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Effect and outcome of equity, diversity and inclusion programs in healthcare institutions: a systematic review protocol

Por: Buh · A. · Kang · R. · Kiska · R. · Fung · S. G. · Solmi · M. · Scott · M. · Salman · M. · Lee · K. · Milone · B. · Wafy · G. · Syed · S. · Dhaliwal · S. · Gibb · M. · Akbari · A. · Brown · P. A. · Hundemer · G. L. · Sood · M. M.
Background

Equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI) in the healthcare field are crucial in meeting the healthcare needs of a progressively diverse society. In fact, a diverse healthcare workforce enables culturally sensitive care, promotes health equity and enhances the understanding of various needs and patients’ viewpoints, potentially resulting in more effective patient treatment and improved patient outcomes. Despite this, information on the effectiveness of policies or programmes promoting EDI in health institutions is scarce. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects and outcomes of EDI programmes in healthcare institutions.

Methods

We will conduct Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-compliant systematic review of studies on EDI programmes and describe their effects and outcomes in healthcare institutions. We will search PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases. Selected studies will include randomised control trials (RCTs), non-RCTs and cross-sectional studies published either in English or French. Quality appraisal of studies and a narrative synthesis of extracted data will be conducted as well as a meta-analysis if possible. The quality of evidence in this review will be assessed by the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation.

Anticipated results

We anticipate that this systematic review will reveal information on the effect of EDI programmes and their outcomes in healthcare institutions. We expect this information will provide insights that will lead to improvements in designing EDI policies and programmes in healthcare institutions.

Ethics and dissemination

No ethical clearance is required for this study as no primary data will be collected. The final manuscript will be submitted to a journal for publication. In addition to this, the results of the study will also be disseminated through conference presentations to inform the research and clinical practice.

Review registration

This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; registration number CRD42024502781.

Participant recruitment and attrition in surgical randomised trials with placebo controls versus non-operative controls: a meta-epidemiological study and meta-analysis

Por: Natarajan · P. · Menounos · S. · Harris · L. · Monuja · M. · Gorelik · A. · Karjalainen · T. · Buchbinder · R. · Harris · I. A. · Naylor · J. M. · Adie · S.
Objective

To compare differences in recruitment and attrition between placebo control randomised trials of surgery, and trials of the same surgical interventions and conditions that used non-operative (non-placebo) controls.

Design

Meta-epidemiological study.

Data sources

Randomised controlled trials were identified from an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception date to 21 November 2018.

Study selection

Placebo control trials evaluating efficacy of any surgical intervention and non-operative control trials of the same surgical intervention were included in this study. 25 730 records were retrieved from our systemic search, identifying 61 placebo control and 38 non-operative control trials for inclusion in analysis.

Outcome measures

Primary outcome measures were recruitment and attrition. These were assessed in terms of recruitment rate (number of participants enrolled, as a proportion of those eligible) and overall attrition rate (composite of dropout, loss to follow-up and cross-overs, expressed as proportion of total sample size). Secondary outcome measures included participant cross-over rate, dropout and loss to follow-up.

Results

Unadjusted pooled recruitment and attrition rates were similar between placebo and non-operative control trials. Study characteristics were not significantly different apart from time to primary timepoint which was shorter in studies with placebo controls (365 vs 274 days, p=0.006). After adjusting for covariates (follow-up duration and number of timepoints), the attrition rate of placebo control trials was almost twice as high compared with non-operative controlled-trials (incident rate ratio (IRR) (95% CI) 1.8 (1.1 to 3.0), p=0.032). The incorporation of one additional follow-up timepoint (regardless of follow-up duration) was associated with reduced attrition in placebo control surgical trials (IRR (95% CI) 0.64 (0.52 to 0.79), p

Conclusions

Placebo control trials of surgery have similar recruitment issues but higher attrition compared with non-operative (non-placebo) control trials. Study design should incorporate strategies such as increased timepoints for given follow-up duration to mitigate losses to follow-up and dropout.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019117364.

Cohort profile: Worldwide Collaboration on OsteoArthritis prediCtion for the Hip (World COACH) - an international consortium of prospective cohort studies with individual participant data on hip osteoarthritis

Por: van Buuren · M. M. A. · Riedstra · N. S. · van den Berg · M. A. · Boel · F. D. E. M. · Ahedi · H. · Arbabi · V. · Arden · N. K. · Bierma-Zeinstra · S. M. A. · Boer · C. G. · Cicuttini · F. · Cootes · T. F. · Crossley · K. · Felson · D. · Gielis · W. P. · Heerey · J. · Jones · G. · Kluz
Purpose

Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability worldwide. Lack of effective therapies may reflect poor knowledge on its aetiology and risk factors, and result in the management of end-stage hip OA with costly joint replacement. The Worldwide Collaboration on OsteoArthritis prediCtion for the Hip (World COACH) consortium was established to pool and harmonise individual participant data from prospective cohort studies. The consortium aims to better understand determinants and risk factors for the development and progression of hip OA, to optimise and automate methods for (imaging) analysis, and to develop a personalised prediction model for hip OA.

