Lower‐extremity peripheral artery disease (LEAD) is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among inflammatory and thrombotic markers and lower‐extremity peripheral disease. A total of 280 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 152 patients had LEAD on peripheral angiography that was performed because of suspected lower‐extremity peripheral disease based on history, physical examination, and non‐invasive tests. The control group consisted of 128 patients without LEAD on peripheral angiography. Patients with LEAD were classified according to trans‐atlantic inter‐society consensus (TASC) II classification. Subsequently, patients in TASC A to B were defined as having mild to moderate peripheral artery disease, and those in TASC C to D were defined as having advanced peripheral artery disease. Thrombotic and inflammatory markers, such as the neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the high‐sensitivity C (hs‐C) reactive protein level, the monocyte‐to‐high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol ratio, the fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR), and whole‐blood viscosity at high shear rate (HSR) and low shear rate (LSR), were evaluated in this population. The NLR, the monocyte‐to‐high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol ratio, the FAR, and whole‐blood viscosity, both at a LSR and a HSR, were significantly higher in patients with lower‐extremity peripheral disease compared with patients without lower‐extremity peripheral disease. We determined that lower‐extremity peripheral disease severity was correlated with the NLR, monocyte‐to‐high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol ratio, FAR, whole‐blood viscosity at LSR, and whole‐blood viscosity at HSR (r = 0.719, P = .004; r = 0.25, P = .008; r = 0.691, P = .002; r = 0.546, P < .001; and r = 0.448, P = .001, respectively). However hs‐C reactive protein levels were similar between patients with or without LEAD (2.47 ± 1.32 1.61 ± 0.91 P = .685). In addition, there was no correlation between the severity of LEAD and hs‐C reactive levels. In this study, we determined that the levels of inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers are elevated in peripheral artery disease, and these levels predict disease severity.
NexoBrid (NXB) has been proven to be an effective selective enzymatic debridement agent in adults. This manuscript presents the combined clinical trial experience with NXB in children. Hundred and ten children aged 0.5 to 18 years suffering from deep thermal burns of up to 67% total body surface area were treated with NXB in three clinical trials. Seventy‐seven children were treated with NXB in a phase I/II study, where 92.7% of the areas treated achieved complete eschar removal within 0.9 days from admission. Thirty‐three children (17 NXB, 16 standard of care [SOC]) participated in a phase III randomized controlled trial. All wounds treated with NXB achieved complete eschar removal. Time to complete eschar removal (from informed consent) was 0.9 days for NXB vs 6.5 days for SOC (P < .001). The incidence of surgical excision was 7.9% for NXB vs 73.3% for SOC (P < .001). Seventeen of these children participated in a phase III‐b follow‐up study (9 NXB and 8 SOC). The average long‐term modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores were 3.4 for NXB‐treated wounds vs 4.4 for SOC‐treated wounds (NS). There were no significant treatment‐related adverse events. Additional studies are needed to strengthen these results.
Abdominal drainage, serving as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, has been widely applied to prevent complications after major abdominal surgical procedures. However, dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube and poor drainage after major surgery has never been detailed. In this retrospective study, we determined whether postoperative abdominal infectious complications are attributed to dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube. Patients were recruited from the Department of General Surgery at Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, between June 2015 and June 2018. All of the enrolled patients had undergone different major abdominal surgical procedures with abdominal drainage. According to different fixation methods of the drainage tube, the patients were categorised as follows: group 1 as conventional extra‐abdominal fixation where the tubes were fixed on abdominal wall; group 2 as double fixation where the tubes were fixed by both extra‐abdominal and intra‐abdominal fixation. Among 60 patients (40 in group 1 and 20 in group 2) with suspected postoperative abdominal infection, abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed to determine the presence of abnormality. Dislocation of drainage tubes, morbidity, treatment, and prognosis were compared between the two groups. None of the patients showed slip knot or drainage tube slipping from the abdomen based on physical examination and CT imaging. Drainage tube was fixed firmly on the abdominal wall. In group 1, 18 (45%) patients developed postoperative complications resulting from abdominal infection where severe dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tubes was confirmed by CT. Drainage tubes of six cases were significantly dislocated to the anterior abdominal wall from the target area; 7 upper abdominal drainage tubes dislocated to the lower abdomen; and 5 lower abdominal drainage tubes dislocated to the upper abdomen. Common complications included localised peritonitis (n = 4), abdominal abscess (n = 8), and anastomotic leakage (n = 6). Among them, 8 patients were cured by abdominal puncture catheter drainage; 5 underwent secondary operation and 5 were cured by conservative treatment. In group 2, no tube dislocation was identified by CT. Five patients (25%) developed complications, including localised peritonitis (n = 1), abdominal abscess (n = 1), and anastomotic leakage (n = 3). All the five patients were cured by conservative treatment. Postoperative abdominal infection complications can stem from dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube and poor drainage after major abdominal surgery. Maintaining the intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube at the proper location, for example, by applying intraabdominal fixation, is paramount to decrease the incidence and severity of postoperative complications.
