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AnteayerInternational Wound Journal

A nomogram for accurately predicting the surgical site infection following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in type 2 diabetes patients, based on glycemic variability

Abstract

Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common and serious complication of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and the occurrence of SSI usually leads to prolonged hospitalisation, increased medical costs, poor prognosis, and even death. The objectives of this study were to compare the incidence of SSI in patients with type 2 diabetes, investigate the correlation between perioperative glycemic variability and postoperative SSI, and develop a nomogram model to predict the risk of SSI. This study retrospectively analysed 339 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent TLIF in the spinal surgery department of the Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University from January 2018 to September 2021. The medical records of all patients were collected, and postoperative infection cases were determined according to the diagnostic criteria of surgical site infection. The risk factors for postoperative SSI were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. And Nomogram prediction model was established and validated. The nomogram incorporated seven independent predictors. Preoperative FPG-CV was the most important independent risk predictor of SSI, followed by preoperative MFBG, duration of drain placement, postoperative FPG-CV, preoperative blood glucose control scheme, duration of diabetes >5 years, and the number of fused vertebrae ≥2. The nomogram showed good diagnostic accuracy for the SS of both the training cohort and the validation cohort (AUC = 0.915 and AUC = 0.890). The calibration curves for the two cohorts both showed optimal agreement between nomogram prediction and actual observation. In conclusion, preoperative and postoperative glycemic variability is closely related to the occurrence of SSI. We developed and validated a nomogram to accurately predict the risk of SSI after TLIF surgery. It's helpful for spinal surgeons to formulate reasonable treatment plans and prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes patients.

Systematic review of groin wound surgical site infection incidence after arterial intervention

Abstract

The objectives were to determine the surgical site infection incidence (including superficial/deep) fter arterial intervention through non-infected groin incisions and identify variables associated with incidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched for randomised controlled trials and observational studies of adults undergoing arterial intervention through a groin incision and reported surgical site infection. Infection incidence was examined in subgroups, variables were subjected to meta-regression. One hundred seventeen studies reporting 65 138 groin incisions in 42 347 patients were included. Overall surgical site infection incidence per incision was 8.1% (1730/21 431): 6.3% (804/12 786) were superficial and 1.9% (241/12 863) were deep. Superficial infection incidence was higher in randomised controlled trials (15.8% [278/1762]) compared with observational studies (4.8% [526/11 024]); deep infection incidence was similar (1.7% (30/1762) and 1.9% (211/11 101) respectively). Aneurysmal pathology (β = −10.229, P < .001) and retrospective observational design (β = −1.118, P = .002) were associated with lower infection incidence. Surgical site infection being a primary outcome was associated with a higher incidence of surgical site infections (β = 3.429, P = .017). The three-fold higher incidence of superficial surgical site infection reported in randomised controlled trials may be because of a more robust clinical review of patients. These results should be considered when benchmarking practice and could inform future trial design.

Management of wounds with exposed bone structures using an induced‐membrane followed by polymethyl methacrylate and second‐stage skin grafting in the elderly with a 3‐year follow‐up

Abstract

The treatment of traumatic wounds with exposed bone or tendons is often challenging. An induced membrane (IM) is used to reconstruct bone defects, as it provides an effective and sufficient blood supply for bone and soft-tissue reconstruction. This study explored a novel two-stage strategy for wound management, consisting of initial wound coverage with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and an autologous split-thickness skin graft under the IM. Fifty inpatients were enrolled from December 2016 to December 2019. Each patient underwent reconstruction according to a two-stage process. In the first stage, the defect area was thoroughly debrided, and the freshly treated wound was then covered using PMMA cement. After 4-6 weeks, during the second stage, the PMMA cement was removed to reveal an IM covering the exposed bone and tendon. An autologous split-thickness skin graft was then performed. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31 and CD34 were used to evaluate the IM and compare it with the normal periosteal membrane (PM). The psychological status and the Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS) as well as any complications were recorded at follow-up. We found that all skin grafts survived and evidenced no necrosis or infection. H&E staining revealed vascularised tissue in the IM, and immunohistochemistry showed a larger number of VEGF-, CD31- and CD34-positive cells in the IM than in the normal PM. The duration of healing in the group was 5.40 ± 1.32 months with a mean number of debridement procedures of 1.92 ± 0.60. There were two patients with reulceration in the group. The self-rating anxiety scale scores ranged from 35 to 60 (mean 48.02 ± 8.12). Postoperatively, the LEFS score was 50.10 ± 9.77. Finally, our strategy for the management of a non-healing wound in the lower extremities, consisting of an IM in combination with skin grafting, was effective, especially in cases in which bony structures were exposed in the elderly. The morbidity rate was low.

