Social and life skills (SLS) may be important in the prevention and treatment of self-harm, but few studies have described this relationship. We examined three components of SLS in adolescents who reported self-harm that was, according to themselves, diagnosed by a clinician.
National screening prior to military service.
176 284 residents of Norway born in 1999–2001 received a declaration of health. We included 171 486 individuals (84 153 (49%) women and 87 333 (51%) men) who were 17 (n=1 67 855) or 18 years of age (n=3631) when they completed the declaration.
The main outcome was clinically diagnosed self-harm, defined as self-harm that the adolescents themselves stated had been diagnosed by a clinician. Components of SLS were social interactions; coping strategies; and emotional regulation/aggression. The association between SLS and self-reported clinically diagnosed self-harm was assessed in hierarchical multiple regression models controlling for sex; school absence; and feelings of emotional pain.
Three percent (n=5507) of the adolescents reported clinically diagnosed self-harm. The three components of SLS together added little to the prediction of clinically diagnosed self-harm (R2=0.02). After controlling for school absence and emotional pain, emotional regulation/aggression was the only SLS-component that was independently associated with clinically diagnosed self-harm (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.36). The young men who said they had been clinically diagnosed for self-harm scored slightly worse on social interactions (Hedge’s g (g) = –0.13, pg = –0.18, p
Young women and young men who reported clinically diagnosed self-harm had more problems with emotional regulation/aggression than other adolescents, but did not have worse social interactions or coping strategies.
Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.
The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.
The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.
The worldwide rising levels of physical inactivity especially in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Eastern Mediterranean region are alarming. The UAE reports one of the highest rates of non-communicable disease mortality and insufficient physical activity (PA) is a major underlying cause. Therefore, action is required to reduce physical inactivity using evidence-based strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a worksite exercise intervention on cardiometabolic health in the UAE.
This is a protocol for a pragmatic parallel randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio to the intervention group and delayed intervention group. A total of 150 participants will be recruited from a semigovernment telecommunications company in Dubai (UAE) after meeting the eligibility criteria. The intervention group will receive 2 hours of exercise per week during working hours for 12 weeks (maximum 1 hour/day). The intervention group will be assigned to attend personal trainer sessions in the workplace gym throughout the intervention period. After the intervention is completed, the delayed intervention group will also receive 2 hours of exercise time per week from working hours for 4 weeks. The main outcome measure is the change in the cardiometabolic risk components, that is, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline to the end of the intervention. The secondary outcome is to examine whether the workplace exercise intervention improves PA levels 4 weeks postintervention.
The study has been approved by the Dubai Scientific Research Ethics Committee (DSREC-SR-08/2019_02). The results will be disseminated as follows: at various national and international scientific conferences; as part of a PhD thesis in Public Health at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University; and in a manuscript submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought tremendous changes in healthcare delivery and exacerbated a wide range of inequities. Social workers across a broad range of healthcare settings bring an expertise in social, behavioural and mental healthcare needed to help address these health inequities. In addition, social workers integrate policy-directed interventions and solutions in clinical practice, which is a needed perspective for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It remains unclear, however, what the most pressing policy issues are that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, many social workers in health settings tend to underuse policy in their direct practice. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) systematically scope the literature on social work, COVID-19 pandemic and policy; and (2) describe the competencies required by social workers and the social work profession to address the policy issues emerging during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The scoping review follows Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework. Identification of literature published between 1 December 2019 and the search date, 31 March 2021, will take place in two stages: (1) title and abstract review, and (2) full-text review. In partnership with a health science librarian, the research team listed keywords related to social work and policy to search databases including Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Services Abstract and Social Work Abstracts. Two graduate-level research assistants will conduct screening and full-text review. Data will then be extracted, charted, analysed and summarised to report on our results and implications on practice, policy and future research.
Results will help develop a policy practice competence framework to inform how social workers can influence policy. We will share our findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This study does not require Research Ethics Board approval as it uses publicly available sources of data.
The aim of this study is to examine the pathways by which work–life balance influences safety climate in hospital settings.
