Knowledge brokers (KB) are increasingly being employed in health care to implement evidence-based practice and improve quality of care. Middle managers (MMs) may play a KB role in the implementation of an innovative or evidence-based practice in hospitals. However, how MMs' broker knowledge in hospitals and their impact on practice has not been adequately studied.
To describe the role that MMs play in brokering knowledge in hospitals and their impact.
A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to generate a detailed description of MM experiences as KBs in hospitals. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with MMs in Ontario, Canada. Participants were purposively sampled to ensure variation in MM characteristics and a diverse representation of perspectives. Data were collected and analyzed concurrently using an inductive constant comparative approach.
Twenty-one MMs from teaching and non-teaching hospitals participated. MMs described 10 roles and activities they enacted in hospitals that aligned with published KB roles. We found differences across professional groups and hospital type. Teaching status emerged as a potential factor relating to how MM KBs were able to function within hospitals. MMs reported enhanced patient, provider, and organizational outcomes.
Middle managers may play an important KB role in the implementation of evidence-based practice in hospitals. An improved understanding of the KB roles that MMs play may be important in boosting evidence base practice in health care to ultimately improve quality of care. Administrators need a better understanding of the current KB roles and activities MMs enact as this may lead to more organizational structures to support MM KBs in health care.
It is necessary to comprehensively consider the personal and environmental factors of women who experience overweight or obesity and low-income households (WOOL) to improve their quality of life (QoL).
The aim of this study was to test a hypothetical path model to estimate the effects of self-efficacy, psychological distress, social support, and health-promoting behaviors (HPB) on QoL and verify the mediating effects of HPB among WOOL.
A total of 151 women with a monthly household income less than 50% of the national median income at eight welfare centers in South Korea participated in this study. Data were collected from January to December 2019 and analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and Amos 23.0.
The fit indices of the model were adequate (χ 2 = 0.197, p = .657; normed χ 2 = 0.197, GFI = 0.999, CFI = 1.000, NFI = 0.999, TLI = 1.000, RMSEA = 0.000, and SRMR = 0.005). Self-efficacy had significant indirect and total effects on QoL (β = 0.064, p = .004, 95% CI [0.015, 0.139]; β = 0.064, p = .004, 95% CI [0.015, 0.139]). HPB completely mediated the path of self-efficacy to QoL. Social support had significant total, direct, indirect, and total effects on QoL (β = 0.326, p = .001, 95% CI [0.010, 0.025]; β = 0.047, p = .015, 95% CI [0.008, 0.120]; β = 0.373, p = .001, 95% CI [0.015, 0.369]). HPB partially mediated the path of social support to QoL. Psychological distress had significant direct effects on QoL (β = −0.307, p = .001, 95% CI [−0.022, −0.007]). Self-efficacy, psychological distress, social support, and HPB explained 42.3% of the total variance in QoL.
Integrated nursing interventions that consider self-efficacy, psychological distress, social stress, and HPB can be useful for improving the QoL of WOOL.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography of the chest (LDCT) can reduce mortality associated with lung cancer. LDCT is an under-ordered screening study.
To evaluate the use of a nurse practitioner-led lung cancer screening clinic (LCSC).
The absolute number of LDCT for lung cancer screenings obtained 12 months before implementing the nurse practitioner-led LCSC was compared to the 12 months after clinic implementation using a casual comparison design. An electronic survey was conducted to assess the LCSC key stakeholders' perceptions of the clinic.
An increase of 60% in the total number of LDCT for lung cancer screenings was observed. Qualitative data obtained through stakeholder evaluation of the clinic revealed that 85% of participants (n = 13) expressed that the LCSC was addressing barriers to lung cancer screening.
A dedicated nurse practitioner-led LCSC is a practical way to increase lung cancer screening by addressing established barriers to screening in the community setting.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) has garnered increasing exposure in professional healthcare discourse over three decades. While the term is used frequently, its interpretation varies widely. An accurate, shared understanding of what EBP means is essential to the achievement of EBP implementation in clinical practice. As part of a national study in the Republic of Ireland, nurses, midwives, educators, and students shared their personal understanding of what EBP was to them.
To establish nurses', midwives', educators', and students' knowledge and understanding of the concept of EBP in the Republic of Ireland.
In a national study exploring EBP beliefs, implementation, and organizational readiness for EBP among nurses, midwives, educators, and students, an open-ended question invited participants to explain what EBP is, in their own words. Content analysis was used to interpret participants' responses.
