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A qualitative descriptive study of the role of nurse, allied health and physician middle managers who function as knowledge brokers in hospitals

Abstract

Background

Knowledge brokers (KB) are increasingly being employed in health care to implement evidence-based practice and improve quality of care. Middle managers (MMs) may play a KB role in the implementation of an innovative or evidence-based practice in hospitals. However, how MMs' broker knowledge in hospitals and their impact on practice has not been adequately studied.

Aim

To describe the role that MMs play in brokering knowledge in hospitals and their impact.

Method

A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to generate a detailed description of MM experiences as KBs in hospitals. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with MMs in Ontario, Canada. Participants were purposively sampled to ensure variation in MM characteristics and a diverse representation of perspectives. Data were collected and analyzed concurrently using an inductive constant comparative approach.

Results

Twenty-one MMs from teaching and non-teaching hospitals participated. MMs described 10 roles and activities they enacted in hospitals that aligned with published KB roles. We found differences across professional groups and hospital type. Teaching status emerged as a potential factor relating to how MM KBs were able to function within hospitals. MMs reported enhanced patient, provider, and organizational outcomes.

Linking Evidence to Action

Middle managers may play an important KB role in the implementation of evidence-based practice in hospitals. An improved understanding of the KB roles that MMs play may be important in boosting evidence base practice in health care to ultimately improve quality of care. Administrators need a better understanding of the current KB roles and activities MMs enact as this may lead to more organizational structures to support MM KBs in health care.

Factors affecting quality of life in low‐income overweight and obese women: The mediating effects of health‐promoting behaviors

Abstract

Background

It is necessary to comprehensively consider the personal and environmental factors of women who experience overweight or obesity and low-income households (WOOL) to improve their quality of life (QoL).

Aims

The aim of this study was to test a hypothetical path model to estimate the effects of self-efficacy, psychological distress, social support, and health-promoting behaviors (HPB) on QoL and verify the mediating effects of HPB among WOOL.

Methods

A total of 151 women with a monthly household income less than 50% of the national median income at eight welfare centers in South Korea participated in this study. Data were collected from January to December 2019 and analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and Amos 23.0.

Results

The fit indices of the model were adequate (χ 2 = 0.197, p = .657; normed χ 2 = 0.197, GFI = 0.999, CFI = 1.000, NFI = 0.999, TLI = 1.000, RMSEA = 0.000, and SRMR = 0.005). Self-efficacy had significant indirect and total effects on QoL (β = 0.064, p = .004, 95% CI [0.015, 0.139]; β = 0.064, p = .004, 95% CI [0.015, 0.139]). HPB completely mediated the path of self-efficacy to QoL. Social support had significant total, direct, indirect, and total effects on QoL (β = 0.326, p = .001, 95% CI [0.010, 0.025]; β = 0.047, p = .015, 95% CI [0.008, 0.120]; β = 0.373, p = .001, 95% CI [0.015, 0.369]). HPB partially mediated the path of social support to QoL. Psychological distress had significant direct effects on QoL (β = −0.307, p = .001, 95% CI [−0.022, −0.007]). Self-efficacy, psychological distress, social support, and HPB explained 42.3% of the total variance in QoL.

Linking Evidence to Action

Integrated nursing interventions that consider self-efficacy, psychological distress, social stress, and HPB can be useful for improving the QoL of WOOL.

Nurse practitioner‐led lung cancer screening clinic: An evidence‐based quality improvement evaluation

Abstract

Background

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography of the chest (LDCT) can reduce mortality associated with lung cancer. LDCT is an under-ordered screening study.

Aims

To evaluate the use of a nurse practitioner-led lung cancer screening clinic (LCSC).

Methods

The absolute number of LDCT for lung cancer screenings obtained 12 months before implementing the nurse practitioner-led LCSC was compared to the 12 months after clinic implementation using a casual comparison design. An electronic survey was conducted to assess the LCSC key stakeholders' perceptions of the clinic.

Results

An increase of 60% in the total number of LDCT for lung cancer screenings was observed. Qualitative data obtained through stakeholder evaluation of the clinic revealed that 85% of participants (n = 13) expressed that the LCSC was addressing barriers to lung cancer screening.