A national cross-sectional survey on patient safety culture.
Healthcare workers from 56 hospitals in Taiwan, covering three work settings: intensive care units, operation rooms and emergency departments.
14 345 healthcare workers took part in the survey and were included in the present analysis.
The Safety Attitudes, Maslach’s Burn-out Inventory and Work–life balance questionnaires were used to measure patient safety culture, teamwork, leadership, emotional exhaustion and work–life balance. Path analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between work–life balance and safety climate. We tested for mediating and moderating factors influencing this relationship.
The path between work–life balance and safety climate was found to be significant (b=0.32, p
We found work–life balance to be associated with safety climate through a fully mediated model. The mediation pathways are moderated by self-identified leadership and perceptions of leadership. Understanding the pathways on how work–life balance influences safety climate provides an explanatory model that can be used when designing effective interventions for implementation in system-based approaches to improve patient safety culture in hospital settings.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative postnatal risk assessment (the postnatal Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction checklist: R4U) and corresponding care pathways in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCHC), along with PCHC professional satisfaction.
Four PCHC organizations located in three municipalities with a higher adverse perinatal outcome than the national average were selected for participation. The study concerns a historically controlled study design.
The study enrolled participants from September 2016 until December 2017. The historical cohort existed of children born in previous years from 2008 until 2016. The outcome measure was defined as catch-up growth: more than 0.67 standard deviation score weight for height increase in the first 6 months of life. PCHC professional opinion was assessed with a digital survey.
After the inclusion period, 1,953 children were included in the intervention cohort and 7,436 children in the historical cohort. Catch-up growth was significantly less common in the intervention cohort; 14.9% versus 19.5% in the historical cohort (p < 0.001). A regression sensitivity analysis, using matching, showed an odds ratio of 0.957 (95% CI 0.938–0.976) for the intervention cohort. In the survey, 74 PCHC physicians and nurses participated; most of them were neutral concerning the benefits of the postnatal R4U.
This study shows that the implementation of a novel postnatal risk assessment including in PCHC is feasible and effective. Final efforts to ensure a widespread implementation should be taken.
PCHC offers a unique opportunity to recognize and address risk factors for growth and development in children and to implement care pathways. Effective and widely implemented risk assessments in antenatal and PCHC are scarce. To our knowledge, this kind of evidence-based postnatal risk assessment has not been implemented in PCHC before and seizes the opportunity to prevent catch-up growth and its long-term effects.
Purposefully designed and validated screening, triage, and severity scoring tools are needed to reduce mortality of COVID-19 in low-resource settings (LRS). This review aimed to identify currently proposed and/or implemented methods of screening, triaging, and severity scoring of patients with suspected COVID-19 on initial presentation to the healthcare system and to evaluate the utility of these tools in LRS.
A scoping review was conducted to identify studies describing acute screening, triage, and severity scoring of patients with suspected COVID-19 published between 12 December 2019 and 1 April 2021. Extracted information included clinical features, use of laboratory and imaging studies, and relevant tool validation data.
The initial search strategy yielded 15 232 articles; 124 met inclusion criteria.
Most studies were from China (n=41, 33.1%) or the United States (n=23, 18.5%). In total, 57 screening, 23 triage, and 54 severity scoring tools were described. A total of 51 tools–31 screening, 5 triage, and 15 severity scoring—were identified as feasible for use in LRS. A total of 37 studies provided validation data: 4 prospective and 33 retrospective, with none from low-income and lower middle-income countries.
This study identified a number of screening, triage, and severity scoring tools implemented and proposed for patients with suspected COVID-19. No tools were specifically designed and validated in LRS. Tools specific to resource limited contexts is crucial to reducing mortality in the current pandemic.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell cancer where about 1/3 of the patients present with pathological fractures at the time of diagnosis. Despite treatment, the majority of the patients will develop additional fractures. Because survival and prognosis has improved significantly over the last two decades for patients with MM, there is an increased need to focus on optimal fracture treatment. Traditionally, fracture pain is treated conservatively with opioids, bisphosphonates, bracing and radiation therapy. Vertebral augmentation has been used for the last three decades as a minimally invasive treatment option for vertebral compression fractures, but the evidence base for the efficacy is weak. We describe a trial assessing the impact of vertebroplasty on clinical outcome in the treatment of patients with MM with painful vertebral fractures.
