FreshRSS

🔒
❌ Acerca de FreshRSS
Hay nuevos artículos disponibles. Pincha para refrescar la página.
AnteayerTus fuentes RSS

Models of comprehensive care for older persons with chronic diseases: a systematic review with a focus on effectiveness

Introduction

Ageing entails a variety of physiological changes that increase the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these diseases leads to an increase in the use of health services. The care models implemented by health systems should provide comprehensive long-term healthcare. We conducted this systematic review to determine whether any model of care for older persons have proven to be effective.

Methods

A systematic review of literature was carried out to identify randomised clinical trials that have assessed how effective a care model for older patients with chronic diseases. A searches electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Turning Research Into Practice Database, Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of controlled Trials was conducted from January 1966 to January 2021. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of the studies. Interventions were identified and classified according to the taxonomies developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care and Cochrane Consumers and Communication groups.

Results

Of the 4952 bibliographic references that were screened, 577 were potentially eligible and the final sample included 25 studies that evaluated healthcare models in older people with chronic diseases. In the 25 care models, the most frequently implemented interventions were educational, and those based on the provision of healthcare. Only 22% of the outcomes of interventions were identified as being effective, whereas 21% were identified as being partially effective; thus, more than 50% of the outcomes were identified as being ineffective.

Conclusions

It was not possible to determine a care model as effective. The interventions implemented in the models are variable. The most effective outcomes were focused on improving the patient–healthcare professional relationship in the early stages of the intervention. The interventions addressed in the studies were similar to public health interventions as their main objectives focused on promoting health. Most studies were of low methodological quality.

Intraoperative haemodynamic optimisation using the Hypotension Prediction Index and its impact on tissular perfusion: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Por: Lorente · J. V. · Jimenez · I. · Ripolles-Melchor · J. · Becerra · A. · Wesselink · W. · Reguant · F. · Mojarro · I. · Fuentes · M. d. l. A. · Abad-Motos · A. · Agudelo · E. · Herrero-Machancoses · F. · Callejo · P. · Bosch · J. · Monge · M. I.
Introduction

Intraoperative arterial hypotension is associated with poor postoperative outcomes. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) developed using machine learning techniques, allows the prediction of arterial hypotension analysing the arterial pressure waveform. The use of this index may reduce the duration and severity of intraoperative hypotension in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. This study aims to determine whether a treatment protocol based on the prevention of arterial hypotension using the HPI algorithm reduces the duration and severity of intraoperative hypotension compared with the recommended goal-directed fluid therapy strategy and may improve tissue oxygenation and organ perfusion.

Methods and analysis

We will conduct a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial (N=80) in high-risk surgical patients scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery. All participants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. Haemodynamic management in the control group will be based on standard haemodynamic parameters. Haemodynamic management of patients in the intervention group will be based on functional haemodynamic parameters provided by the HemoSphere platform (Edwards Lifesciences), including dynamic arterial elastance, dP/dtmax and the HPI. Tissue oxygen saturation will be recorded non-invasively and continuously by using near-infrared spectroscopy technology. Biomarkers of acute kidney stress (cTIMP2 and IGFBP7) will be obtained before and after surgery. The primary outcome will be the intraoperative time-weighted average of a mean arterial pressure

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics committee approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Meeting of 27 July 2020, minutes 18/2020, Madrid, Spain). Findings will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.

Trial registration number

NCT04301102.

Safety and effectiveness of appropriately and inappropriately dosed rivaroxaban or apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study with nested case-control analyses from UK primary care

Por: Gonzalez-Perez · A. · Roberts · L. · Vora · P. · Saez · M. E. · Brobert · G. · Fatoba · S. · Garcia Rodriguez · L. A.
Objectives

To investigate effects of appropriately and inappropriately dosed apixaban/rivaroxaban versus warfarin on effectiveness and safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Design

Cohort study with nested case–control analyses using primary care electronic health records (IQVIA Medical Research Data UK database).

Setting

UK primary care.

Participants

Patients aged ≥18 years with NVAF newly prescribed apixaban (N=14 701), rivaroxaban (N=14 288) or warfarin (N=16 175) between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2018, and followed up to 31 December 2018.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Incident cases of ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism (IS/SE) and intracranial bleeding (ICB). Cases were matched to controls on age, sex and OAC naïve status. Using logistic regression, adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated for the outcomes comparing apixaban/rivaroxaban use (appropriate or inappropriate dosing based on the product label criteria) and warfarin.

