To explore the experience of physical restraints during mechanical ventilation in intensive care from the perspectives of patients and family members.
This research was a qualitative study with a naturalistic inquiry framework adhering to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines.
In-depth, semi-structured conversations were conducted with five patients and six family members who had either personally experienced or witnessed their loved ones being physically restrained during mechanical ventilation in intensive care. Data collection occurred between March 2018 and June 2019. These conversations were audio-recorded and transcribed. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.
Three major themes emerged from the data. These themes were: Being tied down; Feeling helpless; and Finding light in the darkness.
The experience of physical restraints during mechanical ventilation in intensive care leads to traumatic experiences which can impact patients and families long after their ICU stay. Holistic care, which considers the physical, emotional and psychological needs of patients and families, should be more thoroughly explored when managing treatment interference to minimize harm.
This study gained insight into the physical, emotional and psychological consequences of applying physical restraints to patients who are mechanically ventilated as an intervention for preventing treatment interference. The findings of this study have the potential to improve ICU patient and family outcomes by influencing current physical restraint practices. Recommendations from this research can contribute to practice change by informing policy, shifting workplace culture and norms about restraints, and encouraging education and training.
Wounds continue to be of a global concern. Therefore, a more focussed, evidence-based approach to wound assessment and management is required. The WOUND COMPASS™ Clinical Support App (CSA) is designed to support the health care professional with wound assessment and management at the point of care. This real-world pilot study aimed to determine the utility of the CSA during routine wound management, in multiple care settings. A non-interventional, real-world pilot programme of the CSA was conducted at four sites. Patients received routine wound management. The CSA was programmed to replicate the site's formulary for evidence-based wound management. Anonymised pre- and post-pilot clinician opinion surveys on useability and impact of the CSA were collected and reported. Wound Specialists (n = 7 [100%]) and Non-Wound Specialists (NWS) (n = 58 [82%]) indicated that competence and confidence in wound assessment were enhanced with use of the CSA (100%; 82%). Furthermore, practice variation was reduced because of a greater compliance to their local formulary (n = 7 [100%]; 79% [54%]). This real-world pilot shows the positive impact of the CSA, and the improvements that can be potentially realised via reduction in practice variation, improvement in NWSs confidence when managing wounds and increased formulary compliance.
To examine factors associated with declaration of disability by medical students and doctors, and the association of declared disability with academic performance.
Observational study using record-linked data collected between 2002 and 2018.
UK Medical Education Database is a repository of data relating to training of medical students and doctors. Disability and other data are record-linked.
All students starting at a UK medical school between 2002 and 2018 (n=135 930).
Declared disability was categorised by the Higher Education Statistics Authority. Outcomes related to undergraduate academic performance included scores in the educational performance measure (EPM), prescribing safety assessment and situational judgement test. Performance in postgraduate examinations was studied, as well as prior attainment in school examinations and aptitude tests.
Specific learning disability (SLD) was the most commonly declared disability (3.5% compared with the next most commonly declared disability at 1.0% of n=129 345 all cases in the study), and during the period covered by the data, SLD declarations increased from 1.4% (n=6440 for students starting in 2002) to 4.6% (n=8625 for students starting in 2018). In a logistic regression, the following factors predicted recording of SLD on entry to medical school ((exp(B)±95% CI), p2=5.637, p=1), whether or not a student’s parents had a higher education (2=0.140, p=1), or whether or not a student had received a United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) bursary (2=7.661, p=0.068). Students who declared SLD at some point in medical school (n=4830) had lower EPM normalised deviate values (–0.390) than those who did not (–0.119) (F=189.872, p2=6.905, p=0.032). Of 3580 first year students who declared SLD, 43.1% had not sat the UKCAT Special Educational Needs aptitude test (which gives extra time for those with special educational needs), while 28% of 2400 registrants for whom SLD was recorded as medical students did not declare it at General Medical Council registration.
Substantial increases in declaration of SLD may reflect changes in the social and legal environment during the period of the study. Those who declare SLD are just as likely to gain a primary medical qualification as those who do not. For some individuals, disability declaration appears to depend on context, based on differences in numbers declaring SLD before, during and after medical school.