100 patients with MM with painful vertebral fractures will be randomised in a prospective, single-blinded, multicentre, clinical trial where patients are randomised to either usual care or usual care supplemented with vertebroplasty with a possibility of crossover 4 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome will be change in Oswestry Disability Index at 4 weeks.
Primary and secondary outcomes are assessed at baseline and at 4, 8, 26 and 52 weeks. Categorical data will be presented by means of frequencies and related percentages; continuous data will be displayed by means of descriptive statistics.
The study has been evaluated by the Regional Committees on Health Research for Southern Denmark (S-20200075) and notified and approved by the Region of Southern Denmark and listed in the internal record, journal no. 20/22355. All participants provide consent. The protocol will follow the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items for Randomized Trials) statement. The Danish Myeloma Patient Organization supports the study. Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at national and international conferences.
To analyse how previous comorbidities, ethnicity, regionality and socioeconomic development are associated with COVID-19 mortality in hospitalised children and adolescents.
Cross-sectional observational study using publicly available data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health.
5857 patients younger than 20 years old, all of them hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, from 1 January 2020 to 7 December 2020.
We used multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear models to study in-hospital mortality, stratifying the analysis by age, region of the country, presence of non-communicable diseases, ethnicity and socioeconomic development.
Individually, most of the included comorbidities were risk factors for mortality. Notably, asthma was a protective factor (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67). Having more than one comorbidity increased almost tenfold the odds of death (OR 9.67, 95% CI 6.89 to 13.57). Compared with white children, Indigenous, Pardo (mixed) and East Asian had significantly higher odds of mortality (OR 5.83, 95% CI 2.43 to 14.02; OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.51; OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.02 to 8.71, respectively). We also found a regional influence (higher mortality in the North—OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.48 to 4.65) and a socioeconomic association (lower mortality among children from more socioeconomically developed municipalities—OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.38)
Besides the association with comorbidities, we found ethnic, regional and socioeconomic factors shaping the mortality of children hospitalised with COVID-19 in Brazil. Our findings identify risk groups among children that should be prioritised for public health measures, such as vaccination.
People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6–13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA.
Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015.
Nine participating sites across the USA.
2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women.
Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity.
The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity.
Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.
The Carlos Slim Foundation implemented the Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a screening strategy for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mexico as part of CASALUD, a portfolio of digital health services focusing on healthcare delivery and prevention/management of NCDs. We investigated the disease profile of the screened population and evaluated MIDO’s contribution to the continuum of care of the main NCDs.
Using data from MIDO and the chronic diseases information system, we quantified the proportion of the population screened and diagnosed with NCDs, and measured care linkage/retention and level of control achieved. We analysed comorbidity patterns and estimated prevalence of predisease stages. Finally, we estimated characteristics associated with unawareness and control of NCDs, and examined efficacy of the CASALUD model in improving NCD control.
Public primary health centres in 27/32 Mexican states.
Individuals aged ≥20 years lacking healthcare access.
From 2014 to 2018, 743 000 individuals were screened using MIDO. A predisease or disease condition was detected in ≥70% of the population who were unaware of their NCD status. The screening identified 38 417 new cases of type 2 diabetes, 53 133 new cases of hypertension and 208 627 individuals with obesity. Dyslipidaemia was found in 77.3% of individuals with available blood samples. Comorbidities were highly prevalent, especially in people with obesity. Only 5.47% (n=17 774) of individuals were linked with their corresponding primary health centre. Factors associated with unawareness of and uncontrolled NCDs were sex, age, and social determinants, for example, rural/urban environment, access to healthcare service, and education level. Patients with type 2 diabetes treated at clinics under the CASALUD model were more likely to achieve disease control (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.61).