Linking Evidence to Action

A dedicated nurse practitioner-led LCSC is a practical way to increase lung cancer screening by addressing established barriers to screening in the community setting.

How nursing stakeholders in the Republic of Ireland define evidence‐based practice and why it matters

Abstract

Background

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has garnered increasing exposure in professional healthcare discourse over three decades. While the term is used frequently, its interpretation varies widely. An accurate, shared understanding of what EBP means is essential to the achievement of EBP implementation in clinical practice. As part of a national study in the Republic of Ireland, nurses, midwives, educators, and students shared their personal understanding of what EBP was to them.

Aim

To establish nurses', midwives', educators', and students' knowledge and understanding of the concept of EBP in the Republic of Ireland.

Methods

In a national study exploring EBP beliefs, implementation, and organizational readiness for EBP among nurses, midwives, educators, and students, an open-ended question invited participants to explain what EBP is, in their own words. Content analysis was used to interpret participants' responses.

Results

Five themes emerged from the data from the single open-ended question: (1) varying definitions of EBP, (2) best practice, (3) nurses' and midwives' role in EBP, (4) knowledge, and (5) barriers and facilitators of EBP. The dominant finding centered on the substantial conflation of EBP with research utilization and other concepts such as quality improvement.

Linking Evidence to Action

Poor knowledge and understanding of EBP is a fundamental challenge to EBP implementation. Conflation of EBP with research utilization and other healthcare concepts is not uncommon among nurses and midwives globally and has persisted for some time. This has the potential to hinder the advancement of EBP in nursing and midwifery and, therefore, measures to enhance EBP knowledge and promote EBP implementation are key. Professional regulating bodies, educators, and clinical and educational organizations all have a role to play. The findings from this aspect of this national study offer a realistic, context-specific starting point for tailored educational interventions for clinicians, educators, and students and identify professional and organizational strategies that promote EBP as the expectation and “the way things are done here.”

A web‐based self‐care program to promote healthy lifestyles and control blood pressure in patients with primary hypertension: A randomized controlled trial

Abstract

Background

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which contributes to the worldwide mortality rate. Successful blood pressure control requires adherence to medications and lifestyle modifications. However, motivating patients with primary hypertension to change and sustain behaviors long-term is challenging. A web-based self-care program centered on self-efficacy theory could provide feedback for effective control of blood pressure.

Purpose

To examine the effect of a web-based self-care program for patients with primary hypertension on cardiovascular risk-factors (pulse pressure and lipids), self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors (medication adherence and lifestyle).

Design

A two-armed randomized controlled trial with 3-month and 6-month follow-ups.

Setting and Participants

A total of 222 patients with primary hypertension were recruited between February 2017 and August 2018 at a cardiology clinic of a medical center in Taipei, Taiwan.

Methods

Eligible patients were randomized by permuted block randomization into the intervention group (n = 111) and control group (n = 111). Patients in the intervention group received a 6-month web-based self-care program, based on the theory of self-efficacy, while patients in the control group received usual care. Baseline and outcome measures (3 and 6 months) included self-efficacy, evaluated with the Chinese version of the 6-item Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Diseases (SEMC6), self-care, using subscales of the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects Scale (H-SCALE) for lifestyle and medication adherence, and blood pressure and serum lipid data, collected through web-based self-reports and chart review. Generalized estimating equations evaluated the effects of the intervention.

Findings

At baseline, the control group had higher scores on the SEMC6, and lower cholesterol (HDL) compared with the intervention group (t = −2.70, p < 0.05; and t = 1.76, p < 0.05, respectively). Pulse pressure decreased significantly (β = −20.30, 95% CI −23.76, −16.83), and serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower compared with controls at 6 months (all p < 0.001).

At 6 months, the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores for the SEMC6 compared with the control group (β = 21.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.25, 24.42) and H-SCALE subscale for medication adherence, diet, weight management, and physical activity compared with controls at 6 months (all, p < 0.001).

