Pressure ulcers are injuries to the skin and underlying tissue and are associated with a negative impact on well‐being and health‐related quality of life. This explorative, qualitative study aimed to explore the true meaning of elderly nursing home residents' perspectives and critical success factors when implementing a new non‐powered static air mattress overlay to prevent pressure ulcers. Individual, loosely structured interviews were conductedin 12 nursing homes in Flanders, the Northern region of Belgium, a convenience sampling of 14 nursing home residents were selected based on the following eligibility criteria: high risk for pressure ulcer and/or with category 1 pressure ulcer, being bedbound and/or chair‐bound, aged >65 years, and use of an alternating air pressure mattress previous to the application of the non‐powered static air mattress overlay. Interviews were conducted in the participants' personal rooms between June 2017 and March 2018. Interviews included broad, open‐ended questions, to invite and encourage participants to openly discuss their perspectives and experiences. Participants were interviewed once during the 14‐day observation period between day 3 and day 14. All interviews were audio‐recorded and fully transcribed by an experienced transcriber. Interviews were read several times to reveal emerging patterns and were marked with codes into NVivo 10 qualitative data analysis software. During the process, (sub) themes were discussed by the authors until a consensus was reached. Three main themes emerged from the analysis process: rest and sleep; mobility; and discomfort and pain associated with the use of the support surface. Themes were divided into multiple subthemes: motion, noise, sensation, repositioning, and transfer in and out of bed. Through interviews, critical success factors associated with the implementation were identified, including the lack of information and time needed to evaluate the functionality and effects of a new mattress overlay. Implementation of a non‐powered static air mattress overlay to prevent pressure ulcers has a far‐reaching impact on nursing home residents' experiences. This study provides insight into the true meaning of patients' perspectives by focusing on learning from the patients' experiences that provide valuable information for healthcare professionals and other stakeholders.
Medical device‐related pressure injuries are the most common cause of pressure injuries within the intensive care unit, in particular those caused by nasogastric tubes and endotracheal tubes. There are several known methods, which can alleviate the pressure of these devices on the skin surface to reduce the rate of these injuries. To determine the feasibility of conducting a larger, adequately powered trial testing, several clinically effective interventions to reduce the incidence of medical device‐related pressure injuries caused by these devices. Patients were recruited into both study arms and received one of three different methods of skin protection for both arms. Outcome measures included fidelity to the processes of care protocol, recruitment potential, and the number of medical device‐related pressure injuries. Recruitment (n = 87) was slower than expected with less than 10% of screened potential patients available for enrolment. Fidelity to the process of care for each subgroup was variable with better adherence in the nasogastric tube arm compared to the endotracheal tube arm. This feasibility study has revealed concerns about the intervention designs and effectiveness as well as challenges for the adherence of the nursing staff to the protocol.
In order to elucidate the pathogenesis and explore new biomarkers for diabetes and diabetic foot (DF), an analysis using RNA sequencing affords broader insights into gene expression regulatory networks in DF. To better explore the molecular basis of DF, we carried out an analysis of circular RNA (circRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of serum samples from DF patients and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The potential roles and interactions of differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs were classified by gene ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses. Compared with diabetes patients, 279 mRNAs were upregulated and 353 mRNAs were downregulated in the serum of DF patients, and 33 circRNAs were differently expressed. The differential genes at the nodes of the interaction network were screened, and TLR6 RUNX1 and ST2 were found to be related to the progression of diabetes and DF. The enrichment pathway analysis revealed that the lysosomal pathway played a critical role in the occurrence and development of DF. TLR6, RUNX1, and ST2 mRNA expressions and the lysosomal pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and DF. In addition, methane metabolism and Chagas disease pathways were observed in the occurrence and development of DF, which is a new discovery in this study. This study provides clues on the molecular mechanisms of DF at the circRNA and mRNA levels.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcome of our established triple treatment strategy in therapy‐resistant deep‐thickness chronic lower leg ulcers. This limb salvage approach consists of ultra‐radical surgical debridement, negative‐pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with or without instillation, and split‐thickness skin grafting. Between March 2003 and December 2019, a total of 16 patients and 24 severe cases of lower leg ulcers were eligible for inclusion in this highly selective population. A total of seven patients received immunosuppressive medication. Complete wound closure was achieved in 25% and almost 90% of included lower leg ulcer cases after 3 and 24 months of our triple treatment strategy, respectively. The overall limb salvage rate was 100%. Bacterial colonisation of these wounds was significantly reduced after multiple surgical debridements and NPWT. Fasciotomy and radical removal of devitalised tissue such as deep fascia, tendons, and muscles combined with NPWT showed promising results in terms of the overall graft take rate. This treatment strategy was considered as last resort for limb salvage in such a critically ill and immunocompromised patient population. Surgeons should be aware of its efficacy and consider the triple treatment strategy especially if no other limb salvage option remains.