To critically review community nurse-led domestic abuse interventions aimed at identifying and responding to domestic abuse in the postnatal period.
Domestic abuse is a global problem resulting in dire consequences for women and children. Public Health Nurses (PHNs) are ideally placed to give women the opportunity to disclose in a safe and confidential manner; however, community settings present complex challenges.
An integrative review and narrative summary.
Five electronic databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Scopus, and peer-reviewed journals were searched for research papers published between 01 January 2005 and 01 March 2019. Fifteen papers met the inclusion criteria.
An integrative review where qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Following quality appraisal, data were collated, analysed and themes were identified.
Quantitative outcomes from short-term interventions include an increase in routine enquiry, documentation of alone status and safety planning, however, referrals remained low. There was a reduction in victimization seen in intensive home visiting interventions. One study reported potential harm to mothers experiencing domestic abuse prior to the intervention. Thematic analysis generated three themes: (1) benefits to women and nurses, (2) approaches to domestic abuse identification and response and (3) implementation of community nurse-led interventions.
Community nurse-led domestic abuse interventions have shown to have positive outcomes for women, provided the appropriate supports are in place such as: interagency training; guidelines, referral pathways and safety protocols; collaborative working with domestic abuse services and organizational support.
Professionals such as PHNs are challenged to respond appropriately and compassionately to domestic abuse disclosures, while ensuring the safety of women and children is central to service delivery. This integrative review will inform further development, implementation and the sustainability of community nurse-led domestic abuse initiatives worldwide.
Amid the rising number of people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), Kenya has invested in strengthening primary care and in efforts to expand existing service delivery platforms to integrate NCD care. One such approach is the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) model in western Kenya, which provides the platform for the Primary Health Integrated Care Project for Chronic Conditions (PIC4C), launched in 2018 to further strengthen primary care services for the prevention and control of hypertension, diabetes, breast and cervical cancer. This study seeks to understand how well PIC4C delivers on its intended aims and to inform and support scale up of the PIC4C model for integrated care for people with NCDs in Kenya.
The study is guided by a conceptual framework on implementing, sustaining and spreading innovation in health service delivery. We use a multimethod design combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, involving: (1) in-depth interviews with health workers and decision-makers to explore experiences of delivering PIC4C; (2) a cross-sectional survey of patients with diabetes or hypertension and in-depth interviews to understand how well PIC4C meets patients’ needs; (3) a cohort study with an interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the degree to which PIC4C leads to health benefits such as improved management of hypertension or diabetes; and (4) a cohort study of households to examine the extent to which the national hospital insurance chronic care package provides financial risk protection to people with hypertension or diabetes within PIC4C.
The study has received approvals from Moi University Institutional Research and Ethics Committee (FAN:0003586) and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (17940). Workshops with key stakeholders at local, county, national and international levels will ensure early and wide dissemination of our findings to inform scale up of this model of care. We will also publish findings in peer-reviewed journals.
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in December 2019, has caused millions of deaths and severe illness worldwide. Numerous vaccines are currently under development of which a few have now been authorised for population-level administration by several countries. As of 20 September 2021, over 48 million people have received their first vaccine dose and over 44 million people have received their second vaccine dose across the UK. We aim to assess the uptake rates, effectiveness, and safety of all currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in the UK.
We will use prospective cohort study designs to assess vaccine uptake, effectiveness and safety against clinical outcomes and deaths. Test-negative case–control study design will be used to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Self-controlled case series and retrospective cohort study designs will be carried out to assess vaccine safety against mild-to-moderate and severe adverse events, respectively. Individual-level pseudonymised data from primary care, secondary care, laboratory test and death records will be linked and analysed in secure research environments in each UK nation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models will be carried out to estimate vaccine uptake levels in relation to various population characteristics. VE estimates against laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection will be generated using a generalised additive logistic model. Time-dependent Cox models will be used to estimate the VE against clinical outcomes and deaths. The safety of the vaccines will be assessed using logistic regression models with an offset for the length of the risk period. Where possible, data will be meta-analysed across the UK nations.