Results

For IS/SE, ORs (95% CIs) for apixaban versus warfarin were 1.19 (0.92–1.52) for appropriate dose and 1.01 (0.67–1.51) for inappropriate dose; for rivaroxaban versus warfarin, estimates were 1.07 (0.83–1.37) for appropriate dose and 1.21 (0.78–1.88) for inappropriate dose. For ICB, ORs (95% CIs) for apixaban versus warfarin were 0.67 (0.44–1.00) for appropriate dose and 0.45 (0.21–0.95) for inappropriate dose; for rivaroxaban versus warfarin, estimates were 0.81 (0.55–1.20) for appropriate dose and 1.14 (0.56–2.31) for inappropriate dose.

Conclusions

Dosing appropriateness in NVAF was not associated with a significant difference in IS/SE risk or increase in ICB risk versus warfarin. These findings may reflect residual confounding and biases that were difficult to control, as also seen in other observational studies. They should, therefore, be interpreted with caution, and prescribers should adhere to the dosing instructions in the respective Summary of Product Characteristics. Further studies on this topic from real-world populations are needed.

Lifestyle risk behaviours among adolescents: a two-year longitudinal study of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

Por: Gardner · L. A. · Debenham · J. · Newton · N. C. · Chapman · C. · Wylie · F. E. · Osman · B. · Teesson · M. · Champion · K. E.
Objective

To examine changes in the prevalence of six key chronic disease risk factors (the "Big 6"), from before (2019) to during (2021) the COVID-19 pandemic, among a large and geographically diverse sample of adolescents, and whether differences over time are associated with lockdown status and gender.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Setting

Three Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia) spanning over 3000 km.

Participants

983 adolescents (baseline Mage=12.6, SD=0.5, 54.8% girl) drawn from the control group of the Health4Life Study.

Primary outcomes

The prevalence of physical inactivity, poor diet (insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, high sugar-sweetened beverage intake, high discretionary food intake), poor sleep, excessive recreational screen time, alcohol use and tobacco use.

Results

The prevalence of excessive recreational screen time (prevalence ratios (PR)=1.06, 95% CI=1.03 to 1.11), insufficient fruit intake (PR=1.50, 95% CI=1.26 to 1.79), and alcohol (PR=4.34, 95% CI=2.82 to 6.67) and tobacco use (PR=4.05 95% CI=1.86 to 8.84) increased over the 2-year period, with alcohol use increasing more among girls (PR=2.34, 95% CI=1.19 to 4.62). The prevalence of insufficient sleep declined across the full sample (PR=0.74, 95% CI=0.68 to 0.81); however, increased among girls (PR=1.24, 95% CI=1.10 to 1.41). The prevalence of high sugar-sweetened beverage (PR=0.61, 95% CI=0.64 to 0.83) and discretionary food consumption (PR=0.73, 95% CI=0.64 to 0.83) reduced among those subjected to stay-at-home orders, compared with those not in lockdown.

Conclusion

Lifestyle risk behaviours, particularly excessive recreational screen time, poor diet, physical inactivity and poor sleep, are prevalent among adolescents. Young people must be supported to find ways to improve or maintain their health, regardless of the course of the pandemic. Targeted approaches to support groups that may be disproportionately impacted, such as adolescent girls, are needed.

Trial registration number

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619000431123)

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Africa: a scoping review

Por: Thibodeau · J. · Werner · K. · Wallis · L. A. · Stassen · W.
Introduction

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is well studied in high-income countries, and research has encouraged the implementation of policy to increase survival rates. On the other hand, comprehensive research on OHCA in Africa is sparse, despite the higher incidence of risk factors. In this vein, structural barriers to OHCA care in Africa must be fully recognised and understood before similar improvements in outcome may be made. The aim of this study was to describe and summarise the body of literature related to OHCA in Africa.

Methods and analysis

Using an a priori developed search strategy, electronic searches were performed in Medline via Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases to identify articles published in English between 2000 and 2020 relevant to OHCA in Africa. Titles, abstract and full text were reviewed by two reviewers, with discrepancies handled by an independent reviewer. A summary of the main themes contained in the literature was developed using descriptive analysis on eligible articles.

Results

A total of 1200 articles were identified. In the screening process, 785 articles were excluded based on title, and a further 127 were excluded following abstract review. During full-text review to determine eligibility, 80 articles were excluded and one was added following references review. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria. During analysis, the following three themes were found: epidemiology and underlying causes for OHCA, first aid training and bystander action, and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) resuscitation and training.