To determine the effective indications of closed‐incisional negative‐pressure wound therapy (ciNPWT) following total hip or knee arthroplasty, this systematic review and meta‐analysis was conducted. The systematic search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and 11 studies were included. The studies comparing between ciNPWT and conventional dressings were categorised into following subgroups based on patient risk and revision procedures: routine vs high‐risk patient; primary vs revision arthroplasty. Pooled estimates were calculated for wound complication and surgical site infection (SSI) rates in the subgroup analyses using Review Manager. In high‐risk patients, the overall rates of wound complication (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15‐0.93; P = .030) and SSI (OR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.09‐0.64; P = .005) were significantly lower in the ciNPWT; however, there were no differences in routine patients. In cases involving revision arthroplasties, the overall rates of wound complication (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.18‐0.62; P < .001) and SSI (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.11‐0.66; P = .004) were significantly lower in the ciNPWT; however, there were no differences in cases involving primary arthroplasties. In summary, ciNPWT showed a positive effect in decreasing the rates of wound complication and SSI in high‐risk patients and in revision arthroplasties.
by Konstantin Tachkov, Konstantin Mitov, Yordanka Koleva, Zornitsa Mitkova, Maria Kamusheva, Maria Dimitrova, Valentina Petkova, Alexandra Savova, Miglena Doneva, Dimitar Tcarukciev, Vasil Valov, Galia Angelova, Manoela Manova, Guenka PetrovaAims
To evaluate the expected life expectancy in patients with diabetes in Bulgaria and to compare it to the expected life expectancy of the non-diabetic population in the country.Methods
It is a retrospective observational population study on individuals diagnosed with diabetes, compared to the non-diabetic population in Bulgaria for the period 2012–2015. Data from the national diabetes register and national statistical institute were used to construct life-tables with probability of survival with t-test and Chi Square test. Confounder analysis was done by age, sex, and type of diabetes. All-cause mortality and deaths in diabetic patients were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for each age group and a log-rank analysis was conducted.Results
Average life expectancy in the non-diabetic population, patients with Type 1 DM and with Type 2 DM is 74.8; 70.96 and 75.19 years, respectively. For 2012–2015 the mortality in the non-diabetic population remained constant and lower (average—1.48%) compared to type-1 DM (5.25%) and Type-2 (4.27%). Relative risk of death in diabetics was higher overall (12%), after the age of 70 before which the relative risk was higher for the non-diabetic population. This was observed as a trend in all analyzed years.Conclusion
Patients with type 2 DM have a longer life-expectancy than patients with type-1 DM and overall Diabetics life expectancy equals that of the non-diabetic population, which could suggest improved disease control and its associated complications in Bulgaria. Male diabetics show slightly longer life expectancy than their counterparts in the non-diabetic population, by a marginal gain of 0.6 years for the entire observed period. Life expectancy in diabetic women increased by 1.3 years, which was not observed in the non-diabetic population. Prevalence of diabetes was higher for women. Improved diabetes control may explain this gain in life; however other studies are needed to confirm this.
