Pressure injury (PI) is still a significant public health problem to be solved. Accurate prediction can lead to timely prophylaxis and therapy. However, the currently used Braden score shows insufficient predictive validity. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict PI development in critically ill patients. We extracted data from Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV v1.0. Variable selection was based on univariate logistic regression and all-subset regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the performance of the nomogram and Braden score. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was performed to identify and compare the clinical usefulness between the nomogram model and Braden score. We have developed a novel and practical nomogram that accurately predicts pressure ulcers. The AUC of the new model was better than that of the Braden score (P < .001). DCA showed that the nomogram model had a better net benefit than the Braden score at any given threshold. This finding needs to be confirmed by external validation as well as multicentre prospective studies.
The preparation of hydrogels for wound healing properties with high antibacterial activities and good biosafety concurrently can be relatively challenging. For addressing these issues, we report on the synthesis and characterisation of a nanocomposite hydrogel dressing by introducing the silver nanoparticles in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-hydroxyapatite scaffold hydrogel (HMC-HA/AgNPs). The different concentrations of AgNPs in HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogels were confirmed by swelling ratio, degradation, and gelatin time. The synthesised HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogels were further characterised using the UV-visible, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the novel HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogel exhibited a porous 3D network and high mechanical properties because of the inter-molecular and intra-molecular interactions. The AgNPs give the HMC-HA hydrogels excellent antibacterial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, without any chemical reductant and cross-linking agent required endows the hydrogel high biocompatibility. More importantly, HMC-HA/AgNPs effectively repaired wound defects in mice models, and wound healing reached 94.5 ± 1.4% within 16 days. The HMC-HA hydrogel with AgNPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity and burn wound healing. Therefore, these HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogels have great potential as an injectable hydrogel for wound healing activity in children with burn injuries.
Early pressure injury (PI) can result in either spontaneous healing (SH) or deterioration into ulcer (DU). However, determining whether PI will progress into SH or DU on the basis of non-blanchable erythema only is difficult. In this study, we constructed two animal PI models to mimic SH and DU injuries and observed haemorrhage by using ultraviolet (UV) photography to develop potential clinical indicators for predicting the progression of early PI. Macroscopy, UV photography, and skin temperature observations were obtained. In the SH group, macroscopic observation showed the erythema was obvious at 0.5 hours after decompression and faded gradually had almost disappeared at 72 hours. In the DU group, the erythema persisted, and an erosion appeared at 24 hours after decompression and expanded at 36 hours. The erythema developed into an obvious ulcer at 48 hours and enlarged at 72 hours. The obvious ulcer found at 48 hours through macroscopic observation was clearly visible at 36 hours with UV photography, and a significant difference in grey values between the two groups was found at as early as 18 hours (P < .05). This study provided evidence showing that UV photography can predict the different progression stages of early PI. Additionally, when combined with the transparent disc method, UV photography also can be used to identify the circulatory disorders of early PI, such as haemorrhage or hyperaemia and even congestion.
This study assesses the impact of a processed microvascular tissue (PMVT) allograft on wound closure and healing in a prospective, single-blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled clinical trial of 100 subjects with Wagner Grade 1 and 2 chronic neuropathic diabetic foot ulcerations. In addition to standard wound care, including standardised offloading, the treatment arm received PMVT while the control arm received a collagen alginate dressing. The primary endpoint was complete wound closure at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints assessed on all subjects were percent wound area reduction, time to healing, and local neuropathy. Novel exploratory sub-studies were conducted for wound area perfusion and changes in regional neuropathy. Weekly application of PMVT resulted in increased complete wound closure at 12 weeks (74% vs 38%; P = .0003), greater percent wound area reduction from weeks four through 12 (76% vs 24%; P = .009), decreased time to healing (54 days vs 64 days; P = .009), and improved local neuropathy (118% vs 11%; P = .028) compared with the control arm. Enhanced perfusion and improved regional neuropathy were demonstrated in the sub-studies. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased complete healing with PMVT and supports its use in treating non-healing DFUs. The observed benefit of PMVT on the exploratory regional neuropathy and perfusion endpoints warrants further study.
