To compare the physical activity of adolescents with three common long-term conditions (asthma, eczema and obesity) with adolescents without these conditions.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of adolescents at ages 12, 14 and 16 in a large UK cohort study.
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
6473 adolescents with complete accelerometer data at at least one time point.
Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time per day were derived from accelerometer-based measurements at ages 12, 14 and 16. Obesity was defined at each time point from height and weight measurements. Parents reported doctor-assessed asthma or eczema. Cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models examined any differences in MVPA or sedentary time for adolescents with asthma, eczema or obesity compared with those without.
In longitudinal models, boys engaged in an average of 69.7 (95% CI 67.6 to 71.7) min MVPA at age 12, declining by 3.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.6) min/year while girls’ average MVPA was 47.5 (95% CI 46.1 to 48.9) min at age 12, declining by 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.1) min/year. There was no strong evidence of differences in physical activity patterns of those with and without asthma or eczema. Obese boys engaged in 11.1 (95% CI 8.7 to 13.6) fewer minutes of MVPA, and obese girls in 5.0 (95% CI 3.3 to 6.8) fewer minutes than their non-obese counterparts. Cross-sectional models showed comparable findings.
Mean minutes of MVPA per day did not differ between adolescents with asthma or eczema and those without, but obese adolescents engaged in fewer minutes of MVPA. Findings reinforce the need for strategies to help obese adolescents be more active but suggest no need to develop bespoke physical activity strategies for adolescents with mild asthma or eczema.
by Brigette Church, Erika Wall, John R. Webb, Caroline E. CameronExtracellular bacteria that spread via the vasculature employ invasive mechanisms that mirror those of metastatic tumor cells, including intravasation into the bloodstream and survival during hematogenous dissemination, arrestation despite blood flow, and extravasation into distant tissue sites. Several invasive bacteria have been shown to exploit normal platelet function during infection. Due to their inherent ability to interact with and influence other cell types, platelets play a critical role in alteration of endothelial barrier permeability, and their role in cancer metastasis has been well established. The highly invasive bacterium and causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, readily crosses the endothelial, blood-brain and placental barriers. However, the mechanisms underlying this unusual and important aspect of T. pallidum pathogenesis are incompletely understood. In this study we use darkfield microscopy in combination with flow cytometry to establish that T. pallidum interacts with platelets. We also investigate the dynamics of this interaction and show T. pallidum is able to activate platelets and preferentially interacts with activated platelets. Platelet-interacting treponemes consistently exhibit altered kinematic (movement) parameters compared to free treponemes, and T. pallidum-platelet interactions are reversible. This study provides insight into host cell interactions at play during T. pallidum infection and suggests that T. pallidum may exploit platelet function to aid in establishment of disseminated infection.