Conclusions

In order to begin addressing OHCA in Africa, representative research with standardised reporting that complies to data standards is required to understand the full, context-specific picture. Policies and research may then target underlying conditions, improvements in bystander and EMS training, and system improvements that are contextually relevant and ultimately result in better outcomes for OHCA victims.

Coeliac plexus radiosurgery for pain management in patients with advanced cancer : study protocol for a phase II clinical trial

Por: Jacobson · G. · Fluss · R. · Dany-BenShushan · A. · Golan · T. · Meron · T. · Zimmermann · C. · Dawson · L. A. · Barry · A. · Miszczyk · M. · Buckstein · M. · Diaz Pardo · D. · Aguiar · A. · Hammer · L. · Dicker · A. P. · Ben-Ailan · M. · Morag · O. · Hausner · D. · Symon · Z. · Lawrence
Introduction

Pancreatic cancer is characterised by severe mid-back and epigastric pain caused by tumour invasion of the coeliac nerve plexus. This pain is often poorly managed with standard treatments. This clinical trial investigates a novel approach in which high-dose radiation (radiosurgery) is targeted to the retroperitoneal coeliac plexus nerve bundle. Preliminary results from a single institution pilot trial are promising: pain relief is substantial and side effects minimal. The goals of this study are to validate these findings in an international multisetting, and investigate the impact on quality of life and functional status among patients with terminal cancer.

Methods and analysis

A single-arm prospective phase II clinical trial. Eligible patients are required to have severe coeliac pain of at least five on the 11-point BPI average pain scale and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of two or better. Non-pancreatic cancers invading the coeliac plexus are also eligible. The intervention involves irradiating the coeliac plexus using a single fraction of 25 Gy. The primary endpoint is the complete or partial pain response at 3 weeks. Secondary endpoints include pain at 6 weeks, analgesic use, hope, qualitative of life, caregiver burden and functional outcomes, all measured using validated instruments. The protocol is expected to open at a number of cancer centres across the globe, and a quality assurance programme is included. The protocol requires that 90 evaluable patients" be accrued, based upon the assumption that a third of patients are non-evaluable (e.g. due to death prior to 3-weeks post-treatment assessment, or spontaneous improvement of pain pre-treatment), it is estimated that a total of 120 patients will need to be accrued. Supported by Gateway for Cancer Research and the Israel Cancer Association.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethic approval for this study has been obtained at eight academic medical centres located across the Middle East, North America and Europe. Results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications.

Trial registration number

NCT03323489.

Changing epidemiology of firearm injury: a cohort study of non-fatal firearm victimisation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, Indianapolis, Indiana

Por: Magee · L. A. · Lucas · B. · Fortenberry · J. D.
Objective

To examine victimisation rates, geographic patterns and neighbourhood characteristics associated with non-fatal firearm injury rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design

A retrospective cohort study.

Setting

City of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 1 January 2017–30 June 2021.

Participants

Intentional non-fatal firearm injury victims from Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department records. The study included information on 2578 non-fatal firearm injury victims between ages 0 and 77 years. Of these victims, 82.5% were male and 77.4% were black.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Rates of non-fatal firearm injuries per 100 000 population by victim age, race, sex and incident motive. Prepandemic and peripandemic non-fatal firearm injury rates.

Results

Non-fatal shooting rates increased 8.60%, from 57.0 per 100 000 person-years in prepandemic years to 65.6 per 100 000 person-years during the pandemic (p

Conclusions

Non-fatal firearm injuries increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among female and older victims. Efforts are needed to expand and rethink current firearm prevention efforts that both address the diversification of victimisation and the larger societal trauma of firearm violence.

Associations of statin use with 30-day adverse outcomes among 4 801 406 US Veterans with and without SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study

Por: Wander · P. L. · Lowy · E. · Beste · L. A. · Tulloch-Palomino · L. · Korpak · A. · Peterson · A. C. · Kahn · S. E. · Danaei · G. · Boyko · E. J.
Objective

To estimate associations of statin use with hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality at 30 days among individuals with and without a positive test for SARS-CoV-2.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Setting

US Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

Participants

All veterans receiving VHA healthcare with ≥1 positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 March 2020 and 10 March 2021 (cases; n=231 154) and a comparator group of controls comprising all veterans who did not have a positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 but who did have ≥1 clinical lab test performed during the same time period (n=4 570 252).