by Jamie Bernadette A. Sy, Tsui-Chun Hsu, Aniket Limaye, Je-Ruei LiuFruits have been widely considered as the default “health foods” because they contain numerous vitamins and minerals needed to sustain human health. Fermentation strategies have been utilized to enhance the nutritive and flavor features of healthy and readily consumable fruit products while extending their shelf lives. A traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage was made from five fruits including kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, and grape fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae along with lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The immunomodulatory properties of the fermented multi-fruit beverage, in vivo nonspecific and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune response experiments using female BALB/c mice were performed. Administration of the fermented multi-fruit beverage reduced the calorie intake, thus resulting in a less weight gain in mice compared to the water (placebo)-fed mice. In the nonspecific immune study model, the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced phagocytosis and T cell proliferation but did not affect B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Analysis of cytokine secretion profile also revealed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and T helper (Th)1-related cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ production, thus creating an immunostimulatory effect. Nonetheless, in the specific immune study model, the results showed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α production in OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, it also caused a decrease in the production of anti-OVA IgG1, which was accompanied by a decrease in Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 production and an increase in Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ production, indicating that it may have the potential to shift the immune system from the allergen‐specific Th2 responses toward Th1-type responses. The results indicate that fermented multi-fruit beverage has the potential to modulate immune responses both in a nonspecific and specific manners.
by Naoto Yagi, Koki Aoyama, Noboru OhtaHuman skin, not previously frozen, was studied by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The samples were folded so that a 6μm X-ray beam passed through the top layer of skin, stratum corneum. Diffraction patterns recorded with this method consisted of peaks at about q = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.4 nm-1 in the direction perpendicular to the skin surface more clearly than in previous studies. These peaks are interpreted to arise from lipids between corneocytes. A simple unit of a linear electron density profile with three minima was used to account for the observed intensity profiles. Combinations of calculated diffraction from models with one, two and three units accounted for the major part of the observed diffraction pattern, showing the diversity in the structure of the intercellular lipids.
by Nader M. Sobhy, Sarah G. A. Yousef, Hamada A. Aboubakr, Muhammad Nisar, Kakambi V. Nagaraja, Sunil K. Mor, Robert J. Valeris-Chacin, Sagar M. GoyalDiarrhea caused by Escherichia coli in calves is an important problem in terms of survivability, productivity and treatment costs. In this study, 88 of 150 diarrheic animals tested positive for E. coli. Of these, 54 samples had mixed infection with other bacterial and/or parasitic agents. There are several diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). Molecular detection of virulence factors Stx2, Cdt3, Eae, CNF2, F5, Hly, Stx1, and ST revealed their presence at 39.7, 27.2, 19.3, 15.9, 13.6, 9.0, 3.4, and 3.4 percent, respectively. As many as 13.6% of the isolates lacked virulence genes and none of the isolate had LT or CNF1 toxin gene. The odds of isolating ETEC from male calves was 3.6 times (95% CI: 1.1, 12.4; P value = 0.042) that of female calves, whereas the odds of isolating NTEC from male calves was 72.9% lower (95% CI: 91.3% lower, 15.7% lower; P value = 0.024) than that in females. The odds of isolating STEC in winter was 3.3 times (95% CI: 1.1, 10.3; P value = 0.037) that of spring. Antibiograms showed 48 (54.5%) of the isolates to be multi-drug resistant. The percent resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 79.5, 67.0, 54.5, and 43.0, respectively. Ceftazidime (14.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (13.6%) and aztreonam (11.3%) showed the lowest resistance, and none of the isolates was resistant to imipenem. The results of this study can help improve our understanding of the epidemiological aspects of E. coli infection and to devise strategies for protection against it. The prevalence of E. coli pathotypes can help potential buyers of calves to avoid infected premises. The antibiograms in this study emphasizes the risks associated with the random use of antibiotics.
by Taek-Hee Jung, Eun-Bin Chung, Hyung Woo Kim, Seong Woo Choi, Soon-Jung Park, Anthony Safaa Mukhtar, Hyung-Min Chung, Eunmi Kim, Kang Moo Huh, Dong Sung Kim, Sun-Woong Kang, Sung-Hwan MoonVarious nanopatterning techniques have been developed to improve cell proliferation and differentiation efficiency. As we previously reported, nanopillars and pores are able to sustain human pluripotent stem cells and differentiate pancreatic cells. From this, the nanoscale patterns would be effective environment for the co-culturing of epithelial and mesenchymal cell types. Interestingly, the nanopatterning selectively reduced the proliferative rate of mesenchymal cells while increasing the expression of adhesion protein in epithelial type cells. Additionally, co-cultured cells on the nanopatterning were not negatively affected in terms of cell function metabolic ability or cell survival. This is in contrast to conventional co-culturing methods such as ultraviolet or chemical treatments. The nanopatterning appears to be an effective environment for mesenchymal co-cultures with typically low proliferative rates cells such as astrocytes, neurons, melanocytes, and fibroblasts without using potentially damaging treatments.