We obtained approvals from the National Research Ethics Service Committee, Southeast Scotland 02 (12/SS/0201), the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage independent Information Governance Review Panel project number 0911. Concerning English data, University of Oxford is compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation and the National Health Service (NHS) Digital Data Security and Protection Policy. This is an approved study (Integrated Research Application ID 301740, Health Research Authority (HRA) Research Ethics Committee 21/HRA/2786). The Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners Clinical Informatics Digital Hub meets NHS Digital’s Data Security and Protection Toolkit requirements. In Northern Ireland, the project was approved by the Honest Broker Governance Board, project number 0064. Findings will be made available to national policy-makers, presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.
Stillbirth is associated with significant physical, psychosocial and economic consequences for parents, families, wider society and the healthcare system. There is emerging momentum to design and evaluate interventions for care after stillbirth and in subsequent pregnancies. However, there is insufficient evidence to inform clinical practice compounded by inconsistent outcome reporting in research studies. To address this paucity of evidence, we plan to develop a core outcome set for stillbirth care research, through an international consensus process with key stakeholders including parents, healthcare professionals and researchers.
The development of this core outcome set will be divided into five distinct phases: (1) Identifying potential outcomes from a mixed-methods systematic review and analysis of interviews with parents who have experienced stillbirth; (2) Creating a comprehensive outcome long-list and piloting of a Delphi questionnaire using think-aloud interviews; (3) Choosing the most important outcomes by conducting an international two-round Delphi survey including high-income, middle-income and low-income countries; (4) Deciding the core outcome set by consensus meetings with key stakeholders and (5) Dissemination and promotion of the core outcome set. A parent and public involvement panel and international steering committee has been convened to coproduce every stage of the development of this core outcome set.
Ethical approval for the qualitative interviews has been approved by Berkshire Ethics Committee REC Reference 12/SC/0495. Ethical approval for the think-aloud interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meetings has been awarded from the University of Bristol Faculty of Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 116535). The dissemination strategy is being developed with the parent and public involvement panel and steering committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed specialty journals, shared at national and international conferences and promoted through parent organisations and charities.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for stroke. There is a fivefold increase in stroke risk in the presence of AF. The irregular beating of the heart enables blood stasis which allows clots to form. These can migrate to the brain causing a stroke. AF is common and its incidence increases with age. AF is often asymptomatic and early detection enables effective preventive treatment reducing stroke risk by up to two-thirds.
Stroke contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality globally. In Ireland, it is the leading cause of acquired disability and second leading cause of death. The cost associated with stroke is significant. Stroke risk increases with age and is a public health priority.
Internationally, there is consensus among experts that AF screening is valuable. In Ireland, the National Cardiovascular Policy recommended establishing a screening programme. However, there are many ways to screen for AF including pulse palpation, mobile ECG devices, 12-lead ECG and personal health monitoring devices.
This study aims to investigate the acceptability, feasibility and impact of AF screening in primary care using a handheld mobile ECG device.
General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses in the South of Ireland will opportunistically screen patients aged ≥65 years for AF at routine consultation using a handheld one-lead ECG device, KardiaMobile. This study will screen up to 4000 patients. Blood pressure and smoking status will be checked concurrently. A mixed-method evaluation will be undertaken including a partial economic evaluation. Anonymised data will be collected from participating practices and qualitative interviews will be conducted with GP, nurse and patient participants.
Ethical approval has been granted by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee in University College Cork. Dissemination will involve publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentation at national and international conferences.
Accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is key to evaluate its effects. We sought to validate and establish cut-offs for self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy using urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(-3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a large contemporary prospective study from the USA, with lower smoking prevalence than has previously been evaluated.
Prospective birth cohort.
Pregnancy clinics in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA.
1396 women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study with self-reported smoking, urinary cotinine, NNAL and pregnancy outcomes.
Cut-offs for urinary cotinine and NNAL concentrations were estimated from logistic regression models using Youden’s method to predict SHS and active smoking. Cotinine and NNAL were each used as the exposure in separate multifactorial models for pregnancy outcomes.