Main outcomes

Associations of: (1) any statin use, (2) use of specific statins or (3) low-intensity/moderate-intensity versus high-intensity statin use at the time of positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 (cases) or result of clinical lab test (controls) assessed from pharmacy records with hospitalisation, ICU admission and death at 30 days. We also examined whether associations differed between individuals with and without a positive test for SARS-CoV-2.

Results

Among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, statin use was associated with lower odds of death at 30 days (OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.85)) but not with hospitalisation or ICU admission. Associations were similar comparing use of each specific statin to no statin. Compared with low-/moderate intensity statin use, high-intensity statin use was not associated with lower odds of ICU admission or death. Over the same period, associations of statin use with 30-day outcomes were significantly stronger among individuals without a positive test for SARS-CoV-2: hospitalisation OR 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.80), ICU admission OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.90) and death 0.60 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.62; p for interaction all

Conclusions

Associations of statin use with lower adverse 30-day outcomes are weaker among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with individuals without a positive test, indicating that statins do not exert SARS-CoV-2 specific effects.

Facilitators and barriers for the implementation of exercise are medicine in routine clinical care in Dutch university medical centres: a mixed methodology study on clinicians perceptions

Por: Nauta · J. · van Nassau · F. · Bouma · A. J. · Krops · L. A. · van der Ploeg · H. P. · Verhagen · E. · van der Woude · L. H. V. · van Keeken · H. G. · Buffart · L. M. · Diercks · R. · de Groot · V. · de Jong · J. · Kampshoff · C. · Stevens · M. · van den Akker-Scheek · I. · van der L
Objectives

Despite the many proven advantages of a physically active lifestyle in patient populations, prescription of exercise is currently not widely implemented in routine clinical practice. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to assess perceptions of clinicians on the current practice of exercise is medicine (E=M) prescription in two Dutch university medical centres and (2) to determine their perceived barriers and facilitators for the implementation of E=M in routine clinical care in Dutch university medical centres.

Design

A mixed methodologies study, using both online questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.

Setting

Dutch university medical centres.

Participants

Clinicians working within the departments of medical oncology, orthopaedics and rehabilitation medicine of two university medical centres.

Results

Forty-five clinicians (response rate of 51%) completed the questionnaire, and 19 clinicians were interviewed. The results showed that even though clinicians had a positive attitude towards prescribing E=M, only a few reported to regularly prescribe E=M to their patients. The 52 identified facilitators and barriers for implementation of E=M were categorised into four main themes: (1) beliefs toward the implementation of E=M (eg, clinicians knowledge and skills, and social support), (2) factors related to the patient perspective (eg, patient priorities or motivation), (3) factors related to the referral options (eg, knowledge of and trust in local referral options) and (4) practical considerations when implementing E=M (eg, time constraints).

Conclusions

Our study showed that even though many clinicians have a positive attitude toward an active lifestyle, many are not prescribing E=M on a regular basis. In order for clinicians to effectively implement E=M, strategies should focus on increasing clinicians E=M referral skills, improving clinicians knowledge of E=M referral options and develop a support system to ensure that E=M is high on the priority list of clinicians.

Brain Oxygen Optimization in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (BOOST-3): a multicentre, randomised, blinded-endpoint, comparative effectiveness study of brain tissue oxygen and intracranial pressure monitoring versus intracranial pressure alone

Por: Bernard · F. · Barsan · W. · Diaz-Arrastia · R. · Merck · L. H. · Yeatts · S. · Shutter · L. A.
Introduction

Management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes invasive monitoring to prevent secondary brain injuries. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor is the main measurement used to that intent but cerebral hypoxia can occur despite normal ICP. This study will assess whether the addition of a brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) monitor prevents more secondary injuries that will translate into improved functional outcome.

Methods and analysis

Multicentre, randomised, blinded-endpoint comparative effectiveness study enrolling 1094 patients with severe TBI monitored with both ICP and PbtO2. Patients will be randomised to medical management guided by ICP alone (treating team blinded to PbtO2 values) or both ICP and PbtO2. Management is protocolised according to international guidelines in a tiered approach fashion to maintain ICP 2 >20 mm Hg. ICP and PbtO2 will be continuously recorded for a minimum of 5 days. The primary outcome measure is the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended performed at 180 (±30) days by a blinded central examiner. Favourable outcome is defined according to a sliding dichotomy where the definition of favourable outcome varies according to baseline severity. Severity will be defined according to the probability of poor outcome predicted by the IMPACT core model. A large battery of secondary outcomes including granular neuropsychological and quality of life measures will be performed.