Participants

World COACH aimed to include participants of prospective cohort studies with ≥200 participants, that have hip imaging data available from at least 2 time points at least 4 years apart. All individual participant data, including clinical data, imaging (data), biochemical markers, questionnaires and genetic data, were collected and pooled into a single, individual-level database.

Findings to date

World COACH currently consists of 9 cohorts, with 38 021 participants aged 18–80 years at baseline. Overall, 71% of the participants were women and mean baseline age was 65.3±8.6 years. Over 34 000 participants had baseline pelvic radiographs available, and over 22 000 had an additional pelvic radiograph after 8–12 years of follow-up. Even longer radiographic follow-up (15–25 years) is available for over 6000 of these participants.

Future plans

The World COACH consortium offers unique opportunities for studies on the relationship between determinants/risk factors and the development or progression of hip OA, by using harmonised data on clinical findings, imaging, biomarkers, genetics and lifestyle. This provides a unique opportunity to develop a personalised hip OA risk prediction model and to optimise methods for imaging analysis of the hip.

Exploratory study of using Magnetic resonance Prognostic Imaging markers for Radiotherapy In Cervix cancer (EMPIRIC): a prospective cohort study protocol

Por: Abdul-Latif · M. · Chowdhury · A. · Tharmalingam · H. · Taylor · N. J. · Lakhani · A. · Padhani · A. · Hoskin · P. · Tsang · Y.
Introduction

Radical chemoradiotherapy represents the gold standard for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, despite significant progress in improving local tumour control, distant relapse continues to impact overall survival. The development of predictive and prognostic biomarkers is consequently important to risk-stratify patients and identify populations at higher risk of poorer treatment response and survival outcomes. Exploratory study of using Magnetic resonance Prognostic Imaging markers for Radiotherapy In Cervix cancer (EMPIRIC) is a prospective exploratory cohort study, which aims to investigate the role of multiparametric functional MRI (fMRI) using diffusion-weighed imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and blood oxygen level-dependent imaging (BOLD) MRI to assess treatment response and predict outcomes in patients undergoing radical chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer.

Methods and analysis

The study aims to recruit 40 patients across a single-centre over 2 years. Patients undergo multiparametric fMRI (DWI, DCE and BOLD-MRI) at three time points: before, during and at the completion of external beam radiotherapy. Tissue and liquid biopsies are collected at diagnosis and post-treatment to identify potential biomarker correlates against fMRI. The primary outcome is to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of quantitative parameters derived from fMRI as predictors of progression-free survival at 2 years following radical chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer. The secondary outcome is to investigate the roles of fMRI as predictors of overall survival at 2 years and tumour volume reduction across treatment. Statistical analyses using regression models and survival analyses are employed to evaluate the relationships between the derived parameters, treatment response and clinical outcomes.

Ethics and dissemination

The EMPIRIC study received ethical approval from the NHS Health Research Authority (HRA) on 14 February 2022 (protocol number RD2021-29). Confidentiality and data protection measures are strictly adhered to throughout the study. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences, aiming to contribute to the growing body of evidence on the use of multiparametric MRI in cervical cancer management.

Trial registration number

NCT05532930.

Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) compared with conventional pancreatic transection in distal pancreatectomy: study protocol for the randomised controlled CUSA-1 pilot trial

Por: Holze · M. · Loos · M. · Hüttner · F. · Tenckhoff · S. · Feisst · M. · Knebel · P. · Klotz · R. · Mehrabi · A. · Michalski · C. · Pianka · F.
Background

Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains the most common and serious complication after distal pancreatectomy. Many attempts at lowering fistula rates have led to unrewarding insignificant results as still up to 30% of the patients suffer from clinically relevant POPF. Therefore, the development of new innovative methods and procedures is still a cornerstone of current surgical research.

The cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) device is a well-known ultrasound-based parenchyma transection method, often used in liver and neurosurgery which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in pancreatic surgery, but the first results seem very promising.

Methods

The CUSA-1 trial is a randomised controlled pilot trial with two parallel study groups. This single-centre trial is assessor and patient blinded. A total of 60 patients with an indication for open distal pancreatectomy will be intraoperatively randomised after informed consent. The patients will be randomly assigned to either the control group with conventional pancreas transection (scalpel or stapler) or the experimental group, with transection using the CUSA device. The primary safety endpoint of this trial will be postoperative complications ≥grade 3 according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The primary endpoint to investigate the effect will be the rate of POPF within 30 days postoperatively according to the ISGPS definition. Further perioperative outcomes, including postpancreatectomy haemorrhage, length of hospital stay and mortality will be analysed as secondary endpoints.