Five themes emerged from the data from the single open-ended question: (1) varying definitions of EBP, (2) best practice, (3) nurses' and midwives' role in EBP, (4) knowledge, and (5) barriers and facilitators of EBP. The dominant finding centered on the substantial conflation of EBP with research utilization and other concepts such as quality improvement.
Poor knowledge and understanding of EBP is a fundamental challenge to EBP implementation. Conflation of EBP with research utilization and other healthcare concepts is not uncommon among nurses and midwives globally and has persisted for some time. This has the potential to hinder the advancement of EBP in nursing and midwifery and, therefore, measures to enhance EBP knowledge and promote EBP implementation are key. Professional regulating bodies, educators, and clinical and educational organizations all have a role to play. The findings from this aspect of this national study offer a realistic, context-specific starting point for tailored educational interventions for clinicians, educators, and students and identify professional and organizational strategies that promote EBP as the expectation and “the way things are done here.”
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which contributes to the worldwide mortality rate. Successful blood pressure control requires adherence to medications and lifestyle modifications. However, motivating patients with primary hypertension to change and sustain behaviors long-term is challenging. A web-based self-care program centered on self-efficacy theory could provide feedback for effective control of blood pressure.
To examine the effect of a web-based self-care program for patients with primary hypertension on cardiovascular risk-factors (pulse pressure and lipids), self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors (medication adherence and lifestyle).
A two-armed randomized controlled trial with 3-month and 6-month follow-ups.
A total of 222 patients with primary hypertension were recruited between February 2017 and August 2018 at a cardiology clinic of a medical center in Taipei, Taiwan.
Eligible patients were randomized by permuted block randomization into the intervention group (n = 111) and control group (n = 111). Patients in the intervention group received a 6-month web-based self-care program, based on the theory of self-efficacy, while patients in the control group received usual care. Baseline and outcome measures (3 and 6 months) included self-efficacy, evaluated with the Chinese version of the 6-item Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Diseases (SEMC6), self-care, using subscales of the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects Scale (H-SCALE) for lifestyle and medication adherence, and blood pressure and serum lipid data, collected through web-based self-reports and chart review. Generalized estimating equations evaluated the effects of the intervention.
At baseline, the control group had higher scores on the SEMC6, and lower cholesterol (HDL) compared with the intervention group (t = −2.70, p < 0.05; and t = 1.76, p < 0.05, respectively). Pulse pressure decreased significantly (β = −20.30, 95% CI −23.76, −16.83), and serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower compared with controls at 6 months (all p < 0.001).
At 6 months, the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores for the SEMC6 compared with the control group (β = 21.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.25, 24.42) and H-SCALE subscale for medication adherence, diet, weight management, and physical activity compared with controls at 6 months (all, p < 0.001).
The greatest benefit of this program was allowing participants to immediately consult with the researchers about self-care issues via the website. Lifestyles vary from person to person; therefore, the individuality of each participant was considered when providing feedback. We provided devising interventions for participants that would increase their confidence in self-care for hypertension and ultimately achieve home blood pressure control. We encourage incorporating this program into standard clinical care for patients with hypertension.
Nursing students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their Health-Promoting Behaviors (HPB) and well-being. Research on how living in a context of high political uncertainty can impact nursing students' HPB is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between HPB and self-efficacy among nursing students in a context of high political uncertainty.
This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study that included 120 undergraduate nursing students from Lebanon who completed an electronic self-reported questionnaire.
The results indicated that HPB measured by HPLP-II scores were negatively correlated with overall uncertainty scores (r = −.29, p < .01) and positively correlated with the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale scores (r = .41, p < .001). Results from the multiple linear regression model indicated that physical activity frequency and GSE were independent predictors of the total health-promoting lifestyle profile and the model explained 30.28% of the variance in the total HPLP-II scale.
This study further emphasizes the importance of regular physical activity (at least 3 h a week) as a strategy to improve HPB among nursing students. Culturally sensitive strategies that aim to enhance HPB should be embedded in undergraduate nursing curricula. Public health nurses and university counselors should join efforts to develop strategies to maintain or enhance self-efficacy and to promote regular physical activity among nursing students. Future research should further study the association between self-efficacy, resilience, and uncertainty in contexts of ongoing conflicts.
Nursing surveillance (NS) involves the purposeful, ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision-making. Surveillance is used to identify patients with early signs of distress and prevent adverse events. The processes that support and measure the outcomes of nursing surveillance are not clearly specified.