Conclusions and clinical relevance

The greatest benefit of this program was allowing participants to immediately consult with the researchers about self-care issues via the website. Lifestyles vary from person to person; therefore, the individuality of each participant was considered when providing feedback. We provided devising interventions for participants that would increase their confidence in self-care for hypertension and ultimately achieve home blood pressure control. We encourage incorporating this program into standard clinical care for patients with hypertension.

Health‐promoting behaviors and self‐efficacy among nursing students in times of uncertainty

Abstract

Background

Nursing students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their Health-Promoting Behaviors (HPB) and well-being. Research on how living in a context of high political uncertainty can impact nursing students' HPB is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between HPB and self-efficacy among nursing students in a context of high political uncertainty.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study that included 120 undergraduate nursing students from Lebanon who completed an electronic self-reported questionnaire.

Results

The results indicated that HPB measured by HPLP-II scores were negatively correlated with overall uncertainty scores (r = −.29, p < .01) and positively correlated with the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale scores (r = .41, p < .001). Results from the multiple linear regression model indicated that physical activity frequency and GSE were independent predictors of the total health-promoting lifestyle profile and the model explained 30.28% of the variance in the total HPLP-II scale.

Linking Evidence to Action

This study further emphasizes the importance of regular physical activity (at least 3 h a week) as a strategy to improve HPB among nursing students. Culturally sensitive strategies that aim to enhance HPB should be embedded in undergraduate nursing curricula. Public health nurses and university counselors should join efforts to develop strategies to maintain or enhance self-efficacy and to promote regular physical activity among nursing students. Future research should further study the association between self-efficacy, resilience, and uncertainty in contexts of ongoing conflicts.

Nursing surveillance of respiratory adverse events among hospitalized adults: A systematic review to guide evidence‐based practice

Abstract

Background

Nursing surveillance (NS) involves the purposeful, ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision-making. Surveillance is used to identify patients with early signs of distress and prevent adverse events. The processes that support and measure the outcomes of nursing surveillance are not clearly specified.

Aim

The aim of this systematic review was to describe the impact of NS on respiratory adverse events for adult hospitalized patients.

Methods

The PRISMA model guided this systematic search of Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost), CINAHL Complete (EBSCOhost), Nursing & Allied Health (ProQuest), and PubMed databases for articles published between 1990 and 2019. Search terms included nursing surveillance, data points typically attributed to nursing surveillance, adult hospitalized patients, and adverse respiratory events. The protocol for this review was registered as PROSPERO: CRD42020147557.

Results

Of the 2907 references screened, 67 full-text articles were reviewed and 10 were eligible for inclusion. Research on nursing surveillance in the presence of respiratory deterioration is limited. Six studies used assessment tools that were generated from early warning scores, and four used research or institutionally designed trigger criteria. Surveillance, like other types of nursing care, was difficult to isolate and measure. Although components of surveillance were described in the selected studies, the nurse's role was not explicitly identified. Further research is required to highlight the role nursing surveillance plays in clinical decision-making to keep patients safe.

Linking Evidence to Action

The attributes of NS provide a useful intervention guide for the hospitalized patient at risk of deterioration. Early warning score techniques provide empirical evidence for identifying patients at risk of deterioration. The findings of this study provide evidence of the significance for research focused on the attributes of NS relative to responding to patients at risk of deterioration.

Patient preferences and experiences of participation in surgical cancer care

Abstract

Background

Quality cancer care necessitates opportunities for patient participation, supposedly recognizing the individual's preferences and experiences for being involved in their health and healthcare issues. Previous research shows that surgical cancer patients wish to be more involved, requiring professionals to be sensitive of patients' needs.

Aims

To explore preference-based patient participation in surgical cancer care.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted. The Patient Preferences for Patient Participation tool (4Ps) was used, which includes 12 attributes of preferences for and experiences of patient participation. Data were analyzed with descriptive and comparative statistical methods.

Results

The results are based on a total of 101 questionnaires. Having reciprocal communication and being listened to by healthcare staff were commonly deemed crucial for patient participation. While 60% of the patients suggested that taking part in planning was crucial for their participation, they had experienced this only to some extent. Learning to manage symptoms and phrasing personal goals were items most often representing insufficient conditions for preference-based patient participation.