Characterisation of key biomarkers in diabetic ulcers via systems bioinformatics

Abstract

Diabetic ulcers (DUs) are characterised by a high incidence and disability rate. However, its pathogenesis remains elusive. Thus, a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms for the pathogenesis of DUs has vital implications. The weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed on the main data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were adopted to analyse the potential biological function of the most relevant module. Furthermore, we utilised CytoHubba and protein–protein interaction network to identify the hub genes. Finally, the hub genes were validated by animal experiments in diabetic ulcer mice models. The expression of genes from the turquoise module was found to be strongly related to DUs. GO terms, KEGG analysis showed that biological functions are closely related to immune response. The hub genes included IFI35, IFIT2, MX2, OASL, RSAD2, and XAF1, which were higher in wounds of DUs mice than that in normal lesions. Additionally, we also demonstrated that the expression of hub genes was correlated with the immune response using immune checkpoint, immune cell infiltration, and immune scores. These data suggests that IFI35, IFIT2, MX2, OASL, RSAD2, and XAF1 are crucial for DUs.

The association of wound factors and symptoms of fatigue and pain with wound healing in chronic venous leg ulcers

Abstract

The purpose of this study was: (1) to characterise the association of wound area, wound exudate C-reactive protein (CRP), broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease protein (MMPs), and symptoms of fatigue and pain in individuals with chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) over time and (2) to identify factors associated with the wound healing trajectory in CVLUs. Seventy four participants with CVLU who received weekly sharp debridement were recruited from a wound care clinic during the 8-week study period. To examine associations among wound CRP, MMPs, pain, fatigue, and wound healing trajectory over time, we calculated Bayes factors (BF) based on a linear mixed model. The mean age of participants was 71.8 (SD = 9.8) and the mean wound area was 2278 mm2 (SD = 7085 mm2) at baseline. Higher fatigue was strongly associated with higher MMPs (BF = 9, 95% HDI: [−.05, .43]), lower CRP (BF = 11, 95% HDI: [−.02, .002]), and large areas of wound (BF = 20, 95% HDI: [−.001, .01]). Higher CRP and MMPs activity in wound exudate and higher fatigue were associated with a larger wound area. To facilitate wound healing, clinicians need to utilise the multifactorial approach, which includes wound treatment and management of symptoms such as pain and fatigue, because of the molecular and psycho-behavioural factors involved in wound healing.

Incidence and predictors of sternal surgical wound infection in cardiac surgery: A prospective study

Abstract

Sternal surgical wound infection (SSWI) in cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity. We investigated the incidence of SSWI, the main germs implicated and predictors of SSWI. Prospective study including patients undergoing full median sternotomy between January 2017 and December 2019. Patients were followed-up for 3 months after hospital discharge. All sternal wound infections up to 90 days after discharge were considered SSWI. 1004 patients were included. During follow-up, 68 (6.8%) patients presented SSWI. Patients with SSWI had a higher incidence of postoperative renal failure (29.4% vs 17.1%, P = .007), a higher incidence of early postoperative reoperation for non-infectious causes (42.6% vs 9.1%, P < .001), longer ICU stay (3 [2–9] days vs 2 [2–4] days, P = .006), and longer hospital stay (24.5 [14.8–38.3] days vs 10 [7–18] days, P < .001). Gram-positive germs were presented in 49% of the cultures, and gram-negative bacteria in 35%. Early reoperation for non-infectious causes (OR 4.90, 95% CI 1.03–23.7), and a longer ICU stay (OR 1.37 95% CI 1.10–1.72) were independent predictors of SSWI. SSWI is rare but leads to more postoperative complications. The need for early reoperation because of non-infectious cause and a longer ICU stay were independently associated with SSWI.