The aim of this systematic review was to describe the impact of NS on respiratory adverse events for adult hospitalized patients.
The PRISMA model guided this systematic search of Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost), CINAHL Complete (EBSCOhost), Nursing & Allied Health (ProQuest), and PubMed databases for articles published between 1990 and 2019. Search terms included nursing surveillance, data points typically attributed to nursing surveillance, adult hospitalized patients, and adverse respiratory events. The protocol for this review was registered as PROSPERO: CRD42020147557.
Of the 2907 references screened, 67 full-text articles were reviewed and 10 were eligible for inclusion. Research on nursing surveillance in the presence of respiratory deterioration is limited. Six studies used assessment tools that were generated from early warning scores, and four used research or institutionally designed trigger criteria. Surveillance, like other types of nursing care, was difficult to isolate and measure. Although components of surveillance were described in the selected studies, the nurse's role was not explicitly identified. Further research is required to highlight the role nursing surveillance plays in clinical decision-making to keep patients safe.
The attributes of NS provide a useful intervention guide for the hospitalized patient at risk of deterioration. Early warning score techniques provide empirical evidence for identifying patients at risk of deterioration. The findings of this study provide evidence of the significance for research focused on the attributes of NS relative to responding to patients at risk of deterioration.
Quality cancer care necessitates opportunities for patient participation, supposedly recognizing the individual's preferences and experiences for being involved in their health and healthcare issues. Previous research shows that surgical cancer patients wish to be more involved, requiring professionals to be sensitive of patients' needs.
To explore preference-based patient participation in surgical cancer care.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. The Patient Preferences for Patient Participation tool (4Ps) was used, which includes 12 attributes of preferences for and experiences of patient participation. Data were analyzed with descriptive and comparative statistical methods.
The results are based on a total of 101 questionnaires. Having reciprocal communication and being listened to by healthcare staff were commonly deemed crucial for patient participation. While 60% of the patients suggested that taking part in planning was crucial for their participation, they had experienced this only to some extent. Learning to manage symptoms and phrasing personal goals were items most often representing insufficient conditions for preference-based patient participation.
To support person-centered surgical care, further efforts to suffice preference-based participation are needed, including opportunities for patients to share their experiences and engage in the planning of healthcare activities.
To study the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and identify new biomarkers, high-throughput RNA sequencing provides a technical means to explore the regulatory network of MD gene expression. To better elucidate the genetic basis of DM, we analysed the circRNA and mRNA expression profiles in serum samples from diabetic patients. The circRNAs and mRNAs with abnormal expression in the DM group and non-diabetic group (NDM) were classified by RNA sequencing and differential expression analysis. The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network reveals the mechanism by which competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulate gene expression. The biological functions and interactions of circRNA and mRNA were analysed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Differential expression analysis showed that 441 circRNAs (366 up-regulated, 75 down-regulated) and 683 mRNAs (354 up-regulated, 329 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed in the DM group compared with the NDM group. Screening of the differential genes at the nodes of the interaction network showed that a single circRNA could interact with multiple miRNAs and then jointly regulate more mRNAs. In addition, the expressions of circRNA CNOT6 and AXIN1 as well as mRNA STAT3, MYD88, and B2M were associated with the progression of diabetes. Enrichment pathway analysis indicated that differentially expressed circRNA and mRNA may participate in Nod-like receptor signalling pathway, insulin signalling pathway, sphinolipid metabolism pathway, and ribosome pathway, and play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. This study provides a theoretical basis for elucidating the molecular mechanism of DM occurrence and development at circRNA and mRNA levels.
Skin-bleaching is a common practice globally and is associated with many cutaneous and systemic health risks. Anecdotally, skin-bleaching is linked to impairments in wound healing, but there are little data to support the claim. This cross-sectional survey of health care professionals serving the Greater Accra Region, Ghana region investigates their observations of wound healing in patients who skin-bleach and their methods for screening skin-bleach use in patients. A 25-item self-administered questionnaire using 5-point Likert scale was distributed with convenient sampling to physicians and nurses employed at Ghanaian hospitals. Fifty-seven electronic and 78 paper responses were collected (total = 135). Most respondents agreed that wounds in skin-bleaching patients heal more slowly (4.22), are more prone to infection (4.11), haemorrhage (3.89), wound dehiscence (3.9), and are more difficult to manage (4.13). No respondent reported universal screening of all patients for skin-bleaching, but most ask about skin-bleaching if there is suspicion of it (42.2%). Our findings support the anecdotes about observable wound healing impairments in patients who skin-bleach. There is also wide variation in skin-bleaching screening practices, suggesting a need for guidelines to properly identify these patients and facilitate early risk prevention.