This was the first study to analyse patients who sustained severe self-induced burns from this common Asian practice. There is a need to raise public awareness and physician attention about the consequences of preventable burn injuries and the importance of first aid in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Retrospective data on 16 consecutive patients who had diabetes and neuropathy admitted to the plastic surgery ward at the Tri-Service General Hospital from January 1, 2015, to February 2, 2021 with burn injuries because of heat applications were collected and analysed for this study. Age, gender, season, first aid adequacy, comorbidity, interventions, total body surface area (TBSA), degree of burn, aetiology, length of stay (LOS), and status at discharge were reviewed. The mean age of the 16 patients was 65.13 years. The most common burn aetiology was contact (50%), followed by scald (37.5%) and radiation burns (12.5%). TBSA burn averaged ± standard deviation 1.54 ± 1.22. Seven patients (44%) had wound infections, and three patients underwent amputations. The average LOS was 28.2 days. Asian practice of heat application is the common aetiology of severe and preventable burn injuries. Education about neuropathy and the consequences of a burn injury should be provided to patients with diabetes.
Patients who have chronic wounds such as leg ulcers should be active participants in their treatment and care. This participation may include self-treatment of the wound which involves the patient cleaning the wound, applying and removing wound dressings, and/or applying and removing compression therapy. The aim of the study was to develop a Checklist to assist nurses to appraise the conduct of wound treatment when undertaken by the patient. A three-phase mixed methods study was conducted. A systematic and evidence-based approach to developing and using structured observations for the study of health behaviour guided the process of developing, piloting and refining the Checklist. The resulting “Self-Treatment of Wounds for Venous Leg Ulcers Checklist” (STOW-V Checklist V1.0) can assist the nurse to evaluate the conduct of key self-treatment behaviours in the areas of equipment and workspace, hand hygiene, wound dressing removal, skin care, wound cleansing and debridement, wound assessment, wound dressing application, and compression therapy application. The growing recognition that patients can benefit when involved in care, the need to enact self-management because of COVID-19, and the ever present competition for healthcare funding and resources are compelling reasons for patients, care providers, and healthcare services to afford the self-management approach, and associated interventions such as self-treatment, greater consideration. It is recommended that the STOW-V Checklist is used with patients in a shared-care model, with nurses and other healthcare professionals providing supervision and oversight of self-treatment practices whenever this is feasible and acceptable to the patient.
The “Self-Treatment of Wounds for Venous Leg Ulcers Checklist” (STOW-V Checklist V1.0) is an evidence-based, standardised tool designed to assist nurses to appraise the conduct of wound treatment when undertaken by patients who have venous leg ulcers. A prospective reliability study was conducted to determine the reliability of the STOW-V Checklist V1.0. Video-recordings of patients who self-treated their leg ulcer were obtained (n = 5) and nurses (n = 15) viewed each video-recording three times and concurrently completed the Checklist. Internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability were evaluated. Cronbach's alpha for items in the Checklist was 0.792, 0.791 and 0.783 for Occasions 1, 2 and 3, respectively, indicating good reliability. Inter-rater reliability was 0.938, 0.958 and 0.927 for Occasions 1, 2 and 3, respectively; these results were statistically significant and indicative of excellent reliability. Intra-rater reliability was 0.403 to 0.999; these results were statistically significant and meeting or exceed adequacy in the case of all except two raters. The study provides preliminary evidence that the Checklist is measuring the concepts that it intends to measure and that there is a high level of agreement among raters. It is recommended that the STOW-V Checklist V1.0 is utilised with patients in a shared-care model, with nurses and other healthcare professionals providing supervision and oversight of self-treatment practices whenever this is feasible and acceptable to the patient.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are at risk for detrimental complications even with current, standard of care (SOC) treatments. The primary objective of this randomised controlled trial was to compare a unique resorbable glass microfiber matrix (Mirragen; Advanced Wound Matrix [BBGFM]; ETS Wound Care, Rolla, Missouri) compared with a standard of care group (SOC, collagen alginate dressing) at 12 weeks. Both groups received standard diabetic foot care including glucose monitoring, weekly debridements when needed and an offloading device. The primary endpoint was proportion of full-thickness, non-infected, non-ischaemic wounds healed at 12 weeks, with secondary endpoints including percent area reduction (PAR) and changes in Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. The result illustrated in the intent-to-treat analysis at 12 weeks showed that 70% (14/20) of the BBGFM-treated DFUs healed compared with 25% (5/20) treated with SOC alone (adjusted P = .006). Mean PAR at 12 weeks was 79% in the BBGFM group compared with 37% in the SOC group (adjusted P = .027). Mean change in neuropathic score between baseline and up to 12 weeks of treatment was 2.0 in the BBGFM group compared with −0.6 in the SOC group where positive improvement in scores are better (adjusted P = .008). The mean number of BBGFM applications was 6.0. In conclusion, adding BBGFM to SOC significantly improved wound healing with no adverse events related to treatment compared with SOC alone.