Presence of bacteria in wounds can delay healing. Addition of a regularly instilled topical solution over the wound during negative‐pressure wound therapy (NPWT) may reduce bioburden levels compared with standard NPWT alone. We performed a prospective, randomised, multi‐centre, post‐market trial to compare effects of NPWT with instillation and dwell of polyhexamethylene biguanide solution vs NPWT without instillation therapy in wounds requiring operative debridement. Results showed a significantly greater mean decrease in total bacterial counts from time of initial surgical debridement to first dressing change in NPWT plus instillation (n = 69) subjects compared with standard NPWT (n = 63) subjects (−0.18 vs 0.6 log10 CFU/g, respectively). There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary endpoint of required inpatient operating room debridements after initial debridement. Time to readiness for wound closure/coverage, proportion of wounds closed, and incidence of wound complications were similar. NPWT subjects had 3.1 times the risk of re‐hospitalisation compared with NPWT plus instillation subjects. This study provides a basis for exploring research options to understand the impact of NPWT with instillation on wound healing.
Patients with complex chronic lower extremity wounds require a great deal of interaction with outpatient and inpatient services. Paradoxically, these are the very patients that, because of their chronic comorbidities, are at greatest risk for COVID‐related morbidity and mortality. Disinfected Phaenicia (Lucilia ) sericata (Medical Maggots; Monarch Labs, Irvine, California) were applied in a standardised fashion by a home‐health nurse with direct monitoring, guidance, and collaboration of the attending surgeon. A family member was able to change the outer dressing daily based on normal wound exudate. The inner maggot debridement therapy (MDT) dressing was changed at 2 days showing dramatic reduction in necrotic tissue, elimination of profound malodor, and no evidence of local or advancing infection. The entire initial telehealth‐guided application took approximately 20 minutes. The first telehealth‐guided MDT dressing change took 14 minutes. We used an artificial‐intelligence‐based algorithm to measure changes in wound characteristics. At day 0, 46% of the total surface area was covered in malodorous black, necrotic tissue. The first dressing change saw an elimination in assessed malodor with necrotic tissue constituting 14% of total surface area. The second dressing change at 5 days showed a greater than 99% reduction in necrotic tissue. This manuscript constitutes what we believe to be the first telehealth‐guided MDT conducted during a resource‐limited peri‐pandemic period. We believe that MDT, which is an extension of efforts regularly performed in clinic and hospital, may have the potential to reduce resource usage while potentially improving care and quality of life for people with limb and life‐threatening complications of diabetes and other chronic diseases.
Intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower limbs has been shown to have beneficial effects in patients with chronic ulceration. However, the intermittent compression cuff will normally be applied over the wound, which may produce discomfort or interfere with other treatments. Thigh‐only approaches to intermittent pneumatic compression could solve this problem. This study aimed to demonstrate if such a system would have positive effects on venous and arterial blood flow distal to the compression site, but proximal to wound sites. The distal venous and arterial effects of a prototype thigh‐only 3‐chamber sequential intermittent pneumatic compression system were tested in 20 healthy volunteers, and 13 patients with ulcers of various aetiologies using Doppler ultrasound. The system produced hyperaemic responses in the arterial flow of both test groups. The peak venous velocity on deflation of the first and second chambers of the cuff was also greater in the patients with ulceration than in the healthy volunteers (11.6 cm/s vs 8.3 cm/s, P = .1). This work demonstrates that compression of the thigh alone can produce positive haemodynamic effects in the calves of patients with chronic wounds, and that this approach should be investigated as a therapy to improve blood flow to wound sites.
Active involvement of patients in planning, conducting, and disseminating research has been adopted by many organisations internationally, but the extent to which this occurs in surgical wound care is not evident. This scoping review aimed to identify how patients have been involved in surgical wound care research and the quality of its reporting. Full‐text studies focused on preoperative and postoperative surgical wound care in the acute care setting, published in English between 2004 and 2019, were included in the review. Screening, data charting, and quality assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently, adjudicated by a third, and then reviewed by five others. Thematic analysis synthesised the findings. Of the eight included studies, seven explained the methods for patient involvement and five described aims related to patient involvement and commented on patient involvement in the discussion. None met all of the quality assessment criteria. Three themes emerged: involvement in modifying and refining research processes, connecting and balancing expert and patient views, and sharing personal insights. Recommendations to improve patient involvement in surgical wounds research include the following: using framework and tools to inform future research; training researcher and patients in their respective research roles; and ongoing monitoring of patient involvement.