Evaluation of wound healing effects of micronized acellular dermal matrix in combination with negative pressure wound therapy: In vivo study

Abstract

Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) grafts can provide coverage for full-thickness skin defects and substitute for dermal defects. We tested the effectiveness of micronized ADM (mADM) as a dressing material, combined with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), for managing superficial wounds. We compared the wound healing effect of mADM in combination with NPWT with those of gelatin and mADM applied with a foam dressing. These therapeutic materials were applied to 36 cm2 excisional wounds in a porcine full-thickness skin defect model. Wound healing kinetics and new tissue formation were assessed 10 days after the initial treatment by measuring the wound area. Collagen deposition and neovascularization were histologically evaluated. Compared with the other two groups, mADM plus NPWT combination group had a significantly larger wound area at the baseline (P = .0040), but the smallest on the 7th day (P = .0093). In addition, collagen formation and neovascularization were more histologically promoted than in the other two groups. mADM showed better results than the gelatin group but less collagen and revascularization than the combination group, and there was no significant difference in wound area. Our results show that the combination of mADM and NPWT has a synergistic wound healing effect.

A scientometrics analysis and visualisation of diabetic foot research from 1955 to 2022

Abstract

Diabetic foot (DF) has become a serious health problem in modern society, and it has been a hotspot of research for a long time. However, little scientometric analysis has been carried out on DF. In the present study, we analysed 8633 literature reports on DF in the Web of Science Core Collection from database inception until April 23, 2022. VOSviewer (Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands) and CiteSpace (College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, United States) were employed to address high-impact countries and institutions, journals, references, research hotspots, and key research fields in DF research. Our analysis findings indicated that publications on DF have increased markedly since 2016 and were primarily published in the United States of America. The recent studies focus on the amniotic membrane, foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and diabetic wound healing. The five keyword clusters, which included DF ulcer and wound healing therapies, management and guidelines, neuropathy and plantar pressure, amputation and ischemia, and DF infection and osteomyelitis, are helpful for enhancing prevention, standardising treatment, avoiding complications, and improving prognosis. These findings indicated a method for future therapies and research in DF.

Comparison of skin graft donor site management using oxidised regenerated cellulose (ORC)/collagen/silver‐ORC with absorptive silicone adhesive border and transparent film dressing vs semi‐occlusive dressings

Abstract

Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) are widely used in wound reconstruction. However, donor site wounds are created as a result. Traditionally, moist wound healing and transparent film dressings have been used to promote donor site wound healing. This retrospective study evaluated the use of oxidised regenerated cellulose (ORC)/collagen/silver-ORC dressing (ORC/C/Ag-ORC) with an absorptive silicone adhesive border dressing and transparent film dressing (treatment) compared with petrolatum-based gauze dressing (control) over donor site wounds. Patients underwent an STSG procedure between January and December 2020. Donor sites received treatment (n = 10) or control (n = 10) dressings. Dressing changes occurred as necessary. Time to epithelialisation, narcotic pain medication requirements, and the number of office/hospital visits were examined. Twenty patients were managed (9 males, 11 females, average age: 49.7 ± 13.9 y). Patient comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Wound types included traumatic and cancer excision. Time to epithelialisation was significantly reduced in the treatment group (11.1 ± 1.4 d vs 18 ± 2.4 d, P < 0.0001). The number of office visits for dressing changes was significantly lower in the treatment group (0.1 ± 0.3 vs 2 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001). No patients in the treatment group required a hospital visit, compared with 3 patients in the control group. One patient in the treatment group required narcotic pain medication, compared with 5 in the control group. In this patient population, the use of ORC/C/Ag-ORC, an absorptive silicone adhesive border dressing, and transparent film dressing resulted in a shorter time to epithelialisation and less analgesic requirement compared with petrolatum-based gauze dressing use.

Clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine powder in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the clinical application and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) powder in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. Eighty patients with a wound infection were randomly and equally divided into a control group and an observation group. Gauze padding containing furacilin was used to dress the infected wounds of the control group. TCM powder was used to treat the wounds of the observation group. The total response rate of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P = .017). The colour and exudate volume scores in the observation group were lower than the control group, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P < .05). The time to the appearance of new epithelium and time to the wound healing of the burns in the observation group were shorter than the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P < .05). The TCM powder absorbed a large amount of necrotic tissue and exudate from the wound surface, cleared heat and toxins, and activated blood circulation. It also resolved blood stasis, eliminated pus, and allowed for new skin growth, as well as regenerating muscle.

Calendar

International Wound Journal, Volume 19, Issue 6, Page 1605-1605, October 2022.

News and views

International Wound Journal, Volume 19, Issue 6, Page 1286-1288, October 2022.

Issue Information

International Wound Journal, Volume 19, Issue 6, Page 1279-1281, October 2022.

Effect of wound protectors in reducing the incidence of surgical site wound infection in lower gastrointestinal surgery: A meta‐analysis

Abstract

We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of wound protectors in reducing the incidence of surgical site wound infection in lower gastrointestinal surgery. A systematic literature search up to June 2022 was performed and 6026 subjects with lower gastrointestinal surgery at the baseline of the studies; 3090 of them were using the wound protector, and 2936 were using no wound protector. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of wound protectors in reducing the incidence of surgical site wound infection in lower gastrointestinal surgery using the dichotomous methods with a random or fixed-effect model. The surgical site wound infection was significantly lower with single-ring wound protectors (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.39-0.83, P = .004), and dual-ring wound protectors (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.56, P < .001) in subjects with lower gastrointestinal surgery compared with no wound protector. The surgical site wound infection was significantly lower with single-ring wound protectors, and dual-ring wound protectors in subjects with lower gastrointestinal surgery compared with no wound protector. The analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low sample size of 5 out of 28 studies in the meta-analysis and a low number of studies in certain comparisons.

Effect of minimally invasive surgery and laparotomy on wound infection and postoperative and intraoperative complications in the management of cervical cancer: A meta‐analysis

Abstract

We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of minimally invasive surgery and laparotomy on wound infection and postoperative and intraoperative complications in the management of cervical cancer. A systematic literature search up to July 2022 was performed and 10 231 subjects with cervical cancer at the baseline of the studies; 4307 of them were using the minimally invasive surgery, and 5924 were using laparotomy. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of minimally invasive surgery and laparotomy on wound infection and postoperative and intraoperative complications in the management of cervical cancer using the dichotomous methods with a random or fixed-effect model. The minimally invasive surgery had significantly lower wound infection (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.13–0.30, P < .001), and postoperative complications (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.37–0.64, P < .001) in subjects with cervical cancer compared laparotomy. However, minimally invasive surgery compared with laparotomy in subjects with cervical cancer had no significant difference in intraoperative complications (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.80–1.36, P = 0.76). The minimally invasive surgery had significantly lower wound infection, and postoperative complications however, had no significant difference in intraoperative complications in subjects with cervical cancer compared with laparotomy. The analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low sample size of 22 out of 41 studies in the meta-analysis and a low number of studies in certain comparisons.

A meta‐analysis on the efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage combined with autologous platelet‐rich plasma in the treatment of Grade 2 and Grade 3 diabetic foot ulcers

Abstract

This meta-analysis aims to systemically evaluate the efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The China HowNet, China Biomedical Literature, VIP periodical resource integration service platform, Wanfang, Embase, Cochrane Central, and PubMed databases were retrieved using the computer. The retrieval period was up to July 2021. Randomised controlled trials on VSD combined with PRP in the treatment of DFU were collected. Those trials that met the inclusion criteria were included for meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 13 articles were included. In the trial group, 477 patients with DFU were treated with VSD combined with PRP, while in the control group, 482 patients with DFU were treated with conventional dressings and/or VSD. The meta-analysis showed that, compared with the control group, VSD combined with PRP has significant advantages in shortening healing time (standardised mean difference [SMD] = −0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.07 to −0.67, P < .00001), improving ulcer healing rates (odds ratio = 4.01, 95% CI: 2.95 ~ 5.46, P < .00001), and reducing hospital stays (mean difference = −15.29, 95% CI: −16.05 to −14.54, P < .00001), but the differences in dressing change times (SMD = −1.27, 95% CI: −2.71 to 0.17, P = .08) and hospitalisation expenses (SMD = −0.16, 95% CI: −13.40 to 13.07, P = .98) were not statistically significant. VSD combined with autologous PRP has good curative efficacy in the treatment of DFU and is a better treatment option. However, this treatment is limited in patients with platelet dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, leukaemia, and poor general condition.