Linking Evidence to Action

To support person-centered surgical care, further efforts to suffice preference-based participation are needed, including opportunities for patients to share their experiences and engage in the planning of healthcare activities.

Analysis of circRNA‐mRNA expression profiles and functional enrichment in diabetes mellitus based on high throughput sequencing

Abstract

To study the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and identify new biomarkers, high-throughput RNA sequencing provides a technical means to explore the regulatory network of MD gene expression. To better elucidate the genetic basis of DM, we analysed the circRNA and mRNA expression profiles in serum samples from diabetic patients. The circRNAs and mRNAs with abnormal expression in the DM group and non-diabetic group (NDM) were classified by RNA sequencing and differential expression analysis. The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network reveals the mechanism by which competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulate gene expression. The biological functions and interactions of circRNA and mRNA were analysed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Differential expression analysis showed that 441 circRNAs (366 up-regulated, 75 down-regulated) and 683 mRNAs (354 up-regulated, 329 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed in the DM group compared with the NDM group. Screening of the differential genes at the nodes of the interaction network showed that a single circRNA could interact with multiple miRNAs and then jointly regulate more mRNAs. In addition, the expressions of circRNA CNOT6 and AXIN1 as well as mRNA STAT3, MYD88, and B2M were associated with the progression of diabetes. Enrichment pathway analysis indicated that differentially expressed circRNA and mRNA may participate in Nod-like receptor signalling pathway, insulin signalling pathway, sphinolipid metabolism pathway, and ribosome pathway, and play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. This study provides a theoretical basis for elucidating the molecular mechanism of DM occurrence and development at circRNA and mRNA levels.

Longitudinal Analysis of Sleep Disturbance in Breast Cancer Survivors

imageBackground Breast cancer survivors (BCS) often report poor sleep quality and wakefulness throughout the night as the greatest challenges experienced during and posttreatment. Objectives This study aimed to elucidate characteristics of sleep disturbances and determine potential predictors that affect sleep disturbances in BCS for 2 years postchemotherapy. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the EPIGEN study, which longitudinally examined sociodemographic and cancer-related factors, lifestyle, symptom characteristics, and epigenetic factors at baseline prior to chemotherapy (T1), the midpoint (T2), 6-month (T3), 1-year (T4), and 2-year (T5) time points postchemotherapy. Temporal lifestyle changes, symptom characteristics, and epigenetic factors were explored using linear mixed-effects models with a random intercept. A linear regression model was fitted to identify significant predictors of sleep disturbances at each time point. Results In 74 BCS with an average age of 51 years and 70% non-Hispanic White, BCS experienced severe sleep disturbances at T2, which gradually improved over time. Significant temporal changes in midsleep awakenings, early awakenings, and fatigue at work were observed, with disturbances being elevated at T2. Anxiety (T1, T2, and T4), fatigue (T3 and T4), and perceived stress (T3) were significant predictors after adjusting for radiation therapy, surgery, and adjuvant endocrine therapy. Discussion This study highlights that predictors of sleep disturbances change over time, with anxiety being a factor earlier in the treatment trajectory (prechemotherapy) and continuing over time with fatigue and perceived stress being involved later in the treatment trajectory. Our results indicate that symptom management strategies to address sleep disturbances should be tailored to the temporal factors that may change in severity during active treatment and early survivorship period. Findings gained from this study on sleep disturbance patterns and the potential risk factors can be incorporated into clinical practice in planning education and developing interventions.

Addressing Challenges in Recruiting Diverse Populations for Research: Practical Experience From a P20 Center