Perineal trauma (PT) may be considered as a very common injury during the childbirth. The incidence of PT was estimated in 30% to 85%, with 60% to 70% requiring suture. The present study was a prospective, single‐blinded, randomised, clinical trial carried out from January 2015 to January 2016. For this study, 49 secundigravida women diagnosed with gestational oedema were recruited and randomly divided into two groups (A and B). Group A (n = 30) received the conventional treatment plus perineal massage and group B (n = 19) the conventional treatment plus manual lymphatic drainage (MLD). Visual analogue scale (VAS) and King Health´s Questionnaire (KHQ) were performed to assess pain intensity and quality of life‐related with urinary incontinence (UI). Pain intensity measurements showed statistically significant differences for a decrease after 30‐weeks (P = .037), after 36‐weeks (P = .000), and at the end of puerperium (P = .014) for MLD with respect to perineal massage group. Moreover, inter‐groups repeated measures ANOVA for the values related statistically significant differences to the interaction of each applied treatment (perineal massage and MLD group, separately) over the pain intensity variable. MLD treatment reduced pain intensity with respect to perineal massage in secundigravida women with gestational oedema from 25‐weeks of gestation to the end of puerperium.
Women with non‐metastatic breast cancer will be offered surgery as their first option. Unfortunately, studies have shown that the most common postoperative complication is surgical wound infection (SWI). We investigated the prevalence of SWI in breast cancer patients and identified the factors predictive of its development. The study was conducted at the breast cancer centre in Singapore. A retrospective case‐control review of medical records was used. During the 2013 to 2016 study period, there were 657 postsurgical breast cancer patients with only 105 records eligible for the study. The sample consisted of one to four case:control (21:84), matched according to their age at the time of their surgery. Patients presenting with SWI were grouped into cases, while those without SWI were grouped into the controls. Chi‐square test and Mann‐Whitney U test were used to identify risk factors associated with SWI. Regression analysis of predictive variables from the univariate analyses was included. These variables were type of breast surgery, implants, comorbidities, previous surgery, previous chemotherapy, surgical drains, seroma, blood transfusion, surgeon department, and length of stay. The prevalence of SWI was 9%. Demographic, clinical, and comorbidities were not associated with SWI. However, multivariate analysis found that “surgeon department,” “discharged with surgical drains,” and “postoperative seroma” were predictive of SWI. Monitoring SWI is indispensable to minimise burdens on individuals and institutions. Health care professionals should identify high‐risk patients based on the identified predictive variables. A cross‐institutional record review of SWI in postoperative breast cancer patients should be conducted.
Burns are a major health problem worldwide. Burn injury resulting from making contact with hot objects, direct or indirect contact with flame, and exposure to chemical agents or electric current is usually preventable. In this study, epidemiological data of the patients who had been hospitalised in the burn unit was assessed. The records of 1453 patients who were admitted to the burn unit of Diyarbakir Gazi Yaşargil Training and Research Hospital between July 2008 and April 2018 were retrospectively examined. Out of 1453 cases, 81.7% (1187) were children and 18.3% (266) were adults, 58.3% of the cases were male (847) and 41.7% (606) were females. Patients had a mean age of 11 ± 5 years (1‐81 years). The most common cause of burns was contact with hot liquids (82.86%) while other causes were flame burns (12.04%), electrical contact burn (3.02%) contact with chemical substances (2.06%). Most of the cases were found to have burned 10% to 20% of the body surface. Localization was most frequently seen in the lower extremity and less frequently in the upper limb, trunk, head and neck, and perineal regions. The majority of burn injuries are preventable. Therefore, epidemiological studies in the field of burns will provide vital preventive information to develop strategies to reduce injury frequency and spend on health. Because burns are a social problem, prevention efforts require social co‐operation. Promotional meetings in schools are important to increase family‐school cooperation to inform children of school age, to give lectures and first aid measures to rural areas.