Self-reported maternal smoking was: 72% non-smokers, 5.7% ex-smokers, 6.4% SHS exposure, 6.2% currently smoked, 10% unreported. Cotinine and NNAL levels were low and highly intercorrelated (r=0.91). Geometric mean cotinine, NNAL were 0.99 ng/mL, 0.05 pmol/mL, respectively. Cotinine cut-offs for SHS, current smoking were 1.2 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL (area under curve (AUC) 95% CI: 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57), 0.90 (0.85 to 0.94)). NNAL cut-off for current smoking was 0.09 pmol/mL (AUC=0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.87)). Using cotinine and NNAL cut-offs combined gave similar AUC to cotinine alone, 0.87 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.91). Cotinine and NNAL gave almost identical effect estimates when modelling pregnancy outcomes.
In this population, we observed high concordance between self-complete questionnaire smoking data and urinary cotinine and NNAL. With respect to biomarkers, either cotinine or NNAL can be used as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure overall but only cotinine can be used to detect SHS.
To coproduce a school-based protocol and examine acceptability and feasibility of collecting saliva samples for genetic studies from secondary/high school students for the purpose of mental health research.
Protocol coproduction and mixed-methods feasibility pilot.
Secondary schools in Wales, UK.
Students aged 11–13 years.
Coproduced research protocol including an interactive science workshop delivered in schools; school, parental and student recruitment rates; adherence to protocol and adverse events; ability to extract and genotype saliva samples; student enjoyment of the science workshop and qualitative analysis of teacher focus groups on acceptability and feasibility.
Five secondary schools participated in the coproduction phase, and three of these took part in the research study (eligible sample n=868 students). Four further schools were subsequently approached, but none participated. Parental opt-in consent was received from 98 parents (11.3% eligible sample), three parents (0.3%) actively refused and responses were not received for 767 (88.4%) parents. We obtained saliva samples plus consent for data linkage for 79 students. Only one sample was of insufficient quality to be genotyped. The science workshop received positive feedback from students. Feedback from teachers showed that undertaking research like this in schools is viewed as acceptable in principle, potentially feasible, but that there are important procedural barriers to be overcome. Key recommendations include establishing close working relationships between the research team and school classroom staff, together with improved methods for communicating with and engaging parents.
There are major challenges to undertaking large-scale genetic mental health research in secondary schools. Such research may be acceptable in principle, and in practice DNA collected from saliva in classrooms is of sufficient quality. However, key challenges that must be overcome include ensuring representative recruitment of schools and sufficient parental engagement where opt-in parental consent is required.
This scoping review presents an exploration of literature on the relationship between treatment attitudes and adherence in adults experiencing schizophrenia.
Strategies to address adherence and improve treatment outcomes are described in literature. However, adherence remains a challenge for people experiencing mental illness in practice. Transformational frameworks, evidence-based practice and patient-centred approaches have been established and implemented but non-adherence incidence rates continue to rise among people with schizophrenia. Moreover, the relationship between treatment attitudes and adherence in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia remains unclear.
A scoping review using the framework offered by Implementation Science, 5, 2010, 1. The PRISMA-ScR checklist was used to ensure integrity of the review.
Four databases PsychINFO, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL databases were searched for literature along with the reference lists of eligible sources. Original research, peer-reviewed articles published between 2010 and 2020 in English language were included. Articles were included if study participants were adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychosis. Methodological quality was evaluated using a quality assessment checklist, the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool.
Ten articles were included in the study. Five main themes about treatment adherence emerged from the literature: (i) severity of symptoms, (ii) side effects, (iii) beliefs and attitudes, (iv) insight and (v) support and relationships.
This scoping review concluded that attitude influenced adherence to medication in people with schizophrenia. The five main themes reported directly influenced attitude, impacting on treatment adherence in people experiencing schizophrenia. This review makes recommendations for a person-centred and recovery framework that aims to improve adherence.
Nurses in all healthcare settings could use evidence-based strategies to enhance treatment adherence in people with a range of physical and mental health conditions.
The COVID-19 pandemic has produced radical changes in international health services. In Ireland, the National Ambulance Service established a novel home and community testing service that was central to the national COVID-19 screening programme. This service was overseen by a multidisciplinary response room. This research examined the response room service, particularly areas that performed well and areas requiring improvement, using a quality improvement (QI) framework.
This was a qualitative study comprising semi-structured, individual interviews. Maximum variation sampling was used. The data were analysed using an established thematic analysis procedure. The analysis was guided by the framework, which comprised six QI drivers.