Discussion

Based on the available literature, CUSA may have a beneficial effect on POPF occurrence after distal pancreatectomy. The rationale of the CUSA-1 pilot trial is to investigate the safety and feasibility of the CUSA device in elective open distal pancreatectomy compared with conventional dissection methods and gather the first data on the effect on POPF occurrence. This data will lay the groundwork for a future confirmatory multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Ethics and dissemination

The CUSA-1 trial protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Heidelberg (No. S-098/2022). Results will be published in an international peer-reviewed journal and summaries will be provided in lay language to study participants and their relatives.

Trial registration number

DRKS00027474.

Scoping review of interventions to de-implement potentially harmful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in healthcare settings

Por: Rockwell · M. S. · Oyese · E. G. · Singh · E. · Vinson · M. · Yim · I. · Turner · J. K. · Epling · J. W.
Objectives

Potentially harmful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) utilisation persists at undesirable rates worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on interventions to de-implement potentially harmful NSAIDs in healthcare settings and to suggest directions for future research.

Design

Scoping review.

Data sources

PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central and Google Scholar (1 January 2000 to 31 May 2022).

Study selection

Studies reporting on the effectiveness of interventions to systematically reduce potentially harmful NSAID utilisation in healthcare settings.

Data extraction

Using Covidence systematic review software, we extracted study and intervention characteristics, including the effectiveness of interventions in reducing NSAID utilisation.

Results

From 7818 articles initially identified, 68 were included in the review. Most studies took place in European countries (45.6%) or the USA (35.3%), with randomised controlled trial as the most common design (55.9%). Interventions were largely clinician-facing (76.2%) and delivered in primary care (60.2%) but were rarely (14.9%) guided by an implementation model, framework or theory. Academic detailing, clinical decision support or electronic medical record interventions, performance reports and pharmacist review were frequent approaches employed. NSAID use was most commonly classified as potentially harmful based on patients’ age (55.8%), history of gastrointestinal disorders (47.1%), or history of kidney disease (38.2%). Only 7.4% of interventions focused on over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDs in addition to prescription. The majority of studies (76.2%) reported a reduction in the utilisation of potentially harmful NSAIDs. Few studies (5.9%) evaluated pain or quality of life following NSAIDs discontinuation.

Conclusion

Many varied interventions to de-implement potentially harmful NSAIDs have been applied in healthcare settings worldwide. Based on these findings and identified knowledge gaps, further efforts to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and the combination of intervention characteristics associated with effective de-implementation are needed. In addition, future work should be guided by de-implementation theory, focus on OTC NSAIDs and incorporate patient-focused strategies and outcomes, including the evaluation of unintended consequences of the intervention.

Effects of different exercise interventions on chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment in patients with breast cancer: a study protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis

Por: Dong · Y. · Huang · H. · Wang · A.
Introduction

Breast cancer stands as the most prevalent type of cancer affecting women globally, and chemotherapy plays a pivotal role in its treatment by diminishing tumour recurrence and enhancing the survival rates of patients. However, chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) often occurs in patients undergoing treatment. Although multiple clinical trials have indicated that exercise therapy can improve CRCI in patients with breast cancer, there are variations in the types of exercise interventions and their effectiveness. We aim to perform a pioneering network meta-analysis (NMA) to assess and prioritise the effectiveness of various exercise interventions in enhancing cognitive function in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

Methods and analysis

We will search multiple databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wanfang and Sinomed databases, from their inception to May 2023. The main outcome is the cognitive function changes in patients with breast cancer, including subjective and objective results. We will specifically include randomised controlled trials reported in English and Chinese languages, whose primary outcome consists of an assessment of the cognitive function of patients with breast cancer using standardised and validated assessment tools, encompassing both subjective and objective outcomes. The quality of all the trials included will be evaluated based on ‘Version 2 of the Cochrane tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized controlled trials (RoB2)’. We will conduct a Bayesian NMA to thoroughly evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different exercise interventions. We will use cumulative ranking probability plots to estimate the ranking of the best interventions for various exercises. Network plots and funnel plots will be employed to display the study sizes and participants of each exercise intervention, as well as potential publication biases.

Ethics and dissemination

The study findings will be shared via peer-reviewed journals to ensure the highest quality and credibility of the research. As the reporting will not include any private patient data, there are no ethical considerations associated with this protocol.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42023406597.

Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and associated factors affecting emergency medical services professionals in Jordan: a cross-sectional study

Por: Nazzal · M. S. · Oteir · A. O. · Alrawashdeh · A. · Alwidyan · M. T. · Obiedat · Q. · Almhdawi · K. A. · Ismael · N. T. · Williams · B.
Objectives

Emergency medical services (EMSs) personnel are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, no studies have yet investigated the prevalence and effect of these disorders on the Jordanian EMS personnel. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of WMSDs among Jordanian EMS personnel and its associated factors.