The development of biologically active multifunctional hydrogel wound dressings can assist effectively to wound regeneration and also has influenced multiple functions on wound injury. Herein, we designed a carbon-based composited injectable silk fibroin hydrogel as multifunctional wound dressing to provide effective anti-bacterial, cell compatibility and in vivo wound closure actions. Importantly, the fabricated injectable hydrogel exhibit sustained drug delivery properties, anti-oxidant and self-healing abilities, which confirm that composition of hydrogel is highly beneficial to tissue adhesions and burn wound regeneration ability. Frequently, designed injectable hydrogel can be injected into deep and irregular burn wound sites and would provide rapid self-healing and protection from infection environment with thoroughly filled wound area. Meanwhile, incorporated carbon nanofillers improve injectable hydrogel strength and also offer high fluid uptake to hydrogel when applied on the wound sites. In vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay on human fibroblast cell lines establish outstanding cytocompatibility of the injectable hydrogel and also have capability to support cell growth and proliferations. In vivo burn wound animal model results demonstrate that the hydrogel dressings predominantly influenced enhanced wound contraction and also promoted greater collagen deposition, granulation tissue thickness and vascularization. This investigation's outcome could open a new pathway to fabricate multifunctional biopolymeric hydrogel for quicker burn wound therapy and effectively prevents microenvironment bacterial infections.
Medical device-related pressure ulcers (PUs) (injuries) are a subclass of PUs, associated with pressure and/or shear applied by a medical device onto the skin. Clinical application of a cyanoacrylate liquid skin protectant (CLSP) under the contours of skin-contacting medical devices to shield an intact skin from the sustained mechanical loads that are applied by medical devices is a preventative option, but no computer modelling work has been reported to assess the biomechanical efficacy of such interventions. Here, we investigated the biomechanical protective effect of a polymerised cyanoacrylate coating using three-dimensional, anatomically realistic finite element models of the ear with oxygen cannula and the mouth with endotracheal attachment device, informed by experimental studies. We have compared tissue stress exposures under the devices at these facial sites between conditions where the cyanoacrylate skin protectant has been applied or where the device was contacting the skin directly, without the shielding of the cyanoacrylate coating. The CLSP considerably reduced the skin stress concentration levels and overall tissue stress exposures under the aforementioned medical devices. This demonstrates strong biomechanical effectiveness of the studied cyanoacrylate-based skin protectant in prevention of facial medical device-related injuries at small, curved and thereby difficult to protect facial sites.
Previous studies have used botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) to improve postoperative and hypertrophic scars; however, there is lack of detailed verification on the safety and effectiveness of this approach. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of BTXA on postoperative hypertrophic scars and its influence on cytokine expression in animal models. A computerised search of different databases was performed, including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang, up to 10 March 2021. A meta-analysis was performed using R 4.0.0 based on hypertrophic index, epithelialisation time, wound area, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Eleven studies were included. The meta-analysis showed a significant difference in hypertrophic index (standardised mean difference [SMD] = −2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.50 to −1.76, P < .01), wound area (SMD = −0.54, 95% CI: −1.24 to 0.16, P < .01), and VEGF expression (SMD = −2.56, 95% CI: −3.50 to −1.62, P < .01). This study shows that BTXA is safe and effective in preventing and treating scar hypertrophy in animal models, but excessive doses of BTXA and BTXA to treat large areas should be avoided.