imageBackground Improving the recruitment and retention of underrepresented groups in all research areas is essential for health equity. However, achieving and retaining diverse samples is challenging. Barriers to recruitment and retention of diverse participants include socioeconomic and cultural factors and practical challenges (e.g., time and travel commitments). Objectives The purpose of this article is to describe the successful recruitment and retention strategies used by two related studies within a P20 center funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research focused on precision health research in diverse populations with multiple chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome. Methods To address the complexity, biodiversity, and effect of metabolic syndrome and multiple chronic conditions, we developed culturally appropriate, multipronged recruitment and retention strategies for a pilot intervention study and a longitudinal observational pilot study within our P20 center. The following are the underlying principles that guided the recruitment and retention strategies: (a) flexibility, (b) active listening and bidirectional conversations, and (c) innovative problem solving. Results The intervention study (Pilot 1) enrolled 49 participants. The longitudinal observational study (Pilot 2) enrolled 45 participants. Women and racial/ethnic minorities were significantly represented in both. In Pilot 1, most of the participants completed the intervention and all phases of data collection. In Pilot 2, most participants completed all phases of data collection and chose to provide biorepository specimens. Discussion We developed a recruitment and retention plan building on standard strategies for a general medical population. Our real-world experiences informed the adaption of these strategies to facilitate the participation of individuals who often do not participate in research—specifically, women and racial/ethnic populations. Our experience across two pilot studies suggests that recruiting diverse populations should build flexibility in the research plan at the outset.

Review of Fever Management Advice on Government and Hospital Websites in Australia

imageBackground The public often searches the Internet for information about managing symptoms of various diseases, with government and major hospital websites often providing valid and freely available information. Objectives Fever is a common symptom of viral illness, and this review sought to identify information related to fever self-management on government and major hospital websites. Methods Two distinct search strategies were used. The first was an Internet-based search reviewing fever management advice published on Australian government websites (state, territory, and federal). The second search strategy pertained to fever management advice posted by major Australian tertiary adult and children’s hospitals. Results A total of 4,797 results were identified during the two searches, with a total of 12 websites on fever self-management identified for inclusion; four were from either federal or state government, with the remaining eight from tertiary hospital websites. The information identified showed a discordant definition of fever and lack of consistency in self-management advice. Discussion This review identified a lack of consistent online government and hospital information. The information discrepancy across multiple websites was not underpinned by clinical evidence to support the self-management of fever.

A Scoping Review of Biological Pathways of Integrative Interventions Used to Manage Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Children With Cancer

imageBackground As with pharmacological management approaches, characteristics of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions for managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children with cancer should be considered when developing and testing these interventions and reporting the outcomes. Objectives This systematic scoping review aimed to identify gaps and weaknesses in CAM and integrative interventions studies to prevent and manage CINV in children being treated for cancer, according to the CINV biological pathways. Methods This systematic scoping review was conducted under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guideline. Included studies were published in English before May 2020 and examined the effects of integrative interventions on CINV in children being treated for cancer. Two authors performed computerized searches and manual reviews; these authors also extracted data about study characteristics, intervention characteristics, and CINV outcomes from the studies included in the review. Results Twenty-six studies of 29 CAM interventions met eligibility criteria. Most of these studies used randomized controlled trial designs and measured CINV outcomes at least once prior to and then after the intervention. Some studies did not explicate the interval between exposure to the intervention and outcome measurements. The CAM interventions studied included 15 cognitive–behavioral interventions, 8 acupoint stimulation interventions, 5 herb/supplementation interventions, and 1 educational intervention. One study tested two CAMs and clarified the underlying biological pathways, whereas 25 studies (27 CAMs) did not illustrate pathways; the pathways were deduced from information provided in the articles. Discussion Considering the biological pathways underlying CINV while developing integrative interventions, including the CAM component, could improve intervention efficacy. Measurement of biomarkers of activity in these pathways would provide a means to test whether changes in underlying pathways mediate change in CINV. Better reporting of intervention details and study processes is needed to support replication of CAM interventions and inform translation into clinical practice.

Sleep Characteristics, Mood, Somatic Symptoms, and Self-Care Among People With Heart Failure and Insomnia