Design

This study used a cross-sectional design. Participants were asked to complete a self-administrated and validated questionnaire to measure the WMSDs, including a demographic survey and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were used.

Setting

The Jordanian Civil Defence stations in the main cities of Jordan.

Participants

The sample consisted of 435 EMS workers which were obtained across the country of Jordan. A total of 79.0% of the participants were male, with a mean age of 27.9 (±4.3 SD) years.

Results

The pain in the lower back (308, 70.8%) and neck (252, 57.9%) were the most reported in the last 12 months. Furthermore, about half of the participants reported having pain in their upper back (234, 53.8%), knee (227, 52.2%) and shoulder (226, 52.0%) pain in the last 12 months. Overall, WMSDs in at least one body part were significantly associated with age, experience, being a male, increased body mass index and lower educational level.

Conclusions

There is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among EMS personnel. Multiple variables may be incorporated into a national prevention campaign and professional development programme to educate EMS personnel on avoiding WMSDs.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder stimulant trial in children: an N-of-1 pilot trial to compare stimulant to placebo (FASST): protocol

Por: Crichton · A. · Harris · K. · McGree · J. M. · Nikles · J. · Anderson · P. J. · Williams · K.
Introduction

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by alcohol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is associated with neurodevelopmental deviations, and 50%–94% of children with FASD meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is a paucity of evidence around medication efficacy for ADHD symptoms in children with FASD. This series of N-of-1 trials aims to provide pilot data on the feasibility of conducting N-of-1 trials in children with FASD and ADHD.

Methods and analysis

A pilot N-of-1 randomised trial design with 20 cycles of stimulant and placebo (four cycles of 2-week duration) for each child will be conducted (n=20) in Melbourne, Australia.

Feasibility and tolerability will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, protocol adherence, adverse events and parent ratings of side effects. Each child’s treatment effect will be determined by analysing teacher ADHD ratings across stimulant and placebo conditions (Wilcoxon rank). N-of-1 data will be aggregated to provide an estimate of the cohort treatment effect as well as individual-level treatment effects. We will assess the sample size and number of cycles required for a future trial. Potential mediating factors will be explored to identify variables that might be associated with treatment response variability.

Ethics and dissemination

The study was approved by the Hospital and Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/74678/MonH-2021-269029), Monash (protocol V6, 25 June 2023).

Individual outcome data will be summarised and provided to participating carers and practitioners to enhance care. Group-level findings will be presented at a local workshop to engage stakeholders. Findings will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. All results will be reported so that they can be used to inform prior information for future trials.

Trial registration number

NCT04968522.

Evaluation of a manualised neurofeedback training in psychosomatic-psychotherapeutic outpatient treatment (Neuro-pp-out): study protocol for a clinical mixed-methods pilot study

Por: Schmidt · K. L. · Kowalski · A. · Schweda · A. · Dörrie · N. · Skoda · E. M. · Bäuerle · A. · Teufel · M.
Introduction

Electroencephalographic neurofeedback (NFB), as a non-invasive form of brainwave training, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of various mental health disorders. However, only few results regarding manualised and standardised NFB trainings exist. This makes comparison as well as replication of studies difficult. Therefore, we developed a standard manual for NFB training in patients with mental health disorders attending a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. The current study aims at investigating the conduction of a standardised manual for NFB training in patients with mental health disorders. If successful, the study provides new opportunities to investigate NFB in a more controlled and comparable manner in clinical practice.

Methods and analysis

30 patients diagnosed with a mental health disorder will be included. After the educational interview, patients will undergo baseline diagnostics (T0). The subsequent intervention consists of 10 sessions of NFB training aiming at increasing sensorimotor rhythm and alpha-frequency amplitudes and decreasing theta-frequency and high beta-frequency amplitudes to induce relaxation and decrease subjective stress. All patients will undergo a post-treatment diagnostic assessment (T1) and a follow-up assessment 8 weeks following the closing session (T2). Changes in amplitude bands (primary outcome) will be recorded with electroencephalography during pre-assessments, post-assessments and follow-up assessments and during NFB sessions. Physiological (respiratory rate, blood volume pulse, muscle tension) and psychometric parameters (distress, perceived stress, relaxation ability, depressive and anxiety symptoms, insomnia, self-efficacy and quality of life) will be assessed at T0, T1 and T2. Moreover, satisfaction, acceptance and usability will be assessed at T1 after NFB training. Further, qualitative interviews about the experiences with the intervention will be conducted with NFB practitioners 6 months after the study starts. Quantitative data will be analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance as well as mediation analyses on mixed linear models. Qualitative data will be analysed using Mayring’s content analysis.

