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AnteayerInternational Wound Journal

Impact of negative‐pressure wound therapy on bacterial behaviour and bioburden in a contaminated full‐thickness wound

Abstract

The use of negative‐pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has displayed significant clinical benefits in the healing of infected wounds. However, the effects of NPWT on bacterial colonisation and infection of traumatic wounds has been controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of NPWT treatment in rabbits with a contaminated full‐thickness wound on bacterial behaviour, including colony morphology, spatial distribution, fissional proliferation, and bacterial bioburden. Full‐thickness wounds were created on the back of rabbits, and were inoculated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus. The wounds were treated with sterile gauze dressings and NPWT with continuous negative pressure (−125 mm Hg). Wound samples were harvested on days 0 (6 hours after bacterial inoculation), 2, 4, 6, and 8 at the centre of wound beds before irrigation. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed to determine the characteristic bacteriology. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to obtain bioluminescent images, which were used to observe spatial distribution of the GFP‐labelled S. aureus within the tissue and quantify the bacterial bioburden. NPWT resulted in sparse amounts of scattered bacteria on the wound surface or as sparsely spaced single colonies within the tissue. Wound bioburden on day 8 in the NPWT and gauze groups was 34.6 ± 5.5% and 141.9 ± 15.4% of the baseline values (N = 6), respectively (P < .0001). TEM showed a lack of S. aureus active fission within NPWT‐treated tissue. NPWT can impact S. aureus colony morphology and spatial distribution both on the surface and within wound tissue, and reduce S. aureus as early as 48 hours after therapy initiation. Additionally, NPWT inhibits bacterial fissional proliferation in microcolonies.

Estimating the economic value of emerging technologies in chronic wound therapy

Abstract

Estimating the economic value of emerging technologies in clinical medicine presents a number of problems. New technologies may have a limited clinical history, few supportive peer‐reviewed publications, and only anecdotal evidence as they enter the market and seek clinician approval and reimbursement from payers. Although clinical efficacy/effectiveness research is a minimal starting point for making the case for adoption of a product, establishing a competitive cost‐effectiveness position against other products and establishing the case for economic value must be made as well when presenting to health plans or other payers. Economic valuation methods have been well developed in the business community. Reviewed here are the components of a well‐crafted case for the economic value of a product in general and in the wound industry specifically, in a multidomain approach to demonstrate values using demographic, clinical, financial, operational, and intangible assessments.

Effectiveness and safety of olive oil preparation for topical use in pressure ulcer prevention: Multicentre, controlled, randomised, and double‐blinded clinical trial

Abstract

This non‐inferiority, multicentre, randomised, controlled, and double‐blinded clinical trial compared the therapeutic effectiveness of the topical application of an olive oil solution with that of a hyperoxygenated fatty acid compound for the prevention of pressure ulcers in at‐risk nursing home residents. The study population comprised 571 residents of 23 nursing homes with pressure ulcer risk, randomly assigned to a hyperoxygenated fatty acid group (n = 288) or olive oil solution group (n = 283). Both solutions were applied on at‐risk skin areas every 12 hours for 30 days or until pressure ulcer onset. The main outcome variable was the pressure ulcer incidence. The absolute risk difference was estimated (with 95% CI) using Kaplan‐Meier survival and Cox regression curves. The groups did not significantly differ in any study variable at baseline. The pressure ulcer incidence was 4.18% in the olive oil group vs 6.57% in the control group, with an incidence difference of −2.39% (95% CI = −6.40 to 1.56%), which is within the pre‐established non‐inferiority margin of ±7%, thus supporting the study hypothesis. We present the first evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the topical application of olive oil to prevent pressure ulcers in the institutionalised elderly.

