by Takeshi Horii, Kenji Momo, Takeo Yasu, Yusuke Kabeya, Koichiro AtsudaBackground
The extent of medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) several years after starting treatment with hypoglycemic agents remains unknown. Most previous work on medication adherence targeting this group of patients has been undertaken across a single year or is questionnaire based. This study aimed to determine medication adherence status and factors affecting adherence 3 years after initiation of hypoglycemic agents, using a nationwide medical claim-based database in Japan.Methods
This retrospective study was conducted on data from 884 subjects with T2DM to better understand medication adherence, the effects of polypharmacy, and other factors. We also investigated the effects of medication nonadherence on hemoglobin A1c levels. Proportion of days covered was defined as the number of days for which a hypoglycemic agent was prescribed and in the patient’s possession to the number of days in the observation period. A proportion of days covered ≥0.8 were considered adherent, and those with a value Results
Of the 884 patients investigated, 440 were considered adherent during the study period. Significant factors related to adherence included number of medications (3 or 4, or ≥5), male sex, age 50– Conclusions
We surveyed medication adherence for 3 years with post medication initiation, and found that subjects aged 50–
by Jin Ling, Hong Wang, Gaomin Li, Zhen Feng, Yufei Song, Peng Wang, Hong Shao, Hu Zhou, Gang ChenBackground
Escherichia coli is currently unable to be reliably differentiated from Shigella species by routine matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. In the present study, a reliable and rapid identification method was established for Escherichia coli and Shigella species based on a short-term high-lactose culture using MALDI-TOF MS and artificial neural networks (ANN).Materials and methods
The Escherichia coli and Shigella species colonies, treated with (Condition 1)/without (Condition 2) a short-term culture with an in-house developed high-lactose fluid medium, were prepared for MALDI-TOF MS assays. The MS spectra were acquired in linear positive mode, with a mass range from 2000 to 12000 Da and were then compared to discover new biomarkers for identification. Finally, MS spectra data sets 1 and 2, extracted from the two conditions, were used for ANN training to investigate the benefit on bacterial classification produced by the new biomarkers.Results
Twenty-seven characteristic MS peaks from the Escherichia coli and Shigella species were summarized. Seven unreported MS peaks, with m/z 2330.745, m/z 2341.299, m/z 2371.581, m/z 2401.038, m/z 3794.851, m/z 3824.839 and m/z 3852.548, were discovered in only the spectra from the E. coli strains after a short-term high-lactose culture and were identified as belonging to acid shock protein. The prediction accuracies of the ANN models, based on data set 1 and 2, were 97.71±0.16% and 74.39±0.34% (n = 5), with an extremely remarkable difference (p Conclusions
In summary, adding a short-term high-lactose culture approach before the analysis enabled a reliable and easy differentiation of Escherichia coli from the Shigella species using MALDI-TOF MS and ANN.
by Mizuki Tanaka, Shiori Hasegawa, Satoshi Nakao, Kazuyo Shimada, Ririka Mukai, Kiyoka Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro NakamuraMany drugs can cause hearing loss, leading to sensorineural deafness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of drug-induced hearing loss (DIHL) by using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database and to obtain profiles of DIHL onset in clinical settings. We relied on the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms and standardized queries, and calculated the reporting odds ratios (RORs). Furthermore, we applied multivariate logistic regression analysis, association rule mining, and time-to-onset analysis using Weibull proportional hazard models. Of 534688 reports recorded in the JADER database from April 2004 to June 2018, adverse event signals were detected for platinum compounds, sulfonamides (plain) (loop diuretics), interferons, ribavirin, other aminoglycosides, papillomavirus vaccines, drugs used in erectile dysfunction, vancomycin, erythromycin, and pancuronium by determining RORs. The RORs of other aminoglycosides, other quaternary ammonium compounds, drugs used in erectile dysfunction, and sulfonamides (plain) were 29.4 (22.4–38.6), 18.5 (11.2–30.6), 15.4 (10.6–22.5), and 12.6 (10.0–16.0), respectively. High lift score was observed for patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated with pancuronium using association rule mining. The median durations (interquartile range) for DIHL due to platinum compounds, sulfonamides (plain), interferons, antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, other aminoglycosides, carboxamide derivatives, macrolides, and pneumococcal vaccines were 25.5 (7.5–111.3), 80.5 (4.5–143.0), 64.0 (14.0–132.0), 53.0 (9.0–121.0), 11.0 (3.0–26.8), 1.5 (0.3–11.5), 3.5 (1.3–6.8), and 2.0 (1.0–4.5), respectively. Our results demonstrated potential risks associated with several drugs based on their RORs. We recommend to closely monitor patients treated with aminoglycosides for DIHL for at least two weeks. Moreover, individuals receiving platinum compounds, sulfonamides (plain), interferons, and antivirals for HCV infection therapy should be carefully observed for DIHL for at least several months.