Response room employees, including clinicians, dispatchers and administrators, were interviewed via telephone.
Leadership for quality: participants valued person-oriented leadership, including regular, open communication and consultation with staff. Person/family engagement: participants endeavoured to provide patient-centred care. Formal patient feedback mechanisms and shared decision-making could be beneficial in the future. Staff engagement: working in a response room could affect well-being, though it also provided networking and learning opportunities. Staff require support and teambuilding. Use of improvement methods: improvements were made in a relatively informal, ad hoc manner. The use of robust methods based on improvement science was not reported. Measurement for quality: data were collected to improve efficiency and accuracy. More rigorous measurement would be beneficial, especially formally collecting stakeholder feedback. Governance for quality: close alignment with collaborators and clear communication with staff are essential. Information and communications technology for quality: this seventh driver was added because the importance of information technology specially designed for pandemics was frequently highlighted.
The study provides insights on what worked well and what required improvement in a pandemic response room. It can inform health services, particularly emergency services, in their preparation for additional COVID-19 waves, as well as future crises.
The aim of this study is to develop a better understanding of incident reporting in relation to transitions in care between hospital and care home, and to codesign a systems-level response to safety issues for patients transitioning between hospital and care home.
Two workstreams (W) will run in parallel. W1 will aim to develop a taxonomy of incident reporting in care homes, underpinned by structured interviews (N=150) with care home representatives, scoping review of care home incident reporting systems, and a review of incident reporting policy related to care homes. The taxonomy will be developed using a standardised approach to taxonomy development. W2 will be structured in three phases (P). P1a will consist of ≤40 interviews with care home staff to develop a better understanding of their specific internal systems for reporting incidents, and P1b will include ≤30 interviews with others involved in transitions between hospital and care home. P1a and P1b will also examine the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on safe transitions. P2 will consist of a retrospective documentary analysis of care home data relating to resident transitions, with data size and sampling determined based on data sources identified in P1a. A validated data extraction form will be adapted before use. P3 will consist of four validation and codesign workshops to develop a service specification using National Health Service Improvement’s service specification framework, which will then be mapped against existing systems and recommendations produced. Framework analysis informed by the heuristic of systemic risk factors will be the primary mode of analysis, with content analysis used for analysing incident reports.
The study has received university ethical approval and Health Research Authority approval. Findings will be disseminated to commissioners, providers and regulators who will be able to use the codesigned service specification to improve integrated care.
Approximately 40% of late-life dementia may be prevented by addressing modifiable risk factors, including physical activity and diet. Yet, it is currently unknown how multiple lifestyle factors interact to influence cognition. The ACTIVate Study aims to (1) explore associations between 24-hour time-use and diet compositions with changes in cognition and brain function; and (2) identify duration of time-use behaviours and the dietary compositions to optimise cognition and brain function.
This 3-year prospective longitudinal cohort study will recruit 448 adults aged 60–70 years across Adelaide and Newcastle, Australia. Time-use data will be collected through wrist-worn activity monitors and the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults. Dietary intake will be assessed using the Australian Eating Survey food frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome will be cognitive function, assessed using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III. Secondary outcomes include structural and functional brain measures using MRI, cerebral arterial pulse measured with diffuse optical tomography, neuroplasticity using simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography, and electrophysiological markers of cognitive control using event-related potential and time frequency analyses. Compositional data analysis, testing for interactions between time point and compositions, will assess longitudinal associations between dependent (cognition, brain function) and independent (time-use and diet compositions) variables.
The ACTIVate Study will be the first to examine associations between time-use and diet compositions, cognition and brain function. Our findings will inform new avenues for multidomain interventions that may more effectively account for the co-dependence between activity and diet behaviours for dementia prevention.
Ethics approval has been obtained from the University of South Australia’s Human Research Ethics committee (202639). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts, conference presentations, targeted media releases and community engagement events.
Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619001659190).