Characterisation and diagnosis of ulcers in inpatient dermatology consultation services: A multi‐centre study

Abstract

Accurate and prompt diagnosis of skin ulcers is critical to optimise management; however, studies in hospitalised patients are limited. This retrospective review of dermatologic consultations included 272 inpatients with skin ulcers between July 2015 and July 2018 in four U.S. academic hospitals. The median age was 54 years and 45% were male. In 49.3% of the patients, skin ulcers were considered the primary reason for admission. Ulcers of 62% were chronic and 49.6% were located on the lower extremities. Pyoderma gangrenosum (17.3%), infection (12.5%), and exogenous causes (11.8%) were the leading aetiologies; 12% remained diagnostically inconclusive after consultation. Diagnostic agreements pre‐dermatology and post‐dermatology consult ranged from 0.104 (n = 77, 95% CI 0.051‐0.194) to 0.553 (n = 76, 95% CI 0.440‐0.659), indicating poor‐modest agreement. This study highlights the diagnostic complexity and relative incidences of skin ulcers in the inpatient setting.

Five‐layer border dressings as part of a quality improvement bundle to prevent pressure injuries in US skilled nursing facilities and Australian nursing homes: A cost‐effectiveness analysis

Abstract

The BORDER III trial found that five‐layer silicone border dressings effectively prevented pressure injuries in long‐term care, but the value of this approach is unknown. Our objective was to analyse the cost‐effectiveness of preventing facility‐acquired pressure injuries with a quality improvement bundle, including prophylactic five‐layer dressings in US and Australian long‐term care. Markov models analysed the cost utility for pressure injuries acquired during long‐term care from US and Australian perspectives. Models calibrated outcomes for standard care compared with a dressing‐inclusive bundle over 18 monthly cycles or until death based on BORDER III outcomes. Patients who developed a pressure injury simulated advancement through stages 1 to 4. Univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses tested modelling uncertainty. Costs in 2017 USD and quality‐adjusted life years (QALYs) were used to calculate an incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio (ICER). Dressing use yielded greater QALYs at slightly higher costs from perspectives. The US ICER was $36 652/QALY, while the Australian ICER was $15 898/QALY, both of which fell below a willingness‐to‐pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis favoured dressings as cost‐effective for most simulations. A quality improvement bundle, including prophylactic five‐layer dressings, is a cost‐effective approach for pressure injury prevention in all US and Australia long‐term care residents.

The bolster technique utilising small intestinal submucosa wound matrix: A novel approach to wound treatment

Abstract

Managing acute wounds with soft tissue loss can be very challenging for both patients and physicians. Successful wound healing depends on several factors including exudate control, prevention of infection, and moisture balance. In this case series, we describe a novel combination treatment method utilising small intestinal submucosa wound matrix (SISWM) with the bolster technique as a way of assisting the integration of collagen‐based wound treatment products into the base of complex wounds with the intent of restoring a dysfunctional extracellular matrix. In case 1, a 44‐year‐old female presented with an acute wound resulting from a spider bite to the posterior aspect of the right knee. In case 2, a 12‐year‐old male sustained multiple injuries to his right foot from an all‐terrain vehicle accident. In case 3, an 80‐year‐old female on anticoagulants sustained an avulsion injury to her left lower leg. In case 4, a 41‐year‐old female sustained a severe complex avulsion injury to the dorsal left forearm sustained from a dog bite. All patients were successfully treated with SISWM and the bolster technique, and their wounds healed completely within 6 weeks. The bolster technique, when combined with an SISWM, is a novel method designed to enable the SISWM to impart its wound healing properties to these complex traumatic wounds. This case series presents treating clinicians with a different treatment methodology to assist the patient in achieving a successful outcome.

Imiquimod regulating Th1 and Th2 cell‐related chemokines to inhibit scar hyperplasia