imageBackground Almost 50% of people with heart failure (HF) experience chronic insomnia and must perform self-care to manage their day-to-day healthcare needs. Understanding multifactorial influences on self-care, including demographic, clinical, and sleep characteristics, and mood and somatic symptoms will help identify people at highest risk for poor self-care. However, past research focused only on the associations of single symptoms and self-care. Multivariate approaches are needed to account for the synergistic associations of self-care with sleep, mood, and somatic symptoms among people with HF. Objectives The aims of the study were to (a) evaluate the levels of self-care maintenance and self-care confidence among people with stable HF and chronic insomnia; (b) identify the clinical and demographic correlates of self-care maintenance and confidence among people with stable HF and chronic insomnia; and (c) identify the associations between sleep characteristics, mood and somatic symptoms, and self-care maintenance and confidence among people with stable HF and chronic insomnia. Methods We utilized a cross-sectional design with 195 adult participants who had chronic HF and insomnia. We assessed for symptoms of anxiety; depression; dyspnea; fatigue; stress; insomnia severity; and sleep disturbance, impairment, and quality. Self-care was measured using the Self-Care for Heart Failure Index v6.2. We used generalized linear models to test the associations between the demographic and clinical factors and self-care maintenance and confidence; exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to identify the factor structure underlying the symptoms; and structural equation modeling to test the combined associations of the demographic and clinical factors and latent factors with self-care maintenance and confidence. Results Self-care maintenance, confidence, and management were inadequate in most participants. We identified three latent factors among the nine symptoms: “sleep characteristics,” “mood,” and “somatic symptoms.” In the structural equation model, “sleep characteristics,” White race, and having a left ventricular ejection fraction of

Mediating Effects of Coping Strategies on Quality of Life Following Extremity Injury

imageBackground Few researches have explored the self-regulation process in patients with extremity injuries. Knowledge about the role of coping in the postinjury self-regulation process remains scarce. Objectives We examined the relationships between illness representations, coping, and quality of life (QoL) based on the self-regulation framework, assuming adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies play mediating roles between illness representation and QoL in patients with extremity injuries. Methods A cross-sectional survey with a correlational model testing design was used. A sample of 192 patients with extremity injury was recruited before hospital discharge at trauma centers in Indonesia. Validated questionnaires were used to assess patients’ illness representations, coping, and QoL. Hierarchical regressions were carried out, and multiple mediation analyses were used to identify the mediating role of coping. Results Patients with extremity injuries who harbored negative illness representations were less focused on using adaptive coping strategies, were more focused on using maladaptive coping strategies, and tended to experience reduced QoL. The mediating effects of coping, which manifested as parallel mediations of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, could significantly explain the QoL variance. Discussion In postinjury self-regulation, coping has a parallel mediating role that can facilitate the effect of illness representations and directly influence postinjury QoL. Enhancing adaptive coping strategies, reducing maladaptive coping techniques, and reframing negative illness representations during the early recovery phase could improve postinjury QoL. Early screening and preventive efforts using psychologically driven interventions may help redirect patients’ focus toward adaptive coping strategies and reframe their illness representations before they transition back into the community.

Observations by health care professionals about wound healing in Ghanaian patients who skin‐bleach

Abstract

Skin-bleaching is a common practice globally and is associated with many cutaneous and systemic health risks. Anecdotally, skin-bleaching is linked to impairments in wound healing, but there are little data to support the claim. This cross-sectional survey of health care professionals serving the Greater Accra Region, Ghana region investigates their observations of wound healing in patients who skin-bleach and their methods for screening skin-bleach use in patients. A 25-item self-administered questionnaire using 5-point Likert scale was distributed with convenient sampling to physicians and nurses employed at Ghanaian hospitals. Fifty-seven electronic and 78 paper responses were collected (total = 135). Most respondents agreed that wounds in skin-bleaching patients heal more slowly (4.22), are more prone to infection (4.11), haemorrhage (3.89), wound dehiscence (3.9), and are more difficult to manage (4.13). No respondent reported universal screening of all patients for skin-bleaching, but most ask about skin-bleaching if there is suspicion of it (42.2%). Our findings support the anecdotes about observable wound healing impairments in patients who skin-bleach. There is also wide variation in skin-bleaching screening practices, suggesting a need for guidelines to properly identify these patients and facilitate early risk prevention.