Early intervention (EI) endorses family-centred and participation-focused services, but there remain insufficient options for systematically enacting this service approach. The Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure electronic patient-reported outcome (YC-PEM e-PRO) is an evidence-based measure for caregivers that enables family-centred services in EI. The Parent-Reported Outcomes for Strengthening Partnership within the Early Intervention Care Team (PROSPECT) is a community-based pragmatic trial examining the effectiveness of implementing the YC-PEM e-PRO measure and decision support tool as an option for use within routine EI care, on service quality and child outcomes (aim 1). Following trial completion, we will characterise stakeholder perspectives of facilitators and barriers to its implementation across multiple EI programmes (aim 2).
This study employs a hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation study design. For aim 1, we aim to enrol 223 caregivers of children with or at risk for developmental disabilities or delays aged 0–3 years old that have accessed EI services for three or more months from one EI programme in the Denver Metro catchment of Colorado. Participants will be invited to enrol for 12 months, beginning at the time of their child’s annual evaluation of progress. Participants will be randomised using a cluster-randomised design at the EI service coordinator level. Both groups will complete baseline testing and follow-up assessment at 1, 6 and 12 months. A generalised linear mixed model will be fitted for each outcome of interest, with group, time and their interactions as primary fixed effects, and adjusting for child age and condition severity as secondary fixed effects. For aim 2, we will conduct focus groups with EI stakeholders (families in the intervention group, service coordinators and other service providers in the EI programme, and programme leadership) which will be analysed thematically to explain aim 1 results and identify supports and remaining barriers to its broader implementation in multiple EI programmes.
This study has been approved by the institutional review boards at the University of Illinois at Chicago (2020-0555) and University of Colorado (20-2380). An active dissemination plan will ensure that findings have maximum reach for research and practice.
Cardiac arrest remains a common and devastating cause of death and disability worldwide. While targeted temperature management has become standard of care to improve functional neurologic outcome, few pharmacologic interventions have shown similar promise.
This systematic review will focus on prospective human studies from 2015 to 2020 available in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE with a primary focus on impact on functional neurologic outcome. Prospective studies that include pharmacologic agents given during or after cardiac arrest will be included. Study selection will be in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. If sufficient data involving a given agent are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted and compared with current evidence for therapies recommended in international practice guidelines.
Formal ethical approval will not be required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication, conference presentation and lay press.
International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (CRD42021230216).
Diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) uptake is suboptimal in many countries with limited evidence available on interventions to enhance DRS uptake in primary care. We investigated the feasibility and preliminary effects of an intervention to improve uptake of Ireland’s national DRS programme, Diabetic RetinaScreen, among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
We conducted a cluster randomised pilot trial, embedded process evaluation and cost analysis in general practice, July 2019 to January 2020.
Eight practices participated in the trial. For the process evaluation, surveys were conducted with 25 staff at intervention practices. Interviews were conducted with nine staff at intervention practices, and 10 patients who received the intervention.
The intervention comprised practice reimbursement, an audit of attendance, electronic prompts targeting professionals, General Practice-endorsed patient reminders and a patient information leaflet. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention (n=4) or wait-list control (n=4) (usual care).
Staff and patient interviews explored their perspectives on the intervention. Patient registration and attendance, including intention to attend, were measured at baseline and 6 months. Microcosting was used to estimate intervention delivery cost.
The process evaluation identified that enablers of feasibility included practice culture and capacity to protect time, systems to organise care, and staff skills, and workarounds to improve intervention ‘fit’. At 6 months, 22/71 (31%) of baseline non-attenders in intervention practices subsequently attended screening compared with 15/87 (17%) in control practices. The total delivery cost across intervention practices (patients=363) was 2509, averaging 627 per practice and 6.91 per audited patient. Continuation criteria supported proceeding to a definitive trial.
The Improving Diabetes Eye screening Attendance intervention is feasible in primary care; however, consideration should be given to how best to facilitate local tailoring. A definitive trial of clinical and cost-effectiveness is required with preliminary results suggesting a positive effect on uptake.
Rates of age-associated severe maternal morbidity (SMM) have increased in Canada, and an association with neighbourhood income is well established. Our aim was to examine SMM trends according to neighbourhood material deprivation quintile, and to assess whether neighbourhood deprivation effects are moderated by maternal age.
A population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. We included primiparous women with a live birth or stillbirth at ≥20 weeks’ gestational age.