Abstract

Immunological factors play important roles in the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. Imiquimod can be used as an immunosuppressive agent to regulate the function of T‐helper (Th) cell subsets Th1 and Th2. In this article, we explored the impact of imiquimod on scar hyperplasia through Th cells. A rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was built. Four round wounds were cut in each rabbit's ears ventrally with a diameter of 1 cm and bilateral symmetry. All the right ear wounds were treated with 5% imiquimod cream. The blank control group contained all the left ear wounds, which were treated with Vaseline ointment at the same time. Haematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining showed that imiquimod collagen deposition was significantly reduced compared with the control group, scar index (SEI) showed that the proliferative degree reached its peak on the 28th day after operation in blank group, and the degree of hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of the imiquimod group (P < .05). Real‐time Polymerase chain reaction results showed that the imiquimod induced the expression of Th2 cell‐related chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL7, and CCL13 at each time point, which were significantly lower than that of the blank control group, and the expressions of Th1 cell‐associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL12 at each time point was significantly higher than the blank control group (P < .05). Imiquimod can be used to regulate the expression of Th1 and Th2 cell‐associated chemokines to control scar hyperplasia.

Combination therapy using non‐ablative fractional laser and intralesional triamcinolone injection for hypertrophic scars and keloids treatment

Abstract

Combinations of various treatment modalities were shown to be more effective than monotherapy when treating hypertrophic scars and keloids. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of combination therapy with non‐ablative fractional laser and intralesional steroid injection. From May 2015 to June 2017, a total of 38 patients with hypertrophic scars or keloids were evaluated. The control group of 21 patients received steroid injection alone, and 17 patients (the combined group) received 1550‐nm erbium‐glass fractional laser treatment and steroid injection simultaneously. The mean number of treatment sessions was statistically fewer in the combined group than in the control group (6.95 vs 5.47, P = .042). There was a significant difference in the patient's scale in the combined group (14.62 vs 22.82, P = .005); however, the observer's scale was not significantly different (17.92 vs 20.55, P = .549). The recurrence rate was 38.1% (8/21) in the control group and 35.3% (6/17) in the combined groups and showed no significant difference (P = .859). However, the mean remission period was statistically longer in the combined group (3.00 months vs 4.17 months, P = .042). Combination therapy with non‐ablative fractional laser and intralesional steroid injection showed better results for the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids with fewer treatment sessions, better patient satisfaction, and longer remission periods.

Pruritus in patients with chronic leg ulcers: A frequent and often neglected problem

Abstract

There is a paucity of studies regarding pruritus in patients with chronic leg ulcers. Data were collected using newly developed questionnaires for patients and physicians to evaluate pruritus in individuals with chronic leg ulcers. The results show that a total of 50 patients with chronic leg ulcers were included in this prospective study. Frequent pruritus was observed in 32.0% of the participants, while 36.0% reported occasional pruritus. The average pruritus intensity was 3.5 points (0‐10 numeric rating scale [NRS]) and was found to increase with age. Patients experiencing pruritus achieved a higher Wound‐quality of life (QoL) score (32.1) as that of patients without pruritus (25.8). Additional dermatological findings around the wounds included xerosis (26.0%), eczema (4.0%), and excoriations (2.0%). Pruritus was reported by all subjects with eczema and 84.6% of those with xerosis. The pruritus lasted significantly longer in women (average 98.4 months) vs men (average 37.5 months). Interestingly, men reported more intense pruritus than women (4.4 vs 2.8). Females reported more frequent use of skin care products than males. In conclusion, the current data show that two‐thirds of patients with chronic leg ulcers suffer from moderate intense pruritus. Therefore, pruritus is a frequent and often neglected problem that should be regularly evaluated in all patients with chronic leg ulcers and considered in future therapy concepts.

Effectiveness of hyaluronic acid gel (Jalosome soothing gel) for the treatment of radiodermatitis in a patient receiving head and neck radiotherapy associated with cetuximab: A case report and review