Relationship between mattress internal air pressure and interface pressure distribution in the lateral position

Abstract

Previous research shows that maximum interface pressure increases when the patient is lying in the lateral position. However, it was unclear whether it was better to increase or decrease the internal air pressure to reduce the maximum interface pressure in the lateral position; thus, this study investigated this issue. In this study, we investigated the change in pressure redistribution because of the difference in internal air pressure between the supine and lateral positions on an active air mattress for pressure ulcer prevention management. Each participant's five internal air pressure values served as the independent variables. The interface pressure on the active air mattress was measured for 20 minutes. The sacral left iliac crest and left greater trochanteric interface pressures were measured using a portable pressure-measuring device. When seven of the 10 participants switched from the supine position to the left lateral position, there was a decrease in the maximum interface pressure as the internal air pressure increased. The maximum interface pressure in the greater trochanter in the lateral position was twice that in the sacral region in the supine position. These results show that increasing the internal air pressure in the lateral position might help reduce the maximum interface pressure.

The effect of different wound dressing materials used in postoperative treatment of wounds after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty: A meta‐analysis

Abstract

A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of different wound dressing materials used in the postoperative treatment of wounds after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A systematic literature search up to January 2022 incorporated 16 trials involving 2765 subjects after THA or TKA at the beginning of the study: 1447 were using active and interactive dressings, and 1318 were using passive dressings. The statistical tools like the dichotomous or continuous method were used within a random or fixed-influence model to establish the odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the influence of different wound dressing materials used in postoperative treatment of wounds after THA and TKA. Active and interactive dressings had significantly lower overall wound complications (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.26–0.40, P < 0.001), number of dressing changes (MD, −1.53; 95% CI, −2.09 to −0.96, P < 0.001), and early dressing change need (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04–0.47, P = 0.002) compared with passive dressings for subjects after THA and TKA. Active and interactive dressings had significantly lower overall wound complications, the number of dressing changes, and early dressing change need compared with passive dressings for subjects after THA and TKA. Furthermore, evidence is needed to confirm the outcomes.

A proof‐of‐concept study of the removal of early and late phase biofilm from skin wound models using a liquid acoustic stream

Abstract

Chronic wounds fail to progress through the normal stages of healing, with the largest remediable cause of chronicity being presence of a multi-species biofilm. Removal of biofilm from the wound environment is central to wound care. A device for mechanically removing biofilms from wounds has been devised. The removal is caused by small-scale liquid currents and shear, generated by acoustically activated microscopic air bubbles. These bubbles and acoustic waves are delivered onto the wound by a gentle liquid stream, allowing cleaning in situ and removal of debris in the run-off liquid. We have investigated if this liquid acoustic wound stream (LAWS) can remove bacterial biofilm from soft biological wound models and studied the effect of LAWS on the cellular tissues of the substrate. LAWS will efficiently remove early Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm from an artificial wound in a pig's trotter, 24 hours-mature biofilm of P. aeruginosa from a pre-wounded human full thickness skin model (EpiDerm FT), and 3-day mature biofilm of P. aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus from a porcine skin explant. Histological examinations of uninfected EpiDerm models that had been treated by LAWS and then stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, demonstrated no damage to the human tissue, and wound diameter was smaller in the treated skin models compared with untreated samples. Immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin 14 showed that keratinocytes had migrated further across the wound in the uninfected samples treated by LAWS. We discuss the implications for wound healing and propose further laboratory and clinical studies to demonstrate the removal of biofilm from patients with chronic leg ulcers and the impact on healing.

The effect of preoperative smoking and smoke cessation on wound healing and infection in post‐surgery subjects: A meta‐analysis

Abstract

A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the preoperative smoking and smoke cessation on wound healing and infection in post-surgery subjects. A systematic literature search up to January 2022 incorporated 11 trials involving 218 567 subjects after post-surgery at the beginning of the study; 176 670 were smoke cessation or non-smokers, and 41 897 were smokers. Statistical tools like the dichotomous method were used within a random or fixed-influence model to establish the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the influence of preoperative smoking and smoke cessation on wound healing and infection in post-surgery subjects. Smoke cessation or non-smokers had significantly lower postoperative wound healing problems (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.82, P < .001), and surgical site wound infection (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.87, P < .001) compared with smokers in post-surgery subjects. Smoke cessation or non-smokers had significantly lower postoperative wound healing problems, and surgical site wound infection compared with smokers in post-surgery subjects. Furthermore, evidence is needed to confirm the outcomes.

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