by Diogo Silva Vilela, Ricardo Koroiva, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera, Rhainer Guillermo-FerreiraThe genus Franciscobasis Machado & Bedê, 2016 is endemic to the Serra da Canastra National Park in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two species of Franciscobasis were described simultaneously with the genus description: F. franciscoi and F. sonia, the latter described only from females. Through morphological and molecular analysis, we investigated if F. sonia may represent the young female of F. franciscoi. Resulting data did not present adequate differences between females to characterize them as different species. Therefore, we suggest that F. sonia is a junior synonym of F. franciscoi, and the female of F. franciscoi goes through a complex ontogenetic color change.
by Marta Rossi, Davide De Battisti, Jeremy Edward NivenExtrusion of xenobiotics is essential for allowing animals to remove toxic substances present in their diet or generated as a biproduct of their metabolism. By transporting a wide range of potentially noxious substrates, active transporters of the ABC transporter family play an important role in xenobiotic extrusion. One such class of transporters are the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein transporters. Here, we investigated P-glycoprotein transport in the Malpighian tubules of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), a species whose diet includes plants that contain toxic secondary metabolites. To this end, we studied transporter physiology using a modified Ramsay assay in which ex vivo Malpighian tubules are incubated in different solutions containing the P-glycoprotein substrate dye rhodamine B in combination with different concentrations of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. To determine the quantity of the P-glycoprotein substrate extruded we developed a simple and cheap method as an alternative to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, radiolabelled alkaloids or confocal microscopy. Our evidence shows that: (i) the Malpighian tubules contain a P-glycoprotein; (ii) tubule surface area is positively correlated with the tubule fluid secretion rate; and (iii) as the fluid secretion rate increases so too does the net extrusion of rhodamine B. We were able to quantify precisely the relationships between the fluid secretion, surface area, and net extrusion. We interpret these results in the context of the life history and foraging ecology of desert locusts. We argue that P-glycoproteins contribute to the removal of xenobiotic substances from the haemolymph, thereby enabling gregarious desert locusts to maintain toxicity through the ingestion of toxic plants without suffering the deleterious effects themselves.
by Silvia Pierandrei, Giovanna Blaconà, Benedetta Fabrizzi, Giuseppe Cimino, Natalia Cirilli, Nicole Caporelli, Antonio Angeloni, Marco Cipolli, Marco LucarelliTwo novel and related pathogenic variants of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene were structurally and functionally characterized. These alterations have not been previously described in literature. Two patients with diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) based on the presence of one mutated allele, p.Phe508del, pathological sweat test and clinical symptoms were studied. To complete the genotypes of both patients, an extensive genetic and functional analysis of the CFTR gene was performed. Extensive genetic characterization confirmed the presence of p.Phe508del pathogenic variant and revealed, in both patients, the presence of an insertion of part of intron 10 in intron 9 of the CFTR gene, within the (TG)m repeat, with a variable poly-T stretch. The molecular lesions resulted to be very similar in both patients, with only a difference in the number of T in the poly-T stretch. The functional characterization at RNA level revealed a complete anomalous splicing, without exon 10, from the allele with the insertion of both patients. Consequently, the alleles with the insertions are expected not to contribute to the formation of a functional CFTR protein. Molecular and functional features of these alterations are compatible with the definition of novel CF-causing variants of the CFTR gene. This also allowed the completion of the genetic characterization of both patients.