Patient-centred screening strategies such as MIDO are urgently needed to improve screening, access, retention and control for patients with NCDs.
To quantify conflict events and access across countries that remain to be certified free of transmission of Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm disease) or require postcertification surveillance as part of the Guinea Worm Eradication Programme (GWEP).
Populations living in Guinea worm affected areas across seven precertification countries and 13 postcertification sub-Saharan African countries.
The number of conflict events and rates per 100 000 population, the main types of conflict and actors reported to be responsible for events were summarised and mapped across all countries. Chad and Mali were presented as case studies. Guinea worm information was based on GWEP reports. Conflict data were obtained from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project. Maps were created using ArcGIS V.10.7 and access was measured as regional distance and time to cities.
More than 980 000 conflict events were reported between 2000 and 2020, with a significant increase since 2018. The highest number and rates were reported in precertification Mali (n=2556; 13.0 per 100 000), South Sudan (n=2143; 19.4), Democratic Republic of Congo (n=7016; 8.1) and postcertification Nigeria (n=6903; 3.4), Central Africa Republic (n=1251; 26.4), Burkina Faso (n=2004; 9.7). Violence against civilians, protests and battles were most frequently reported with several different actors involved including Unidentified Armed Groups and Boko Haram. Chad and Mali had contracting epidemiological and conflict situations with affected regions up to 700 km from the capital or 10 hours to the nearest city.
Understanding the spatial–temporal patterns of conflict events, identifying hotspots, the actors responsible and their sphere of influence is critical for the GWEP and other public health programmes to develop practical risk assessments, deliver essential health interventions, implement innovative surveillance, determine certification and meet the goals of eradication.
To identify that workarounds (defined as “informal temporary practices for handling exceptions to normal procedures or workflow”) by nurses using information technology potentially compromise medication safety. Therefore, we aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with workarounds performed by nurses in Barcode‐assisted Medication Administration in hospitals.
Medication errors occur during the prescribing, distribution and administration of medication. Errors could harm patients and be a tragedy for both nurses and medical doctors involved. Interventions to prevent errors have been developed, including those based on information technology. To cope with shortcomings in information technology‐based interventions as Barcode‐assisted Medication Administration, nurses perform workarounds. Identification of workarounds in information technology is essential to implement better‐designed software and processes which fit the nurse workflow.
We used the data from our previous prospective observational study, performed in four general hospitals in the Netherlands using Barcode techniques, to administer medication to inpatients.
Data were collected from 2014–2016. The disguised observation was used to gather information on potential risk factors and workarounds. The outcome was a medication administration with one or more workarounds. Logistic mixed models were used to determine the association between potential risk factors and workarounds. The STROBE checklist was used for reporting our data.
We included 5,793 medication administrations among 1,230 patients given by 272 nurses. In 3,633 (62.7%) of the administrations, one or more workarounds were observed. In the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with workarounds were the medication round at 02 p.m.–06 p.m. (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.05–2.45) and 06 p.m.–10 p.m. (adjusted OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 2.11–6.14) versus the morning shift 06 a.m.–10 a.m., the workdays Monday (adjusted OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.51–4.44), Wednesday (adjusted OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.2–3.07) and Saturday (adjusted OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.31–3.84) versus Sunday, the route of medication, nonoral (adjusted OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05–1.57) versus the oral route of drug administration, the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification‐coded medication “other” (consisting of the irregularly used Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classes [D, G, H, L, P, V, Y, Z]) (adjusted OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05–2.11) versus Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical class A (alimentary tract and metabolism), and the patient–nurse ratio ≥6–1 (adjusted OR: 5.61, 95% CI: 2.9–10.83) versus ≤5–1.
We identified several potential risk factors associated with workarounds performed by nurses that could be used to target future improvement efforts in Barcode‐assisted Medication Administration.
Nurses administering medication in hospitals using Barcode‐assisted Medication Administration frequently perform workarounds, which may compromise medication safety. In particular, nurse workload and the patient–nurse ratio could be the focus for improvement measures as these are the most clearly modifiable factors identified in this study.