by Ingela Sjölin, Maria Bäck, Lennart Nilsson, Alexandru Schiopu, Margret LeosdottirBackground
Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.Methods
In this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.Results
Attenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p Conclusions
In an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event.
by I. M. Wagensveld, A. C. Weustink, J. A. Kors, B. M. Blokker, M. G. M. Hunink, J. W. OosterhuisObjectives
Autopsy rates worldwide have dropped significantly over the last five decades. Imaging based autopsies are increasingly used as alternatives to conventional autopsy (CA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the introduction of minimally invasive autopsy, consisting of CT, MRI and tissue biopsies on the overall autopsy rate (of CA and minimally invasive autopsy) and the autopsy rate among different ethnicities.Methods
We performed a prospective single center before-after study. The intervention was the introduction of minimally invasive autopsy as an alternative to CA. Minimally invasive autopsy consisted of MRI, CT, and CT-guided tissue biopsies. Autopsy rates over time and the effect of introducing minimally invasive autopsy were analyzed with a linear regression model. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the autopsy rates of two groups: a group of western-European ethnicity versus a group of other ethnicities.Results
Autopsy rates declined from 14.0% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2019. The linear regression model showed a significant effect of both time and availability of minimally invasive autopsy on the overall autopsy rate. The predicted autopsy rate in the model started at 15.1% in 2010 and dropped approximately 0.1% per month (β = -0.001, p Conclusions
The introduction of the minimally invasive autopsy had a small, but significant effect on the overall autopsy rate. Furthermore, the minimally invasive autopsy appears to be more acceptable than CA among people with an ethnicity other than western-European.
by Vartika Srivastava, Aijaz AhmadCandida auris, a decade old Candida species, has been identified globally as a significant nosocomial multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogen responsible for causing invasive outbreaks. Biofilms and overexpression of efflux pumps such as Major Facilitator Superfamily and ATP Binding Cassette are known to cause multidrug resistance in Candida species, including C. auris. Therefore, targeting these factors may prove an effective approach to combat MDR in C. auris. In this study, 25 clinical isolates of C. auris from different hospitals of South Africa were used. All the isolates were found capable enough to form biofilms on 96-well flat bottom microtiter plate that was further confirmed by MTT reduction assay. In addition, these strains have active drug efflux mechanism which was supported by rhodamine-6-G extracellular efflux and intracellular accumulation assays. Antifungal susceptibility profile of all the isolates against commonly used drugs was determined following CLSI recommended guidelines. We further studied the role of farnesol, an endogenous quorum sensing molecule, in modulating development of biofilms and drug efflux in C. auris. The MIC for planktonic cells ranged from 62.5–125 mM, and for sessile cells was 125 mM (4h biofilm) and 500 mM (12h and 24h biofilm). Furthermore, farnesol (125 mM) also suppresses adherence and biofilm formation by C. auris. Farnesol inhibited biofilm formation, blocked efflux pumps and downregulated biofilm- and efflux pump- associated genes. Modulation of C. auris biofilm formation and efflux pump activity by farnesol represent a promising approach for controlling life threatening infections caused by this pathogen.
by Renata Cífková, Jan Bruthans, Peter Wohlfahrt, Alena Krajčoviechová, Pavel Šulc, Marie Jozífová, Lenka Eremiášová, Jan Pudil, Aleš Linhart, Jiří Widimský Jr, Jan Filipovský, Otto Mayer Jr, Zdenka Škodová, Rudolf Poledne, Petr Stávek, Věra LánskáBackground
Compared with Western Europe, the decline in cardiovascular (CV) mortality has been delayed in former communist countries in Europe, including the Czech Republic. We have assessed longitudinal trends in major CV risk factors in the Czech Republic from 1985 to 2016/17, covering the transition from the totalitarian regime to democracy.Methods
There were 7 independent cross-sectional surveys for major CV risk factors conducted in the Czech Republic in the same 6 country districts within the WHO MONICA Project (1985, 1988, 1992) and the Czech post-MONICA study (1997/98, 2000/01, 2007/08 and 2016/2017), including a total of 7,606 males and 8,050 females. The population samples were randomly selected (1%, aged 25–64 years).Results
Over the period of 31/32 years, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of smoking in males (from 45.0% to 23.9%; p p p Conclusions
The significant improvement in most CV risk factors between 1985 and 2016/17 substantially contributed to the remarkable decrease in CV mortality in the Czech Republic.