Ethics and dissemination

This has been approved by Advarra Ethics Committee (Pro00030585). Results will be presented at scientific meetings and published in peer-reviewed publications.

Trial registration number

ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03754114).

Effects of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: protocol for a UK cohort study using routinely collected electronic health records with validation against the ONTARGET trial

Por: Baptiste · P. J. · Wong · A. Y. S. · Schultze · A. · Cunnington · M. · Mann · J. F. E. · Clase · C. · Leyrat · C. · Tomlinson · L. A. · Wing · K.
Introduction

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally, responsible for nearly 18 million deaths worldwide in 2017. Medications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events are prescribed based on evidence from clinical trials which explore treatment effects in an indicated sample of the general population. However, these results may not be fully generalisable because of trial eligibility criteria that generally restrict to younger patients with fewer comorbidities. Therefore, evidence of effectiveness of medications for groups underrepresented in clinical trials such as those aged ≥75 years, from ethnic minority backgrounds or with low kidney function may be limited.

Using individual anonymised data from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and the Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) trial, in collaboration with the original trial investigators, we aim to investigate clinical trial replicability within a real-world setting in the area of cardiovascular disease. If the original trial results are replicable, we will estimate treatment effects and risk in groups underrepresented and excluded from the original clinical trial.

Methods and analysis

We will develop a cohort analogous to the ONTARGET trial within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1 January 2001 and 31 July 2019 using the trial eligibility criteria and propensity score matching. The primary outcome is a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and hospitalisation for congestive heart failure. If results from the cohort study fall within pre-specified limits, we will expand the cohort to include under represented and excluded groups.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval has been granted by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Ethics Committee (Ref: 22658). The study has been approved by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee of the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (protocol no. 20_012). Access to the individual patient data from the ONTARGET trial was obtained by the trial investigators. Findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences.

Food insecurity status is of added value in explaining poor health: a cross-sectional study among parents living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the Netherlands

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the added value of food insecurity in explaining poor physical and mental health beyond other socioeconomic risk factors.

Design, setting, participants and outcome measures

Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using questionnaires with validated measures for food insecurity status and health status, including 199 adult participants with at least 1 child living at home, living in or near disadvantaged neighbourhoods in The Hague, the Netherlands. To assess the added value of food insecurity, optimism-corrected goodness-of-fit statistics of multivariate regression models with and without food insecurity status as a covariate were compared.

Results

In the multivariable models explaining poor physical health (Physical Component Summary: PCS) and mental health (Mental Component Summary: MCS), from all included socioeconomic risk factors, food insecurity score was the most important covariate. Including food insecurity score in those models led to an improvement of explained variance from 6.3% to 9.2% for PCS, and from 5.8% to 11.0% for MCS, and a slightly lower root mean square error. Further analyses showed that including food insecurity score improved the discriminative ability between those individuals most at risk of poor health, reflected by an improvement in C-statistic from 0.64 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.71) to 0.69 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.73) for PCS and from 0.65 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.68) to 0.70 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.73) for MCS. Further, explained variance in these models improved with approximately one-half for PCS and doubled for MCS.

Conclusions

From these results it follows that food insecurity score is of added value in explaining poor physical and mental health beyond traditionally used socioeconomic risk factors (ie, age, educational level, income, living situation, employment status and migration background) in disadvantaged communities. Therefore, routine food insecurity screening may be important for effective risk stratification to identify populations at increased risk of poor health and provide targeted interventions.

Assessing tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy from self-report, urinary cotinine and NNAL: a validation study using the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study

Por: Peacock · J. L. · Palys · T. J. · Halchenko · Y. · Sayarath · V. · Takigawa · C. A. · Murphy · S. E. · Peterson · L. A. · Baker · E. R. · Karagas · M. R.
Objectives

Accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is key to evaluate its effects. We sought to validate and establish cut-offs for self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy using urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(-3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a large contemporary prospective study from the USA, with lower smoking prevalence than has previously been evaluated.

Design

Prospective birth cohort.

Setting

Pregnancy clinics in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA.

Participants

1396 women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study with self-reported smoking, urinary cotinine, NNAL and pregnancy outcomes.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Cut-offs for urinary cotinine and NNAL concentrations were estimated from logistic regression models using Youden’s method to predict SHS and active smoking. Cotinine and NNAL were each used as the exposure in separate multifactorial models for pregnancy outcomes.