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been widely used in various lesions. This study aimed to explore the biological effects of negative pressure on the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), macrophages, and epidermal keratinocyte cells involved in wound healing. PMNs differentiated from HL‐60, macrophages were derived from THP‐1 monocytes, and keratinocytes were cultured in vitro, and they were treated with 0, −0.03 mp, and −0.05 mp, respectively. Cell ultrastructure; viability; apoptosis; and protein factors such as tumour necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ), epidermal growth factor (EGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), interleukin‐17 (IL‐17), and cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CCK8, flow cytometry (FCM), ELISA, and simple Western assays, respectively. After negative pressure stimulation, the cell ultrastructure of PMNs and macrophages cells was presented with a marked increase of lysosomes and a relative decrease of mitochondria. In addition, the cell viability was enhanced in PMNs and macrophages in a pressure‐dependent manner and apoptosis ratios were significantly reduced in PMNs and macrophages. In addition, under −0.05 negative pressure, IFN‐γ and IL‐17 were significantly increased in PMNs or macrophages. Moreover, increased EGF and EGFR and Cdc42 levels in keratinocytes induced by the −0.05 mpa were detected, indicating that the migration chemotaxis of keratinocyte cells was enhanced. Negative pressure might promote cell proliferation, accelerate inflammatory responses, and promote epithelialisation during wound healing by increasing IFN‐γ, IL‐17, Cdc42, EGF, and EGFR in PMNs, macrophages, or keratinocytes under different negative pressures.
COVID‐19 pandemia began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. A total of 1 878 489 people were infected and 119 044 people were lost because of the disease and its complications by 15 April. Severe morbidity and mortality complications are mostly seen in elderly and patients having comorbidities. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one of severe complications of diabetes mellitus and it may require urgent surgical interventions. In this paper, we aimed to create a management algorithm to prevent the unexpected complications that may occur in the patients and health care workers during the evaluation of COVID‐19 in DFU patients who require urgent surgical intervention. We advise the use of thorax computerised tomography for preoperative screening in all DFU patients with severe signs of infection and especially those requiring urgent surgery for both the detection of the possible undiagnosed COVID‐19 in the patient for the need for close follow‐up and protection of the surgical and anaesthesiology team.
Wound care is an important realm of nurses' clinical responsibilities, and a broad knowledge and range of skills are needed to perform efficient and safe patient care. Nurses' knowledge on this matter can be measured using knowledge tests. This study aims to identify, define, and analyse the knowledge tests developed for the measurement of nurses' wound care knowledge, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the tests. This study was a systematic literature review. A total of 52 studies and 18 instruments were found. Of the 18 instruments, only 5 had been used more than once and were successful in a psychometric evaluation. These five instruments were analysed on the basis of their psychometric properties by using Zwakhalen et al.'s (2006) psychometric testing framework. According to the analysis, the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Test (PUKT) and the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool (PUKAT) were the most valid and reliable instruments for measuring nurses' wound care knowledge. Most of the instruments identified and analysed focused on pressure ulcers, indicating that future instruments could focus more on other types of wounds or on wound care in general in order to receive a broader understanding of nurses' wound care knowledge.
An optimal position of the patient during operation may require a compromise between the best position for surgical access and the position a patient and his or her tissues can tolerate without sustaining injury. This scoping review analysed the existing, contemporary evidence regarding surgical positioning‐related tissue damage risks, from both biomechanical and clinical perspectives, focusing on the challenges in preventing tissue damage in the constraining operating room environment, which does not allow repositioning and limits the use of dynamic or thick and soft support surfaces. Deep and multidisciplinary aetiological understanding is required for effective prevention of intraoperatively acquired tissue damage, primarily including pressure ulcers (injuries) and neural injuries. Lack of such understanding typically leads to misconceptions and increased risk to patients. This article therefore provides a comprehensive aetiological description concerning the types of potential tissue damage, vulnerable anatomical locations, the risk factors specific to the operative setting (eg, the effects of anaesthetics and instruments), the complex interactions between the tissue damage risk and the pathophysiology of the surgery itself (eg, the inflammatory response to the surgical incisions), risk assessments for surgical patients and their limitations, and available (including emerging) technologies for positioning. The present multidisciplinary and integrated approach, which holistically joins the bioengineering and clinical perspectives, is unique to this work and has not been taken before. Close collaboration between bioengineers and clinicians, such as demonstrated here, is required to revisit the design of operating tables, support surfaces for surgery, surgical instruments for patient stabilisation, and for surgical access. Each type of equipment and its combined use should be evaluated and improved where needed with regard to the two major threats to tissue health in the operative setting: pressure ulcers and neural damage.