by Namareq Widatalla, Yoshiyuki Kasahara, Yoshitaka Kimura, Ahsan KhandokerThe end timing of T waves in fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) is important for the evaluation of ST and QT intervals which are vital markers to assess cardiac repolarization patterns. Monitoring malignant fetal arrhythmias in utero is fundamental to care in congenital heart anomalies preventing perinatal death. Currently, reliable detection of end of T waves is possible only by using fetal scalp ECG (fsECG) and fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). fMCG is expensive and less accessible and fsECG is an invasive technique available only during intrapartum period. Another safer and affordable alternative is the non-invasive fECG (nfECG) which can provide similar assessment provided by fsECG and fMECG but with less accuracy (not beat by beat). Detection of T waves using nfECG is challenging because of their low amplitudes and high noise. In this study, a novel model-based method that estimates the end of T waves in nfECG signals is proposed. The repolarization phase has been modeled as the discharging phase of a capacitor. To test the model, fECG signals were collected from 58 pregnant women (age: (34 ± 6) years old) bearing normal and abnormal fetuses with gestational age (GA) 20-41 weeks. QT and QTc intervals have been calculated to test the level of agreement between the model-based and reference values (fsECG and Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signals) in normal subjects. The results of the test showed high agreement between model-based and reference values (difference
by Lukas Simon Kriem, Kevin Wright, Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez, Steffen RuppThe study of oral disease progression, in relation to the accumulation of subgingival biofilm in gingivitis and periodontitis is limited, due to either the ability to monitor plaque in vitro. When compared, optical spectroscopic techniques offer advantages over traditional destructive or biofilm staining approaches, making it a suitable alternative for the analysis and continued development of three-dimensional structures. In this work, we have developed a confocal Raman spectroscopy analysis approach towards in vitro subgingival plaque models. The main objective of this study was to develop a method for differentiating multiple oral subgingival bacterial species in planktonic and biofilm conditions, using confocal Raman microscopy. Five common subgingival bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, Veillonella dispar, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella nigrescens) were used and differentiated using a 2-way orthogonal Partial Least Square with Discriminant Analysis (O2PLS-DA) for the collected spectral data. In addition to planktonic growth, mono-species biofilms cultured using the ‘Zürich Model’ were also analyzed. The developed method was successfully used to predict planktonic and mono-species biofilm species in a cross validation setup. The results show differences in the presence and absence of chemical bands within the Raman spectra. The O2PLS-DA model was able to successfully predict 100% of all tested planktonic samples and 90% of all mono-species biofilm samples. Using this approach we have shown that Confocal Raman microscopy can analyse and predict the identity of planktonic and mono-species biofilm species, thus enabling its potential as a technique to map oral multi-species biofilm models.
As the storage time of the fat tissue passes by, lipid peroxidation and creation of by‐products may take place. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cell viability and functional changes of adipose‐derived stem cells (ADSCs) in the cryopreserved lipoaspirates at different temperatures in accordance with lipid peroxidation. Lipoaspirates acquired from liposuction were divided into four different temperature groups and stored at 4°C, −20°C, −80°C, and −196°C. After isolating ADSC from each sample, gross cell morphology and cell viability were compared with doubling time and colony‐forming unit (CFU) formation ability. Acid value, that is, thiobarbituric acid value was measured to assess lipid peroxidation. No viable ADSC was observed in −20°C and −196°C samples for past 1 week and a superior number of the live cells were detected in the 4°C group compared with the −80°C group. However, the persistence of cell division and CFU formation after 1 week was only observed in adipocytes stored at −80°C. Lipid peroxidation mainly occurred at 4°C and −20°C storage samples. If the lipoaspirates were planned to be cryopreserved, it is advised to store at −80°C. However, the number of actually functional ADSCs is very low. Furthermore, even in the cryopreserved status, continuous lipid peroxidation and by‐product creation took place, suggesting shorter preservation period as possible in the clinics.