Results

Self-reported maternal smoking was: 72% non-smokers, 5.7% ex-smokers, 6.4% SHS exposure, 6.2% currently smoked, 10% unreported. Cotinine and NNAL levels were low and highly intercorrelated (r=0.91). Geometric mean cotinine, NNAL were 0.99 ng/mL, 0.05 pmol/mL, respectively. Cotinine cut-offs for SHS, current smoking were 1.2 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL (area under curve (AUC) 95% CI: 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57), 0.90 (0.85 to 0.94)). NNAL cut-off for current smoking was 0.09 pmol/mL (AUC=0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.87)). Using cotinine and NNAL cut-offs combined gave similar AUC to cotinine alone, 0.87 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.91). Cotinine and NNAL gave almost identical effect estimates when modelling pregnancy outcomes.

Conclusions

In this population, we observed high concordance between self-complete questionnaire smoking data and urinary cotinine and NNAL. With respect to biomarkers, either cotinine or NNAL can be used as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure overall but only cotinine can be used to detect SHS.

Transforming Obesity Prevention for CHILDren (TOPCHILD) Collaboration: protocol for a systematic review with individual participant data meta-analysis of behavioural interventions for the prevention of early childhood obesity

Por: Hunter · K. E. · Johnson · B. J. · Askie · L. · Golley · R. K. · Baur · L. A. · Marschner · I. C. · Taylor · R. W. · Wolfenden · L. · Wood · C. T. · Mihrshahi · S. · Hayes · A. J. · Rissel · C. · Robledo · K. P. · O'Connor · D. A. · Espinoza · D. · Staub · L. P. · Chadwick · P. · Taki · S
Introduction

Behavioural interventions in early life appear to show some effect in reducing childhood overweight and obesity. However, uncertainty remains regarding their overall effectiveness, and whether effectiveness differs among key subgroups. These evidence gaps have prompted an increase in very early childhood obesity prevention trials worldwide. Combining the individual participant data (IPD) from these trials will enhance statistical power to determine overall effectiveness and enable examination of individual and trial-level subgroups. We present a protocol for a systematic review with IPD meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions commencing antenatally or in the first year after birth, and to explore whether there are differential effects among key subgroups.

Methods and analysis

Systematic searches of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo and trial registries for all ongoing and completed randomised controlled trials evaluating behavioural interventions for the prevention of early childhood obesity have been completed up to March 2021 and will be updated annually to include additional trials. Eligible trialists will be asked to share their IPD; if unavailable, aggregate data will be used where possible. An IPD meta-analysis and a nested prospective meta-analysis will be performed using methodologies recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. The primary outcome will be body mass index z-score at age 24±6 months using WHO Growth Standards, and effect differences will be explored among prespecified individual and trial-level subgroups. Secondary outcomes include other child weight-related measures, infant feeding, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, sleep, parenting measures and adverse events.

Ethics and dissemination

Approved by The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (2020/273) and Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee (HREC CIA2133-1). Results will be relevant to clinicians, child health services, researchers, policy-makers and families, and will be disseminated via publications, presentations and media releases.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42020177408.

Unpacking the behavioural components and delivery features of early childhood obesity prevention interventions in the TOPCHILD Collaboration: a systematic review and intervention coding protocol

Por: Johnson · B. J. · Hunter · K. E. · Golley · R. K. · Chadwick · P. · Barba · A. · Aberoumand · M. · Libesman · S. · Askie · L. · Taylor · R. W. · Robledo · K. P. · Mihrshahi · S. · O'Connor · D. A. · Hayes · A. J. · Wolfenden · L. · Wood · C. T. · Baur · L. A. · Rissel · C. · Staub · L. P.
Introduction

Little is known about how early (eg, commencing antenatally or in the first 12 months after birth) obesity prevention interventions seek to change behaviour and which components are or are not effective. This study aims to (1) characterise early obesity prevention interventions in terms of target behaviours, delivery features and behaviour change techniques (BCTs), (2) explore similarities and differences in BCTs used to target behaviours and (3) explore effectiveness of intervention components in preventing childhood obesity.

Methods and analysis

Annual comprehensive systematic searches will be performed in Epub Ahead of Print/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane (CENTRAL), CINAHL, PsycINFO, as well as clinical trial registries. Eligible randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions to prevent childhood obesity commencing antenatally or in the first year after birth will be invited to join the Transforming Obesity in CHILDren Collaboration. Standard ontologies will be used to code target behaviours, delivery features and BCTs in both published and unpublished intervention materials provided by trialists. Narrative syntheses will be performed to summarise intervention components and compare applied BCTs by types of target behaviours. Exploratory analyses will be undertaken to assess effectiveness of intervention components.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has been approved by The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (project no. 2020/273) and Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee (project no. HREC CIA2133-1). The study’s findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and targeted communication with key stakeholders.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42020177408.