Previous research shows that maximum interface pressure increases when the patient is lying in the lateral position. However, it was unclear whether it was better to increase or decrease the internal air pressure to reduce the maximum interface pressure in the lateral position; thus, this study investigated this issue. In this study, we investigated the change in pressure redistribution because of the difference in internal air pressure between the supine and lateral positions on an active air mattress for pressure ulcer prevention management. Each participant's five internal air pressure values served as the independent variables. The interface pressure on the active air mattress was measured for 20 minutes. The sacral left iliac crest and left greater trochanteric interface pressures were measured using a portable pressure-measuring device. When seven of the 10 participants switched from the supine position to the left lateral position, there was a decrease in the maximum interface pressure as the internal air pressure increased. The maximum interface pressure in the greater trochanter in the lateral position was twice that in the sacral region in the supine position. These results show that increasing the internal air pressure in the lateral position might help reduce the maximum interface pressure.
A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of different wound dressing materials used in the postoperative treatment of wounds after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A systematic literature search up to January 2022 incorporated 16 trials involving 2765 subjects after THA or TKA at the beginning of the study: 1447 were using active and interactive dressings, and 1318 were using passive dressings. The statistical tools like the dichotomous or continuous method were used within a random or fixed-influence model to establish the odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the influence of different wound dressing materials used in postoperative treatment of wounds after THA and TKA. Active and interactive dressings had significantly lower overall wound complications (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.26–0.40, P < 0.001), number of dressing changes (MD, −1.53; 95% CI, −2.09 to −0.96, P < 0.001), and early dressing change need (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04–0.47, P = 0.002) compared with passive dressings for subjects after THA and TKA. Active and interactive dressings had significantly lower overall wound complications, the number of dressing changes, and early dressing change need compared with passive dressings for subjects after THA and TKA. Furthermore, evidence is needed to confirm the outcomes.
Chronic wounds fail to progress through the normal stages of healing, with the largest remediable cause of chronicity being presence of a multi-species biofilm. Removal of biofilm from the wound environment is central to wound care. A device for mechanically removing biofilms from wounds has been devised. The removal is caused by small-scale liquid currents and shear, generated by acoustically activated microscopic air bubbles. These bubbles and acoustic waves are delivered onto the wound by a gentle liquid stream, allowing cleaning in situ and removal of debris in the run-off liquid. We have investigated if this liquid acoustic wound stream (LAWS) can remove bacterial biofilm from soft biological wound models and studied the effect of LAWS on the cellular tissues of the substrate. LAWS will efficiently remove early Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm from an artificial wound in a pig's trotter, 24 hours-mature biofilm of P. aeruginosa from a pre-wounded human full thickness skin model (EpiDerm FT), and 3-day mature biofilm of P. aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus from a porcine skin explant. Histological examinations of uninfected EpiDerm models that had been treated by LAWS and then stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, demonstrated no damage to the human tissue, and wound diameter was smaller in the treated skin models compared with untreated samples. Immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin 14 showed that keratinocytes had migrated further across the wound in the uninfected samples treated by LAWS. We discuss the implications for wound healing and propose further laboratory and clinical studies to demonstrate the removal of biofilm from patients with chronic leg ulcers and the impact on healing.
A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the preoperative smoking and smoke cessation on wound healing and infection in post-surgery subjects. A systematic literature search up to January 2022 incorporated 11 trials involving 218 567 subjects after post-surgery at the beginning of the study; 176 670 were smoke cessation or non-smokers, and 41 897 were smokers. Statistical tools like the dichotomous method were used within a random or fixed-influence model to establish the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the influence of preoperative smoking and smoke cessation on wound healing and infection in post-surgery subjects. Smoke cessation or non-smokers had significantly lower postoperative wound healing problems (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.82, P < .001), and surgical site wound infection (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.87, P < .001) compared with smokers in post-surgery subjects. Smoke cessation or non-smokers had significantly lower postoperative wound healing problems, and surgical site wound infection compared with smokers in post-surgery subjects. Furthermore, evidence is needed to confirm the outcomes.