Ethics and dissemination

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Duisburg-Essen (23–11140-BO) and patient enrolment began in April 2023. Before participation, written informed consent by each participant will be required. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.

Trial registration number

Prospectively registered on 28 March 2023 in the German clinical trials register, DRKS00031497.

Building CapaCITY/E for sustainable transportation: protocol for an implementation science research program in healthy cities

Por: Winters · M. · Fuller · D. · Cloutier · M.-S. · Harris · M. A. · Howard · A. · Kestens · Y. · Kirk · S. · Macpherson · A. · Moore · S. · Rothman · L. · Shareck · M. · Tomasone · J. R. · Laberee · K. · Stephens · Z. P. · Sones · M. · Ayton · D. · Batomen · B. · Bell · S. · Collins · P. · Diab
Introduction

Improving sustainable transportation options will help cities tackle growing challenges related to population health, congestion, climate change and inequity. Interventions supporting active transportation face many practical and political hurdles. Implementation science aims to understand how interventions or policies arise, how they can be translated to new contexts or scales and who benefits. Sustainable transportation interventions are complex, and existing implementation science frameworks may not be suitable. To apply and adapt implementation science for healthy cities, we have launched our mixed-methods research programme, CapaCITY/É. We aim to understand how, why and for whom sustainable transportation interventions are successful and when they are not.

Methods and analysis

Across nine Canadian municipalities and the State of Victoria (Australia), our research will focus on two types of sustainable transportation interventions: all ages and abilities bicycle networks and motor vehicle speed management interventions. We will (1) document the implementation process and outcomes of both types of sustainable transportation interventions; (2) examine equity, health and mobility impacts of these interventions; (3) advance implementation science by developing a novel sustainable transportation implementation science framework and (4) develop tools for scaling up and scaling out sustainable transportation interventions. Training activities will develop interdisciplinary scholars and practitioners able to work at the nexus of academia and sustainable cities.

Ethics and dissemination

This study received approval from the Simon Fraser University Office of Ethics Research (H22-03469). A Knowledge Mobilization Hub will coordinate dissemination of findings via a website; presentations to academic, community organisations and practitioner audiences; and through peer-reviewed articles.

Effect of metacognitive therapy on depression in patients with chronic disease: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Por: Zhang · Z. · Wang · P. · Gu · J. · Zhang · Q. · Sun · C. · Wang · P.
Background

Chronic diseases have a high prevalence worldwide, and patients with chronic diseases often suffer from depression, leading to a poor prognosis and a low quality of life. Metacognitive therapy is a transdiagnostic psychotherapy intervention focused on thinking patterns, with the advantages of reliable implementation effect, short intervention period and low cost. It can help patients change negative metacognition, alleviate depression symptoms, and has a higher implementation value compared with other cognitive interventions. Therefore, metacognitive therapy may be an effective way to improve the mental health of patients with chronic diseases.

Methods and analysis

CNKI, Wanfang Database, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Sinomed, PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science and PsycINFO will be used to select the eligible studies. As a supplement, websites (eg, the Chinese Clinical Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov) will be searched and grey literature will be included. The heterogeneity and methodological quality of the eligible studies will be independently screened and extracted by two experienced reviewers. All the data synthesis and analysis (drawing forest plots, subgroup analysis and sensitive analysis) will be conducted using RevMan 5.4.1.

Ethics and dissemination

This article is a literature review that does not include patients’ identifiable information. Therefore, ethical approval is not required in this protocol. The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal as well as presentations at relevant conferences.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42023411105.

Short-duration aerobic high-intensity intervals versus moderate exercise training intensity in patients with peripheral artery disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (the Angiof-HIIT Study)

Por: Lanzi · S. · Pousaz · A. · Fresa · M. · Besson · C. · Desgraz · B. · Gremeaux-Bader · V. · Mazzolai · L.
Introduction

Supervised exercise training is among the first-line therapies for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Current recommendations for exercise include guidance focusing on claudication pain, programme and session duration, and frequency. However, no guidance is offered regarding exercise training intensity. This study aims to compare the effects of 12-week-long supervised walking exercise training (high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs moderate-intensity exercise (MOD)) in patients with chronic symptomatic PAD.

Methods and analysis

This study is a monocentric, interventional, non-blinded randomised controlled trial. 60 patients (30 in each group) will be randomly allocated (by using the random permuted blocks) to 12 weeks (three times a week) of HIIT or MOD. For HIIT, exercise sessions will consist of alternating brief high-intensity (≥85% of the peak heart rate (HRpeak)) periods (≤60 s) of work with periods of passive rest. Patients will be asked to complete 1 and then 2 sets of 5–7 (progressing to 10–15x60 s) walking intervals. For the MOD group, exercise training sessions will consist of an alternation of periods of work performed at moderate intensity (≤76% HRpeak) and periods of passive rest. Interventions will be matched by training load. The primary outcome will be the maximal walking distance. Secondary outcomes will include functional performance, functional capacity, heath-related quality of life, self-perceived walking abilities, physical activity and haemodynamic parameters.