by Daniel Nyato, Jacqueline Materu, Evodius Kuringe, Jeremie Zoungrana, Deusdedit Mjungu, Ruth Lemwayi, Esther Majani, Baltazar Mtenga, Soori Nnko, Grace Munisi, Amani Shao, Mwita Wambura, John Changalucha, Mary Drake, Albert KombaBackground
Little has been documented about partner violence among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) who are out of school, a factor associated with HIV acquisition. To understand areas for prioritising HIV prevention intervention efforts, we explored the prevalence and correlates of partner violence among out of school AGYW in Shinyanga, Tanzania.Methods
A cross-sectional analysis of data from AGYW aged 15–23 years recruited in a cluster randomised trial conducted between October and December 2017 was used to examine correlates of partner violence. Data were collected through an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association.Results
2276 (75.5%) AGYW were sexually active. Of these, 816 (35.9%) reported having experienced violence from partners in the last six months. After adjusting for other covariates, being formerly married (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI:1.02, 2.37), having children (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI:1.47, 2.16), anxiety and depression symptoms (AOR = 3.27, 95%CI: 2.15, 4.96), having engaged in sex work in the past six months (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.53) and economic deprivation (AOR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.34,1.92) were significantly associated with partner violence.Conclusions
Almost one in three sexually active AGYW had experienced partner violence in the 6 months preceding the survey. The findings underscore the need for future research to focus on understanding the reasons and dynamics underlying high level of partner violence among AGYW. Furthermore, there is a need for implementing intervention programs that aim to reduce economic deprivation among AGYWs and address social norms and structures perpetuating violence against AGYW.Trial registration
by Sarit Kumar Rout, Yashwant R. Gabhale, Ambarish Dutta, Sudha Balakrishnan, Mamatha M. Lala, Maninder Singh Setia, Khanindra Bhuyan, Mamta V. ManglaniBackground
India has recently introduced telemedicine initiatives to enhance access to specialized care at a low cost for the pediatric HIV patients, who face multiple challenges due to growing disease burden and limited preparedness of the health system to address it. There are limited evidences on the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. This study was undertaken in Maharashtra, a province, located in the western region of the country, to inform policy regarding the effectiveness of this programme. The objective was to estimate the unit cost of ART services for pediatric HIV patients and examine the efficiency in the use of resource and treatment compliance resulting from telemedicine initiatives in pediatric HIV compared to usual ART services.Methods
We selected 6 ART centers (3 from linked centers linked to Pediatric HIV Centre of Excellence (PCoE) and 3 from non-linked centers) randomly from three high, middle and low ART centers, categorized on the basis of case load in each arm. A bottom up costing methodology was adopted to understand the unit cost of services. Loss to follow up and timeliness of the visits were compared between the two arms and were linked to the cost.Results
The average cost per-visit was INR 1803 in the linked centers and that for the non-linked centers was INR 3412. There has been 5 percentage point improvement in lost to follow-up in the linked centers compared to non-linked centers against a back-drop of a reduction in per-pediatric patient cost of INR 557. The linkage has resulted in increase in timeliness of the visits in linked centers compared to non-linked centers.Discussion and conclusion
The telemedicine linkage led to an increase in the case load leading to a decrease in cost. The evidence on efficiency in the use of resource and improvement in treatment compliance as suggested by this study could be used to scale up this initiative.
by Sonja Spitzer, Daniela WeberThis paper explores which demographic characteristics substantially bias self-reported physical and cognitive health status of older Europeans. The analysis utilises micro-data for 19 European countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to compare performance-tested outcomes of mobility and memory with their self-reported equivalents. Relative importance analysis based on multinomial logistic regressions shows that the bias in self-reported health is mostly due to reporting heterogeneities between countries and age groups, whereas gender contributes little to the discrepancy. Concordance of mobility and cognition measures is highly related; however, differences in reporting behaviour due to education and cultural background have a larger impact on self-assessed memory than on self-assessed mobility. Southern as well as Central and Eastern Europeans are much more likely to misreport their physical and cognitive abilities than Northern and Western Europeans. Overall, our results suggest that comparisons of self-reported health between countries and age groups are prone to significant biases, whereas comparisons between genders are credible for most European countries. These findings are crucial given that self-assessed data are often the only information available to researchers and policymakers when asking health-related questions.