherry Blossoms," and "Jingle Bells" were perceived by listening to "jagged" dichotic tone patterns. The method we described in this paper is simple, and it is possible to easily create auditory illusions in music by applying our method.