Ethics and dissemination

The Angiof-HIIT Study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton de Vaud (study number: 2022-01752). Written consent is mandatory prior to enrolment and randomisation. The results will be disseminated via national and international scientific meetings, scientific peer-reviewed journals and social media.

Trial registration number

NCT05612945.

Defining predictors of responsiveness to advanced therapies in Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis: protocol for the IBD-RESPONSE and nested CD-metaRESPONSE prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study in precision medicine

Por: Wyatt · N. J. · Watson · H. · Anderson · C. A. · Kennedy · N. A. · Raine · T. · Ahmad · T. · Allerton · D. · Bardgett · M. · Clark · E. · Clewes · D. · Cotobal Martin · C. · Doona · M. · Doyle · J. A. · Frith · K. · Hancock · H. C. · Hart · A. L. · Hildreth · V. · Irving · P. M. · Iqbal · S
Introduction

Characterised by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms including diarrhoea, abdominal pain and fatigue can significantly impact patient’s quality of life. Therapeutic developments in the last 20 years have revolutionised treatment. However, clinical trials and real-world data show primary non-response rates up to 40%. A significant challenge is an inability to predict which treatment will benefit individual patients.

Current understanding of IBD pathogenesis implicates complex interactions between host genetics and the gut microbiome. Most cohorts studying the gut microbiota to date have been underpowered, examined single treatments and produced heterogeneous results. Lack of cross-treatment comparisons and well-powered independent replication cohorts hampers the ability to infer real-world utility of predictive signatures.

IBD-RESPONSE will use multi-omic data to create a predictive tool for treatment response. Future patient benefit may include development of biomarker-based treatment stratification or manipulation of intestinal microbial targets. IBD-RESPONSE and downstream studies have the potential to improve quality of life, reduce patient risk and reduce expenditure on ineffective treatments.

Methods and analysis

This prospective, multicentre, observational study will identify and validate a predictive model for response to advanced IBD therapies, incorporating gut microbiome, metabolome, single-cell transcriptome, human genome, dietary and clinical data. 1325 participants commencing advanced therapies will be recruited from ~40 UK sites. Data will be collected at baseline, week 14 and week 54. The primary outcome is week 14 clinical response. Secondary outcomes include clinical remission, loss of response in week 14 responders, corticosteroid-free response/remission, time to treatment escalation and change in patient-reported outcome measures.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from the Wales Research Ethics Committee 5 (ref: 21/WA/0228). Recruitment is ongoing. Following study completion, results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. Publications will be summarised at www.ibd-response.co.uk.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN96296121.

Cost of SARS-CoV-2 self-test distribution programmes by different modalities: a micro-costing study in five countries (Brazil, Georgia, Malaysia, Ethiopia and the Philippines)

Por: Hansen · M. A. · Lekodeba · N. A. · Chevalier · J. M. · Ockhuisen · T. · del Rey-Puech · P. · Marban-Castro · E. · Martinez-Perez · G. Z. · Shilton · S. · Radzi Abu Hassan · M. · Getia · V. · Weinert-Mizuschima · C. · Tenorio Bezerra · M. I. · Chala · L. · Leong · R. · Peregino · R.
Objective

Diagnostic testing is an important tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, yet access to and uptake of testing vary widely 3 years into the pandemic. The WHO recommends the use of COVID-19 self-testing as an option to help expand testing access. We aimed to calculate the cost of providing COVID-19 self-testing across countries and distribution modalities.

Design

We estimated economic costs from the provider perspective to calculate the total cost and the cost per self-test kit distributed for three scenarios that differed by costing period (pilot, annual), the number of tests distributed (actual, planned, scaled assuming an epidemic peak) and self-test kit costs (pilot purchase price, 50% reduction).

Setting

We used data collected between August and December 2022 in Brazil, Georgia, Malaysia, Ethiopia and the Philippines from pilot implementation studies designed to provide COVID-19 self-tests in a variety of settings—namely, workplace and healthcare facilities.

Results

Across all five countries, 173 000 kits were distributed during pilot implementation with the cost/test distributed ranging from $2.44 to $12.78. The cost/self-test kit distributed was lowest in the scenario that assumed implementation over a longer period (year), with higher test demand (peak) and a test kit price reduction of 50% ($1.04–3.07). Across all countries and scenarios, test procurement occupied the greatest proportion of costs: 58–87% for countries with off-site self-testing (outside the workplace, for example, home) and 15–50% for countries with on-site self-testing (at the workplace). Staffing was the next key cost driver, particularly for distribution modalities that had on-site self-testing (29–35%) versus off-site self-testing (7–27%).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that it is likely to cost between $2.44 and $12.78 per test to distribute COVID-19 self-tests across common settings in five heterogeneous countries. Cost-effectiveness analyses using these results will allow policymakers to make informed decisions on optimally scaling up COVID-19 self-test distribution programmes across diverse settings and evolving needs.