Among the available dressings for partial-thickness burn wound treatment, SUPRATHEL has shown good usability and effectiveness for wound healing and patient comfort and has been used in many burn centres in the last decade. Recently, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has become popular for the treatment of wounds, and many studies have demonstrated its efficacy. epicitehydro, consisting of BNC and 95% water, is a promising product and has recently been introduced in numerous burn centres. To date, no studies including direct comparisons to existing products like SUPRATHEL have been conducted. Therefore, we aimed to compare epicitehydro to SUPRATHEL in the treatment of partial-thickness burns. Twenty patients with partial-thickness burns affecting more than 0.5% of their total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this prospective, unicentric, open, comparative, intra-individual clinical study. After debridement, the wounds were divided into two areas: one was treated with SUPRATHEL and the other with epicitehydro. Wound healing, infection, bleeding, exudation, dressing changes, and pain were documented. The quality of the scar tissue was assessed subjectively using the Patient and Observer Scar Scale. Wound healing in patients with a mean TBSA of 9.2% took 15 to 16 days for both treatments without dressing changes. All wounds showed minimal exudation, and patients reported decreased pain with the only significant difference between the two dressings on day 1. No infection or bleeding occurred in any of the wounds. Regarding scar evaluation, SUPRATHEL and epicitehydro did not differ significantly. Both wound dressings were easy to use, were highly flexible, created a safe healing environment, had similar effects on pain reduction, and showed good cosmetic and functional results without necessary dressing changes. Therefore, epicitehydro can be used as an alternative to SUPRATHEL for the treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds.
As the use of closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) becomes more widespread, dressing designs have evolved to address implementation challenges and meet surgeon demand. While traditional application of ciNPT was limited to the immediate suture line, a novel dressing that covers the incision and additional surrounding tissues has become available. To expand upon previous ciNPT recommendations and provide guidance on this new dressing, an expert panel of plastic surgeons convened to review the current literature, identify challenges to the implementation and sustainability of ciNPT, and use a modified Delphi technique to form a consensus on the appropriate use of ciNPT with full-coverage dressings. After three rounds of collecting expert opinion via the Delphi method, consensus was reached if 80% of the panel agreed upon a statement. This manuscript establishes 10 consensus statements regarding when ciNPT with full-coverage foam dressings should be considered or recommended in the presence of patient or incision risk factors, effective therapeutic settings and duration, precautions for use, and tools and techniques to support application. The panel also discussed areas of interest for future study of ciNPT with full-coverage dressings. High-quality, controlled studies are needed to expand the understanding of the benefits of ciNPT over the incision and surrounding tissues.
Pressure ulcers (PUs) have a profound impact on individuals, with studies demonstrating that compared with similarly aged persons, those living with a PU have a significantly lower quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the Shanley Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programme (SPUPP) on older persons' knowledge of, and attitudes and behaviours towards, PU prevention. This was a multi-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. The population of interest was older persons living in the community who attended either a day care centre or a retirement group and were deemed to be at risk of PUs due to reduced mobility. Stratified random sampling was used to randomise based on days of attendance at day care centre/retirement group. Pretest and post-test were applied to the intervention and control groups. The SPUPP is a multimedia programme delivered using electronic media, hard copy materials, activities, and patient diaries and addresses the key tenets of PU prevention as described by the SKIN bundle. The programme contains five separate sessions delivered over 5 weeks. The impact of the SPUPP was assessed using the patient knowledge of and attitude and behaviour towards PU prevention instrument (KPUP). A total of 64 persons, 32 in each group, took part in the study. Of these, 75% (n = 48) were female, with a mean age of 81.9 years (SD: 5.56 years). Further, 68.8% (n = 44) were either overweight or obese and 40.6% (n = 26) were usually incontinent of urine. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in mean scores during the pretest stage. However, at post-test, the mean scores for the intervention group were higher than the control group, 16.87 (SD: 1.88) versus 12.41 (SD: 3.21), respectively. For the post-test stage, mean differences between the two groups in favour of the intervention group (∆ = 4.46) were statistically significant, as t = 6.76, P = .0001, and equal variances were not assumed. The SPUPP impacted positively on knowledge scores of the participants and positively influenced attitudes and behaviours towards PU prevention. Thus, this research provides information regarding the potential to enhance patient involvement in PU prevention.