SMM from pregnancy onset to 42 days postpartum. We calculated SMM rate differences (RD) and rate ratios (RR) by neighbourhood material deprivation quintile for each of four 4-year cohorts from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2018. Log-binomial multivariable regression adjusted for maternal age, demographic and pregnancy-related variables.
There were 1 048 845 primiparous births during the study period. The overall rate of SMM was 18.0 per 1000 births. SMM rates were elevated for women living in areas with high material deprivation. In the final 4-year cohort, the RD between women living in high vs low deprivation neighbourhoods was 3.91 SMM cases per 1000 births (95% CI: 2.12 to 5.70). This was higher than the difference observed during the first 4-year cohort (RD 2.09, 95% CI: 0.62 to 3.56). SMM remained associated with neighbourhood material deprivation following multivariable adjustment in the pooled sample (RR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.21). There was no evidence of interaction with maternal age.
SMM rate increases were more pronounced for primiparous women living in neighbourhoods with high material deprivation compared with those living in low deprivation areas. This raises concerns of a widening social gap in maternal health disparities and highlights an opportunity to focus risk reduction efforts toward disadvantaged women during pregnancy and postpartum.
by Sarah Bonell, Sean C. Murphy, Scott GriffithsPlastic surgery is growing in popularity. Despite this, there has been little exploration to date regarding the psychosocial consequences of seeking plastic surgery. Our study investigated how women seeking plastic surgery are perceived by others. We presented a random sample of 985 adults (men = 54%, Mage = 35.84 years, SDage = 10.59) recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk with a series of experimental stimuli consisting of a photographed woman (attractive versus unattractive) and a vignette describing an activity she plans to engage in (plastic surgery versus control activity). Participants rated stimuli on perceived warmth, competence, morality, and humanness. We ran linear mixed-effect models to assess all study hypotheses. There was a negative plastic surgery effect; that is, women seeking plastic surgery were perceived less favorably than those planning to complete control activities across all outcome variables (warmth, competence, morality, and humanness). These relationships were moderated by physical attractiveness; while attractive women planning to undergo plastic surgery were perceived less favorably than attractive women planning to engage in control activities, perceptions of unattractive individuals remained unchanged by plastic surgery status. We theorized that empathy toward unattractive women seeking plastic surgery mitigated the negative plastic surgery effect for these women. In sum, our results suggest that perceptions of attractive women are worsened when these women decide to seek cosmetic surgery. Perceptions of warmth and competence have implications for an individual’s self-esteem and interpersonal relationships, while perceptions of morality and humanness can impact an individual’s ability to fulfil their psychological needs. As such, we concluded that attractive women seeking plastic surgery are potentially subject to experience negative psychosocial outcomes. Future research ought to examine whether perceptions and outcomes differ for women seeking reconstructive plastic surgery (versus cosmetic plastic surgery) and whether they differ across different types of surgeries (i.e. face versus body).
This systematic review aimed to describe medication non-adherence among people living with multimorbidity according to the current literature, and synthesise predictors of non-adherence in this population.
A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched for relevant articles published in English language between January 2009 and April 2019. Quantitative studies reporting medication non-adherence and/or predictors of non-adherence among people with two or more chronic conditions were included in the review. A meta-analysis was conducted with a subgroup of studies that used an inclusive definition of multimorbidity to recruit participants, rather than seeking people with specific conditions. Remaining studies reporting prevalence and predictors of non-adherence were narratively synthesised.
The database search produced 10 998 records and a further 75 were identified through other sources. Following full-text screening, 178 studies were included in the review. The range of reported non-adherence differed by measurement method, at 76.5% for self-report, 69.4% for pharmacy data, and 44.1% for electronic monitoring. A meta-analysis was conducted with eight studies (n=8949) that used an inclusive definition of multimorbidity to recruit participants. The pooled prevalence of non-adherence was 42.6% (95% CI: 34.0 - 51.3%, k=8, I 2=97%, p
The review identified a heterogeneous literature in terms of conditions studied, and definitions and measures of non-adherence used. Results suggest that future attempts to improve adherence among people with multimorbidity should determine for which conditions individuals require most support. The variable levels of medication non-adherence highlight the need for more attention to be paid by healthcare providers to the impact of multimorbidity on chronic disease self-management.