Shared decision-making for non-operative management versus operative management of hip fractures in selected frail older adults with a limited life expectancy: a protocol for a nationwide implementation study

Por: Zeelenberg · M. L. · Oosterwijk · P. C. · Willems · H. C. · Gosens · T. · Den Hartog · D. · Joosse · P. · Loggers · S. A. I. · Nijdam · T. M. · Pel-Littel · R. E. · Polinder · S. · Schuijt · H. J. · Wijnen · H. H. · Van der Velde · D. · Van Lieshout · E. M. M. · Verhofstad · M. H. J
Background and purpose

Recent research has highlighted non-operative management (NOM) as a viable alternative for frail older adults with hip fractures in the final phase of life. This study aims to guide Dutch physicians and hospitals nationwide in a standardised implementation of shared decision-making regarding surgery or NOM in selected frail older adults with a hip fracture.

Methods and analysis

The patient population for implementation includes frail older adults aged ≥70 years with an acute proximal femoral fracture, nursing home care or a similar level of care elsewhere and at least one additional criterion (ie, malnutrition, severe mobility impairment or ASA≥4). The 2-year implementation study will be conducted in four phases. In phases 1 and 2, barriers and facilitators for implementation will be identified and an implementation protocol, educational materials and patient information will be developed. Phase 3 will involve an implementation pilot in 14 hospitals across the Netherlands. The protocol and educational material will be improved based on healthcare provider and patient experiences gathered through interviews. Phase 4 will focus on upscaling to nationwide implementation and the effect of the implementation on NOM rate will be measured using data from the Dutch Hip Fracture Audit.

Ethics and dissemination

The study was exempted by the local Medical Research Ethics Committee (MEC-2023-0270, 10 May 2023) and Medical Ethics Committee United (W23.083, 26 April 2023). The study’s results will be submitted to an open access international peer-reviewed journal. Its protocols, tools and results will be presented at several national and international academic conferences of relevant orthogeriatric (scientific) associations.

Trial registration number

NCT06079905 .

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in the general population and under-resourced communities from high-income countries: realist review

Por: Gonzalez-Jaramillo · N. · Abbühl · D. · Roa-Diaz · Z. M. · Kobler-Betancourt · C. · Frahsa · A.
Objective

To compare vaccination willingness before rollout and 1 year post-rollout uptake among the general population and under-resourced communities in high-income countries.

Design

A realist review.

Data sources

Embase, PubMed, Dimensions ai and Google Scholar.

Setting

High-income countries.

Definitions

We defined vaccination willingness as the proportion of participants willing or intending to receive vaccines prior to availability. We defined vaccine uptake as the real proportion of the population with complete vaccination as reported by each country until November 2021.

Results

We included data from 62 studies and 18 high-income countries. For studies conducted among general populations, the proportion of vaccination willingness was 67% (95% CI 62% to 72%). In real-world settings, the overall proportion of vaccine uptake among those countries was 73% (95% CI 69% to 76%). 17 studies reported pre-rollout willingness for under-resourced communities. The summary proportion of vaccination willingness from studies reporting results among people from under-resourced communities was 52% (95% CI 0.46% to 0.57%). Real-world evidence about vaccine uptake after rollout among under-resourced communities was limited.

Conclusion

Our review emphasises the importance of realist reviews for assessing vaccine acceptance. Limited real-world evidence about vaccine uptake among under-resourced communities in high-income countries is a call to context-specific actions and reporting.

Restrictive use of Restraints and Delirium Duration in the Intensive Care Unit (R2D2-ICU): protocol for a French multicentre parallel-group open-label randomised controlled trial

Por: Sonneville · R. · Couffignal · C. · Sigaud · F. · Godard · V. · Audibert · J. · Contou · D. · Celier · A. · Djibre · M. · Schmidt · J. · Jaquet · P. · Mekontso Dessap · A. · Bourel · C. · Bellot · R. · Roy · C. · Lamara · F. · Essardy · F. · Timsit · J.-F. · Cornic · R. · Bouadma · L. · On b
Introduction

Physical restraint (PR) is prescribed in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) to avoid unplanned removal of medical devices. However, it is associated with an increased risk of delirium. We hypothesise that a restrictive use of PR, as compared with a systematic use, could reduce the duration of delirium in ICU patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation.