In 2019, the third and updated edition of the Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers/Injuries has been published. In addition to this most up-to-date evidence-based guidance for clinicians, related topics such as pressure ulcers (PUs)/pressure injuries (PIs) aetiology, classification, and future research needs were considered by the teams of experts. To elaborate on these topics, this is the third paper of a series of the CPG articles, which summarises the latest understanding of the aetiology of PUs/PIs with a special focus on the effects of soft tissue deformation. Sustained deformations of soft tissues cause initial cell death and tissue damage that ultimately may result in the formation of PUs/PIs. High tissue deformations result in cell damage on a microscopic level within just a few minutes, although it may take hours of sustained loading for the damage to become clinically visible. Superficial skin damage seems to be primarily caused by excessive shear strain/stress exposures, deeper PUs/PIs predominantly result from high pressures in combination with shear at the surface over bony prominences, or under stiff medical devices. Therefore, primary PU/PI prevention should aim for minimising deformations by either reducing the peak strain/stress values in tissues or decreasing the exposure time.
Complete healing is problematic as an endpoint for evaluating interventions for wound healing. The great heterogeneity of wounds makes it difficult to match groups, and this is only possible with multivariate stratification and/or very large numbers of subjects. The substantial time taken for wounds to heal necessitates a very lengthy study. Consequently, high quality randomised controlled trials demonstrating an effect of an intervention to a satisfactory level of statistical significance and with a satisfactory level of generalisability are extremely rare. This study determines that the healing of venous leg ulcers receiving multi-component compression bandaging follows a linear trajectory over a 4-week period, as measured by gross area healed, percentage area healed, and advance of the wound margin. The linear trajectories of these surrogates make it possible to identify an acceleration in healing resulting from an intervention, and allows self-controlled or crossover designs with attendant advantages of statistical power and speed. Of the metrics investigated, wound margin advance was the most linear, and was also independent of initial ulcer size.
The retrospective pragmatic real-world data (RWD) study compared the healing outcomes of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) treated with either ovine forestomach matrix (OFM) (n = 1150) or collagen/oxidised regenerated cellulose (ORC) (n = 1072) in out-patient wound care centres. Median time to wound closure was significantly (P = .0015) faster in the OFM group (14.6 ± 0.5 weeks) relative to the collagen/ORC group (16.4 ± 0.7). A sub-group analysis was performed to understand the relative efficacy in DFUs requiring longer periods of treatment and showed that DFUs treated with OFM healed up to 5.3 weeks faster in these challenging wounds. The percentage of wounds closed at 36 weeks was significantly improved in OFM treated DFUs relative to the collagen/ORC. A Cox proportional hazards analysis showed OFM-treated wounds had a 18% greater probability of healing versus wounds managed with collagen/ORC, and the probability increased to 21% when the analysis was adjusted for multiple variables. This study represents the first large retrospective RWD analysis comparing OFM and collagen/ORC and supports the clinical efficacy of OFM in the treatment of DFUs.
Present guidelines recommend a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach to diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) care, but relevant data from Asia are lacking. We aim to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes of an MDT approach in a lower extremity amputation prevention programme (LEAPP) for DFU care in an Asian population. We performed a case-control study of 84 patients with DFU between January 2017 and October 2017 (retrospective control) vs 117 patients with DFU between December 2017 and July 2018 (prospective LEAPP cohort). Comparing the clinical outcomes between the retrospective cohort and the LEAPP cohort, there was a significant decrease in mean time from referral to index clinic visit (38.6 vs 9.5 days, P < .001), increase in outpatient podiatry follow-up (33% vs 76%, P < .001), decrease in 1-year minor amputation rate (14% vs 3%, P = .007), and decrease in 1-year major amputation rate (9% vs 3%, P = .05). Simulation of cost avoidance demonstrated an annualised cost avoidance of USD $1.86m (SGD $2.5m) for patients within the LEAPP cohort. In conclusion, similar to the data from Western societies, an MDT approach in an Asian population, via a LEAPP for patients with DFU, demonstrated a significant reduction in minor and major amputation rates, with annualised cost avoidance of USD $1.86m.