Prognostic impact of depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality in individuals with abdominal aortic aneurysm and in the general population: a population-based prospective HUNT study in Norway

Por: Nyronning · L. A. · Hultgren · R. · Albrektsen · G. · Mattsson · E. · Stenman · M.
Background

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a potentially life-threatening disease but the high mortality rate is linked to high age and comorbidity pattern. Depression is associated with increased mortality in the general population and individuals with cardiovascular diseases, but this is sparsely studied for AAA. The aim was to examine the prognostic impact of depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality in individuals with AAA and compare with findings in a general population of the same age and risk profile.

Methods

Population-based prospective study including 36 616 participants (52.1% women) from the Trøndelag Health Study in Norway. A total of 9428 individuals died during a median follow-up of 10 years at ages 60–90 years. Depressive symptoms were defined by a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score ≥8. Data on AAA diagnoses and death were obtained from medical records and national registers. HRs from Cox proportional hazard regression models are reported.

Results

A total of 4832 (13.2%) individuals reported depressive symptoms, whereas 583 (1.6%) AAAs were identified. The adjusted hazard of death was 2.66 times higher in persons with AAA compared with the general population (95% CI 2.39 to 2.97). Overall, there was no significant adverse effect of depressive symptoms in individuals with AAA (HR 1.15;95% CI 0.88 to 1.51), whereas an increased risk was seen in the general population (HR 1.23;95% CI 1.17 to 1.30).

Conclusion

The overall risk of death was considerably higher in individuals with AAA compared with a general population of the same age and risk profile. Depressive symptoms did not significantly influence the risk of death in the AAA group.

Ten years of NIHR research training: who got an award? A retrospective cohort study

Por: Mulvey · M. R. · West · R. M. · Cotterill · L. A. · Magee · C. · Jones · D. E. J. · Harris-Joseph · H. · Thompson · P. · Hewison · J.
Objective

In 2017, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) academy produced a strategic review of training, which reported the variation in application characteristics associated with success rates. It was noted that variation in applicant characteristic was not independent of one another. Therefore, the aim of this secondary analysis was to investigate the inter-relationships in order to identify factors (or groups of factors) most associated with application numbers and success rates.

Design

Retrospective data were gathered from 4388 applications to NIHR Academy between 2007 and 2016. Multinominal logistic regression models quantified the likelihood of success depending on changes in the explanatory factors; relative risk ratios with 95% CIs. A classification tree analysis was built using exhaustive 2 automatic interaction detection to better understand the effect of interactions between explanatory variables on application success rates.

Results

936 (21.3%) applications were awarded. Applications from males and females were equally likely to be successful (p=0.71). There was an overall reduction in numbers of applications from females as award seniority increased from predoctoral to professorship. Applications from institutions with a medical school had a 2.6-fold increase in likelihood of success (p

Conclusion

Success rates did not differ according to gender, and doctors were not more likely to be successful than applications from other professions. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential fairness in how the quality of a submitted application is assessed, but they also raise questions about variation in the opportunity to submit a high-quality application. The companion qualitative study (Burkshaw et al. (2021) BMJ Open) provides valuable insight into potential candidate mechanisms and discusses how research capacity development initiatives might be targeted in the future.

Ten years of NIHR research training: perceptions of the programmes: a qualitative interview study

Por: Burkinshaw · P. · Bryant · L. D. · Magee · C. · Thompson · P. · Cotterill · L. A. · Mulvey · M. R. · Hewison · J.
Objectives

The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) training programmes were created to build and sustain research capacity in healthcare. Following the training programme 10-year strategic review, this qualitative study aimed to deepen understanding of facilitators and barriers for those progressing through NIHR-supported research careers.

Design

Semistructured qualitative study.

Data collection and analysis

Telephone interviews conducted between May and August 2017 were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Approach.

Setting

UK National Health Service (NHS) Trusts, university medical schools, District General Hospitals, Integrated Academic Training Programme centres and Research Design Services across the North East, North West, South East and South West of England, London and the Midlands.

Participants

Fourteen women and eight men, of whom, 14 were previous or current NIHR personal awardees (seven doctors and seven allied health professionals (AHPs) or nurses) and eight were managers (staff within clinical or university training-related roles).