Methods and analysis

The Restrictive use of Restraints and Delirium Duration in ICU (R2D2-ICU) study is a national multicentric, parallel-group, randomised (1:1) open-label, controlled, superiority trial, which will be conducted in 10 ICUs. A total of 422 adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for an expected duration of at least 48 hours and eligible for prescription of PR will be randomly allocated within 6 hours from intubation to either the restrictive PR use group or the systematic PR use group, until day 14, ICU discharge or death, whichever comes first. In both groups, PR will consist of the use of wrist straps. The primary endpoint will be delirium or coma-free days, defined as the number of days spent alive in the ICU without coma or delirium within the first 14 days after randomisation. Delirium will be assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU twice daily. Key secondary endpoints will encompass agitation episodes, opioid, propofol, benzodiazepine and antipsychotic drug exposure during the 14-day intervention period, along with a core outcome set of measures evaluated 90 days postrandomisation.

Ethics and dissemination

The R2D2-ICU study has been approved by the Comité de Protection des Personnes (CPP) ILE DE FRANCE III—PARIS (CPP19.09.06.37521) on June 10th, 2019). Participant recruitment started on 25 January 2021. Results will be published in international peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at conferences.

Trial registration number

NCT04273360.

Aspirin versus metformin in pregnancies at high risk of preterm pre-eclampsia in China (AVERT): protocol for a multicentre, double-blind, 3-arm randomised controlled trial

Por: Liu · J. · Shen · L. · Nguyen-Hoang · L. · Zhou · Q. · Wang · C. C. · Lu · X. · Sahota · D. · Chong · K. C. · Ying · H. · Gu · W. · Zhou · R. · Yang · H. · Jiang · Y. · Chen · D. · Li · X. · Poon · L.
Introduction

Pre-eclampsia (PE) affects about 5% of Chinese pregnant women and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The first trimester screening model developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation, which uses the Bayes theorem to combine maternal characteristics and medical history together with measurements of biomarkers, has been proven to be effective and has superior screening performance to that of the traditional risk factor-based approach for the prediction of PE. Prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin in women at risk for PE has resulted in a lower incidence of preterm-PE. However, there is no consensus on the preferred aspirin dosage for the prevention of preterm-PE. Evidence has also suggested that metformin has the potential benefit in preventing PE in pregnant women who are at high risk of the disorder.

Method and analysis

We present a protocol (V.2.0, date 17 March 2022) for the AVERT trial, which is a multicentre, double-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) that uses an effective PE screening programme to explore the optimal dosage of aspirin and the role of metformin for the prevention of PE among high-risk pregnant women in China. We intend to recruit 66 000 singleton pregnancies without treatment of low-dose aspirin and metformin at 11–13 weeks’ gestation and all eligible women attending for their first trimester routine scan will be invited to undergo screening for preterm-PE by the combination of maternal factors, mean arterial pressure and placental growth factor. Women found to be at high risk of developing preterm-PE will be invited to take part in the RCT. This study will compare the incidence of preterm-PE with delivery at

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong–New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (CREC Ref. No. 2021.406) in Hong Kong and the Ethics Committee of each participating hospital in Mainland China. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. The results of the AVERT trial will be disseminated at international academic conferences and published in high-impact factor journals.

Trial registration number

NCT05580523.

Colchicine for the treatment of patients with COVID-19: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Por: Cheema · H. A. · Jafar · U. · Shahid · A. · Masood · W. · Usman · M. · Hermis · A. H. · Naseem · M. A. · Sahra · S. · Sah · R. · Lee · K. Y.
Objectives

We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of colchicine treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data sources

We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, medRxiv and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to January 2023.

Eligibility criteria

All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the efficacy of colchicine treatment in patients with COVID-19 as compared with placebo or standard of care were included. There were no language restrictions. Studies that used colchicine prophylactically were excluded.

Data extraction and synthesis

We extracted all information relating to the study characteristics, such as author names, location, study population, details of intervention and comparator groups, and our outcomes of interest. We conducted our meta-analysis by using RevMan V.5.4 with risk ratio (RR) and mean difference as the effect measures.

Results

We included 23 RCTs (28 249 participants) in this systematic review. Colchicine did not decrease the risk of mortality (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.05; I2=0%; 20 RCTs, 25 824 participants), with the results being consistent among both hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients. There were no significant differences between the colchicine and control groups in other relevant clinical outcomes, including the incidence of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.18; p=0.22; I2=40%; 8 RCTs, 13 262 participants), intensive care unit admission (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.22; p=0.27; I2=0%; 6 RCTs, 961 participants) and hospital admission (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.16; p=0.19; I2=70%; 3 RCTs, 8572 participants).

Conclusions

The results of this meta-analysis do not support the use of colchicine as a treatment for reducing the risk of mortality or improving other relevant clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. However, RCTs investigating early treatment with colchicine (within 5 days of symptom onset or in patients with early-stage disease) are needed to fully elucidate the potential benefits of colchicine in this patient population.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42022369850.

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