Abstract

One of the principal side effects in patients that receive radiotherapy is radiodermatitis. Radiodermatitis can be highly invalidating for patients, causing pain, ulceration, swelling, and increased infection risk, with a negative effect on the quality of life, requiring dressings and medications. Therapeutic approaches reported so far in the literature have not proved to be effective in treating radiodermatitis. Therefore, new approaches are needed to deal with these side effects more effectively. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid gel (HAG) (Jalosome soothing gel) for the treatment of a case of radiodermatitis. This is a case study of a patient affected by squamous cell carcinoma at the tongue base, who was treated with head and neck radiotherapy associated with the administration of cetuximab. About 1 month after this therapy was started the patient developed radiodermatitis, which did not regress with standard treatment. Therefore, HAG was applied once a day for about 20 days. The regression of radiodermatitis was measured using the Radiation Toxicity/Oncology Grading scale, pain relief was measured with a numerical scale, and patient satisfaction was done through a semi‐structured interview. The patient presented a dramatic reduction of skin toxicity, which had been resistant to all previous therapeutic approaches. Pain, which was severe at the beginning, gradually disappeared. The patient showed great satisfaction for the reduction of pain and the regression of the radiodermatitis. The effectiveness of HAG appears to be promising for the treatment of radiodermatitis.

Modelling an adult human head on a donut‐shaped gel head support for pressure ulcer prevention

Abstract

Patients who are stationary endure prolonged pressures and shear loads at contact areas between their body and the support surface, which over time may cause pressure ulcers (PUs). Donut‐shaped gel head supports are commonly used to protect the occiput, which is among the most common anatomical sites for PUs; however, the biomechanical efficacy of these devices is unclear. To investigate their effects on scalp tissues, we have used our three‐dimensional anatomically realistic finite element model of an adult head, to which we have added a donut‐shaped gel head support. We then compared the occipital scalp tissue loads' occurrence while the donut‐shaped gel head support is in use with those associated with a fluidised head positioner and a standard medical foam. The donut‐shaped gel head support inflicted the greatest exposure to tissue mechanical stresses, particularly to the high (and therefore dangerous) stress domain, when compared to the other positioners. We concluded that while the donut‐shaped gel head support is designed to avert tissue loads away from the occiput and disperse them to the surroundings, in practice, it fails to do so. In fact, the donut‐shaped gel head support imposes the head‐weight forces to transfer through a relatively narrow ring of scalp tissues, hence increasing the risk of developing occipital PUs.

Key Messages

a donut‐shaped gel head support is meant to reduce the occurrence of pressure ulcers in scalp tissues to investigate the effects of donut‐shaped gel head support on scalp tissues, we have used our anatomically realistic computational model of an adult head the donut‐shaped gel head support imposes the head‐weight forces to transfer through a relatively narrow ring of scalp tissues the highly distorted and deformed tissues at that ring are at a high risk for injury

Factors associated with lower‐extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers in a Chinese tertiary care hospital

Abstract

Providing a better understanding of the risk factors for amputation in this particular region, Hunan province, in China might help patients with diabetic foot ulcers receive timely and appropriate medical care and help prevent amputation. Diabetic foot ulcer patients referred to the Third Xiangya Hospital during the period between December 2014 and September 2018 were enrolled. Participants who underwent amputations and received conservative treatments were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify the independent predictors of amputation. Those who required amputation presented significantly higher levels of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C‐reactive protein, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. However, levels of haemoglobin, postprandial plasma C‐peptide, triglyceride, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, and uric acid were decreased in patients with amputations. Patients with more advanced Wagner grades had much higher rates of amputation. Multivariable‐adjusted odds ratios in stepwise logistic regression model was 1.317 for HbA1c (95% CI: 1.015‐1.709), 0.255 for triglyceride (95% CI: 0.067‐0.975), and 20.947 for Wagner grades (95% CI: 4.216‐104.080). Independent risk factors for amputation in these Chinese diabetic foot ulcer patients included an elevated HbA1c level, lower triglyceride level, and higher Wagner grades.

Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies for determination of wound age and vitality in rats

Abstract

In forensic medicine, it is vital to verify with the best attainable accuracy once injuries occurred during vital or post‐mortem conditions. An immunohistochemical study was carried out to examine the time‐dependent expression of macrophage‐specific gene CD68 (cluster of differentiation 68), alpha‐smooth muscle actin (α‐SMA), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in different skin wound timings (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days) in rats. Histopathological studies were performed to assess the wound age and vitality. Eighteen male albino Wister rats (weighing 170‐200 g) were used for wound induction. Rats (n = 3) were euthanised at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days from the starting point of wound induction. Histopathological examination showed that the epidermal re‐epithelialisation was completed 14 days after skin incision. The inflammatory phase was recorded during the first 3 days of healing and reached the maximum levels at 5 days, then declined after 7 days, and completely removed at 14 days. The beginning of the proliferative phase was dated to day 3 and the peak at days 5 and 7. The initiation of the granulation tissue formation and remodelling phase of the healing process was observed 5 days after wounding. By immunohistochemical staining, negative VEGF gene expressions at early stages (0‐3 days) were observed, as well as neither CD68+ macrophages nor α‐SMA+ myofibroblast cells were detected. By increasing the wound ages (5‐7 days), granulation tissue and angiogenesis were observed, with the migration of macrophages and fibroblast, which expressed VEGF, CD68, and α‐SMA positive reaction. Time‐dependent expression of the above markers suggested that they would be useful indicators for the determination of wound age. Both VEGF and transforming growth factor‐beta 1 (TGFb1) mRNA levels were determined in different skin wound ages. The transcription of TGFb1 and VEGF increased shortly after wounding, until post‐wounding day 7. It then declined constantly, reaching minimal values on day 14.

The effects of platelet‐rich‐plasma gel application to the colonic anastomosis in hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: An experimental rat model

Abstract

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has cytotoxic effects on tumour cells but also negative impacts on anastomotic healing. Platelet‐rich‐plasma (PRP) is used for wound care but data about effects on gastrointestinal anastomosis are limited. In this experimental study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PRP application on colon anastomosis in rats those received HIPEC with cisplatin. Five rats were sacrificed to obtain PRP gel. Thirty rats were divided into three groups; Group 1: control group, Group 2: colon anastomosis and HIPEC with cisplatin, and Group 3: colon anastomosis enhanced by PRP and HIPEC with cisplatin. The rats were re‐operated on postoperative day seven and anastomotic bursting pressure (ABP) was recorded. Also, tissue samples were taken for hydroxyproline assessment and histopathological examination. There were significant differences in ABP between Groups 2 and 3, and also those groups had lower ABP compared with the control group. Group 3 had significantly higher hydroxyproline levels and had better histopathological findings than group 2. According to our findings, we suggest that PRP application improves the anastomotic healing by increasing anastomotic bursting pressure, hydroxyproline levels, and decreasing inflammatory response. Further clinical studies are needed to prove our hypothesis.

Rare chemical burns: Review of the Literature

Abstract

There are many chemicals that can cause burns. Although they are generally acidic and basic in nature, there are more than one million known chemical compounds, of which 300 have been declared highly hazardous chemical substances by the National Fire Protection Society. Chemical burns account for approximately 10.7% of all burn injuries and 30% of deaths because of burns. Chemicals can be classified as acid, alkali, organic, and inorganic compounds. Acids act by denaturing and coagulating proteins. Alkaline burns cause deeper burns than acid burns.

Systemic translation of locally infiltrated epidermal growth factor in diabetic lower extremity wounds

Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the most frightened diabetic complications leading to amputation disability and early mortality. Diabetic wounds exhibit a complex networking of inflammatory cytokines, local proteases, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as a pathogenic polymicrobial biofilm, overall contributing to wound chronification and host homeostasis imbalance. Intralesional infiltration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to diabetic wound healing, reaching responsive cells while avoiding the deleterious effect of proteases and the biofilm on the wound's surface. The present study shows that intralesional therapy with EGF is associated with the systemic attenuation of pro‐inflammatory markers along with redox balance recovery. A total of 11 diabetic patients with neuropathic foot ulcers were studied before and 3 weeks after starting EGF treatment. Evaluations comprised plasma levels of pro‐inflammatory, redox balance, and glycation markers. Pro‐inflammatory markers such as erythrosedimentation rate, C‐reactive protein, interleukin‐6, soluble FAS, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1‐alpha were significantly reduced by EGF therapy. Oxidative capacity, nitrite/nitrate ratio, and pentosidine were also reduced, while soluble receptor for advanced glycation end‐products significantly increased. Overall, our results indicate that the local intralesional infiltration of EGF translates in systemic anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as in attenuation of the glycation products' negative effects.