The biological and physiological impact of the performance of wound dressings

Abstract

Chronic wounds affect millions globally and are a huge financial burden. Whilst there are many wound dressings commercially available to manage these wounds, the complexity of the repair process makes it difficult to select the right dressing for the right wound at the right time. Thus, in this narrative review, we have examined reasons why wounds fail to heal, summarised the pathophysiology of the chronic wound environment and provided an evidence-based, clinically-relevant compilation of the published literature relevant to dressing design and evaluation. This has highlighted the need for a deeper understanding of wound exudates, how exudates change throughout the healing process, and how they are impacted by different dressing materials. Studies assessing biochemical and biophysical changes in exudates throughout the healing process are extremely valuable in this regard, enhancing both our understanding of the wound healing process and the ability to assess dressing performance. In addition, this knowledge allows us to replicate various wound conditions in the laboratory, and develop clinically-relevant models for testing current and new dressings, therefore providing a more comprehensive understanding of how and when they should be used. This approach makes the use of dressings more effective, thereby improving outcomes, and reducing the economic burden of chronic wounds.

Differences in prophylactic performance across wound dressing types used to protect from device‐related pressure ulcers caused by a continuous positive airway pressure mask

Abstract

Prolonged use of continuous positive airway pressure masks, as often required for non-invasive ventilation, involves a risk for facial tissue breakdown due to the sustained deformations caused by tightening of the stiff mask surfaces to the head and the moist environment. The risk of developing mask-related facial injuries can be reduced through suitable cushioning materials placed at the skin-mask interfaces to spread the localised contact forces and disperse the surface and internal tissue stresses. Using an integrated experimental-computational approach, we compared the biomechanical protective performance of three popular foam-based wound dressings to that of a market-lead hydrocolloid dressing when applied to protect the facial skin under a mask. We measured the compressive stiffness properties of the four commercial dressing types in dry and moist conditions, and then fed those to an anatomically realistic finite element model of an adult male head, with an applied simulated mask. Through this process, we calculated the protective efficacy index of each dressing type, indicating the relative contribution of the specified dressing to alleviating facial soft tissue loads with respect to the no-dressing case. The foam-based dressings generally performed substantially better than the hydrocolloid, but foam dressings were also demonstrated to vary by their protective performance.

Monitoring and modifying recruitment and retention strategies for an ongoing randomised clinical trial with venous leg ulcer patients: Overcoming barriers to participation

Abstract

Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are open skin lesions of the lower legs arising in areas affected by venous hypertension that are associated with substantial morbidity. Clinical trials testing innovative approaches to improve healing outcomes are critically needed because standard therapies are often ineffective. However, patients with VLUs frequently have multiple physical, emotional and socioeconomic challenges that can negatively impact their decision to enrol in a clinical trial. To benefit clinical researchers and ultimately the community of patients with chronic wounds, this paper describes the monitoring and modification of recruitment strategies in an ongoing clinical trial testing effects of omega-3 fatty acid oral supplementation on VLU healing in ageing adults (n = 208). Multiple modifications over time in this study have targeted participation barriers identified through data monitoring and include expanding inclusion criteria, adding recruitment sites, enhancing communication methods, and meeting patients' transportation needs. Recruitment activities from January 2019 to June 2022 have resulted in 57 participants (mean age: 63.7 years). Overall, the recruitment rate is 42.5% of patients contacted during face-to-face visits. Overcoming barriers to participation is key to helping patients with VLUs interested in research enrol in clinical trials aiming to improve healing outcomes in this vulnerable population.

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