The use of cell phones can have a negative effect on nursing students' academic performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects that problematic cell phone use and nomophobia have on learning in nursing students. A quasi-experimental study was carried out among nursing students, with a control group (n = 61, 49.2%) and an experimental group (n = 63, 50.8%). The experimental group left their cell phones, in sound or vibration mode, as they normally kept them, on a table located in the corner of the classroom. Both groups showed higher-than-average levels of nomophobia at the beginning of the class. As for problematic cell phone use and attention, it was found that there were statistically significant differences in both cases (U = 1355.500, Z = −2.830, P = .005; U = 1449.000, Z = −2.363, P = .018, respectively), and the experimental group had higher average scores, as well as in those related to knowledge. A relationship has been found between nomophobia and problematic cell phone use. Students who do not have access to their cell phones during class perceive more problematic cell phone usage, in addition to paying closer attention during class. Because of this, it is important to create policies and norms restricting cell phone use during all types of academic training among nursing students.