Benefits of cryopreserved human amniotic membranes in association with conventional treatments in the management of full‐thickness burns

Abstract

The use of split‐thickness skin autografts (STSA) with dermal substitutes is the gold standard treatment for third‐degree burn patients. In this article, we tested whether cryopreserved amniotic membranes could be beneficial to the current treatments for full‐thickness burns. Swines were subjected to standardised full‐thickness burn injuries, and then were randomly assigned to treatments: (a) STSA alone; (b) STSA associated with the dermal substitute, Matriderm; (c) STSA plus human amniotic membrane (HAM); and (d) STSA associated with Matriderm plus HAM. Clinical and histological assessments were performed over time. We also reported the clinical use of HAM in one patient. The addition of HAM to classic treatments reduced scar contraction. In the presence of HAM, skin wound healing displayed high elasticity and histological examination showed a dense network of long elastic fibres. The presence of HAM increased dermal neovascularization, but no effect was observed on the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the wound. Moreover, the use of HAM with classical treatments in one human patient revealed a clear benefit in terms of elasticity. These results give initial evidence to consider the clinical application of HAM to avoid post‐burn contractures and therefore facilitate functional recovery after deep burn injury.

Ulcer‐free survival days and ulcer healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers: A prospective cohort study

Abstract

Healing rates may not give a complete indication of the effectiveness and management of diabetic foot ulcers because of high recurrence rates. The most important outcome for patients is remaining ulcer‐free; however, this has hardly been investigated. The aim of our study was to prospectively investigate ulcer‐free survival days and ulcer healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. This was a prospective cohort study of all referrals to our diabetic foot expertise centre from December 2014 to April 2017. Outcomes were determined after a minimum follow‐up period of 12 months. Primary outcomes were ulcer‐free survival days and 12‐month healing percentages. Predictors for ulcer‐free survival days and healing were investigated in multivariate analyses. A total of 158 patients were included. Median ulcer‐free survival days in the healed group were 233 days (interquartile range [IQR] 121‐312) and 131 days (IQR 0–298) in the overall population. The healing rate at 12‐month follow up was 67% (106/158), and the recurrence rate was 31% (33/106). Independent predictors of ulcer‐free survival days were duration of diabetes, peripheral artery disease (PAD), cardiovascular disease, end‐stage renal disease (ESRD), and infection. Ulcer‐free survival days are related to PAD and cardiovascular disease, and ulcer‐free survival days should be the main outcome when comparing the effectiveness of management and prevention of the diabetic foot ulcers.

The seasonal and monthly distribution of body limbs affected by burns in paediatric patients in southeast Turkey

Abstract

Studies on the frequency of burned limbs according to season and months are limited. The burning of some body limbs, especially in some months, shows that the causes of burns are different, and knowing the reasons is important for providing preventive measures. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution rate of child burns by months and seasons and to contribute to preventive measures by determining the distribution of the burning of body limbs by months. We retrospectively evaluated 419 paediatric patients (0‐17 years of age) who were hospitalised in the burn unit between 1 May 2017 and 1 November 2018. The demographic characteristics of the patients were recorded according to age, gender, months, and seasons of the patients admitted; cause of burns; degree of burns; total body surface area; and burning regions. The distribution of burns by months was established as being mainly in May to October. As for the distribution of the patients according to the seasons, it was found that it was most common in summer, 122 (29.1%), and in the autumn season as well, it was 122 (29.1%). While body burns increased in the summer‐autumn seasons (P < .023), genital area burns were the lowest in winter and were the highest in summer and autumn seasons. Genital site burns increased statistically in September, October, and November (P < .010). Burn traumas are observed to be more frequent in some seasons and months. The environments where individuals live, forms of life, forms of warming, areas of interest, and sociocultural and economic levels are the causes of this variability.

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