Results

(1) NIHR awards were viewed as transformative for research careers; (2) however, there were perceptions of a biased ‘playing field’. (3) Inequalities were perceived for AHPs and nurses, those outside of established research institutes and those in ‘unfashionable’ specialisms. (4) While support for NIHR awards contributed to a healthy research culture, (5) short-term awards were perceived as a barrier to continuing an independent research career.

Conclusions

Participants perceived many strengths of the NIHR training programmes in terms of developing individual careers and research capacity. Areas in which improvement could enhance the ability to attract, develop and retain researcher were identified. Our findings are of relevance to schemes in other countries, where healthcare researchers experience similar challenges. Further work is needed to overcome barriers and ensure equity of access to, and success within, clinical research training schemes to sustain the research workforce needed to address future global health challenges.

Do health literacy levels of nursing students change throughout the study programme? A cross-sectional study

Objectives

The aim of this research was to analyse if the level of health literacy (HL) of nursing students changes throughout the study programme.

Design

A cross-sectional study with anonymous self-reporting was conducted.

Participants/setting

329 public university nursing students in Seville, Spain; 243 of the first year and 86 of the fourth.

Interventions

The short Spanish version of the Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire-European Union was used to evaluate HL.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The proportions of the limited level of HL were compared between academic years and the crude and corrected OR were calculated with the Mantel-Haenszel test to evaluate the effect of confusion of the sex variable on the HL level and academic year relationship. A logistic regression model with step-by-step analysis was run, including the independent variables sex, age, marital status, academic year and HL level (limited/sufficient) as the dependent variable.

Results

62.1% of the participants of the first year versus 47.7% of the fourth year had a limited literacy level for a crude OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.21; p=0.014) and a corrected by sex OR of 1.8 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.96; p=0.026). Only the strata in women had a statistically significant relationship. The logistic regression model ratified that the HL was a function exclusive to the academic year.

Conclusion

The HL level of nursing students increases from the first to the fourth academic year, even when controlling for sex. Although the HL level in the fourth academic year was greater than that of the first, both groups had inadequate HL levels. It is hence recommended to implement intervention strategies, which reinforce in the curriculum the knowledge and experiences related with health communication and education to ensure that future professionals improve their HL. Achieving adequate HL is crucial to be able to provide care to patients, their families and the community.

Problems with evidence assessment in COVID-19 health policy impact evaluation: a systematic review of study design and evidence strength

Por: Haber · N. A. · Clarke-Deelder · E. · Feller · A. · Smith · E. R. · Salomon · J. A. · MacCormack-Gelles · B. · Stone · E. M. · Bolster-Foucault · C. · Daw · J. R. · Hatfield · L. A. · Fry · C. E. · Boyer · C. B. · Ben-Michael · E. · Joyce · C. M. · Linas · B. S. · Schmid · I. · Au · E.
Introduction

Assessing the impact of COVID-19 policy is critical for informing future policies. However, there are concerns about the overall strength of COVID-19 impact evaluation studies given the circumstances for evaluation and concerns about the publication environment.

Methods

We included studies that were primarily designed to estimate the quantitative impact of one or more implemented COVID-19 policies on direct SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 outcomes. After searching PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published on 26 November 2020 or earlier and screening, all studies were reviewed by three reviewers first independently and then to consensus. The review tool was based on previously developed and released review guidance for COVID-19 policy impact evaluation.

Results

After 102 articles were identified as potentially meeting inclusion criteria, we identified 36 published articles that evaluated the quantitative impact of COVID-19 policies on direct COVID-19 outcomes. Nine studies were set aside because the study design was considered inappropriate for COVID-19 policy impact evaluation (n=8 pre/post; n=1 cross-sectional), and 27 articles were given a full consensus assessment. 20/27 met criteria for graphical display of data, 5/27 for functional form, 19/27 for timing between policy implementation and impact, and only 3/27 for concurrent changes to the outcomes. Only 4/27 were rated as overall appropriate. Including the 9 studies set aside, reviewers found that only four of the 36 identified published and peer-reviewed health policy impact evaluation studies passed a set of key design checks for identifying the causal impact of policies on COVID-19 outcomes.

Discussion

The reviewed literature directly evaluating the impact of COVID-19 policies largely failed to meet key design criteria for inference of sufficient rigour to be actionable by policy-makers. More reliable evidence review is needed to both identify and produce policy-actionable evidence, alongside the recognition that actionable evidence is often unlikely to be feasible.

❌