Pressure ulcer incidence is high in intensive care units. This causes a serious financial burden to healthcare systems. We evaluated the cost‐effectiveness of multi‐layered silicone foam dressings for prevention of sacral and heel pressure ulcers in addition to standard prevention in high‐risk intensive care units patients. A randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of multi‐layered silicone foam dressings to prevent the development of pressure ulcers on heels and sacrum among 422 intensive care unit patients was conducted. Direct costs for preventive dressings in the intervention group and costs for treatment of incident pressure ulcers in both groups were measured using a bottom‐up approach. A cost‐effectiveness analysis by calculating the incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio using different assumptions was performed. Additional dressing and labour costs of €150.81 (€116.45 heels; €34.36 sacrum) per patient occurred in the intervention group. Treatment costs were €569.49 in the control group and €134.88 in the intervention group. The incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio was €1945.30 per PU avoided (€8144.72 on heels; €701.54 sacrum) in the intervention group. We conclude that application of preventive dressings is cost‐effective for the sacral area, but only marginal on heels for critically ill patients.
The first years of school are critical in establishing a foundation for positive long-term academic, social and well-being outcomes. Mindfulness-based interventions may help students transition well into school, but few robust studies have been conducted in this age group. We aim to determine whether compared with controls, children who receive a mindfulness intervention within the first years of primary school have better: (1) immediate attention/short-term memory at 18 months post-randomisation (primary outcome); (2) inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility at 18 months post-randomisation; (3) socio-emotional well-being, emotion-regulation and mental health-related behaviours at 6 and 18 months post-randomisation; (4) sustained changes in teacher practice and classroom interactions at 18 months post-randomisation. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether the implementation predicts the efficacy of the intervention, and the cost effectiveness relative to outcomes.
This cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in 22 primary schools in disadvantaged areas of Melbourne, Australia. 826 students in the first year of primary school will be recruited to detect between groups differences of Cohen’s d=0.25 at the 18-month follow-up. Parent, teacher and child-assessment measures of child attention, emotion-regulation, executive functioning, socio-emotional well-being, mental health-related behaviour and learning, parent mental well-being, teacher well-being will be collected 6 and 18 months post-randomisation. Implementation factors will be measured throughout the study. Intention-to-treat analyses, accounting for clustering within schools and classes, will adopt a two-level random effects linear regression model to examine outcomes for the intervention versus control students. Unadjusted and analyses adjusted for baseline scores, baseline age, gender and family socioeconomic status will be conducted.
Ethics approval has been received by the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of Melbourne. Findings will be reported in peer-review publications, national and international conference presentations and research snapshots directly provided to participating schools and families.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619000326190).
Echocardiographic (echo) screening is an important tool to estimate rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence, but the natural history of screen-detected RHD remains unclear. The PROVAR+ (Programa de RastreamentO da VAlvopatia Reumática) study, which uses non-experts, telemedicine and portable echo, pioneered RHD screening in Brazil. We aimed to assess the mid-term evolution of Brazilian schoolchildren (5–18 years) with echocardiography-detected subclinical RHD and to assess the performance of a simplified score consisting of five components of the World Heart Federation criteria, as a predictor of unfavourable echo outcomes.
Public schools of underserved areas and private schools in Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil.
A total of 197 patients (170 borderline and 27 definite RHD) with follow-up of 29±9 months were included. Median age was 14 (12–16) years, and 130 (66%) were woman. Only four patients in the definite group were regularly receiving penicillin.
Unfavourable outcome was based on the 2-year follow-up echo, defined as worsening diagnostic category, remaining with mild definite RHD or development/worsening of valve regurgitation/stenosis.
Among patients with borderline RHD, 29 (17.1%) progressed to definite, 49 (28.8%) remained stable, 86 (50.6%) regressed to normal and 6 (3.5%) were reclassified as other heart diseases. Among those with definite RHD, 13 (48.1%) remained in the category, while 5 (18.5%) regressed to borderline, 5 (18.5%) regressed to normal and 4 (14.8%) were reclassified as other heart diseases. The simplified echo score was a significant predictor of RHD unfavourable outcome (HR 1.197, 95% CI 1.098 to 1.305, p
The simple risk score provided an accurate prediction of RHD status at 2-year follow-up, showing a good performance in Brazilian schoolchildren, with a potential value for risk stratification and monitoring of echocardiography-detected RHD.