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AnteayerCIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing

Nurses' Use and Ways of Understanding Web-Based National Guidelines for Child Healthcare

imageThe national Rikshandboken for child healthcare is both a Web-based guideline containing knowledge and methodological guidance and a national child healthcare program in the process of being implemented in Sweden. The aim of this study was to examine child healthcare nurses' use and ways of understanding the national Web-based Rikshandboken. A mixed-methods study with sequential explanatory design in two phases was used; a Web survey with descriptive statistics was followed with telephone interviews with phenomenographic analysis. The study showed variations in use and contributed deeper knowledge of child healthcare nurses' ways of understanding the unit Rikshandboken whose varied parts interact with each other. To be reliable, useful, and relevant for nurses in their specific contexts, Rikshandboken must be kept updated and involve the end users in the development process. With access to technical devices and optimal use of the possibilities of information and communication technology, Rikshandboken can be a resource for continuing learning, a tool in everyday work, and a possible determinant to equality in child healthcare. The study contributes valuable knowledge for the design of Web-based national guidelines for healthcare, making them useful and relevant for the end users.

Factors Affecting Patient Prioritization Decisions at Admission to Home Healthcare: A Predictive Study to Develop a Risk Screening Tool

imageThere is a lack of evidence on how to identify high-risk patients admitted to home healthcare. This study aimed (1) to identify which disease characteristics, medications, patient needs, social support characteristics, and other factors are associated with patient priority for the first home health nursing visit; and (2) to construct and validate a predictive model of patient priority for the first home health nursing visit. This was a predictive study of home health visit priority decisions made by 20 nurses for 519 older adults. The study found that nurses were more likely to prioritize patients who had wounds (odds ratio = 1.88), comorbid condition of depression (odds ratio = 1.73), limitation in current toileting status (odds ratio = 2.02), higher number of medications (increase in odds ratio for each medication = 1.04), and comorbid conditions (increase in odds ratio for each condition = 1.04). This study developed one of the first clinical decision support tools for home healthcare called “PREVENT”. (PRiority home health Visit Tool). Further work is needed to increase the specificity and generalizability of the tool and to test its effects on patient outcomes.

Promoting Emotional Well-being in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents With Virtual Reality: Usability and Acceptability of a Randomized Controlled Trial

imageThe aim of this study was to describe and compare small-sized preliminary data on the usability and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial. This study compares a one-to-one cognitive-behavioral treatment and a virtual reality treatment for children and adolescents hospitalized for long-term physical conditions. The final sample was composed of 19 children and adolescents with chronic illness who were hospitalized. The sample was randomly allocated to two intervention groups: cognitive-behavioral usual treatment and virtual reality–based treatment. Participants in the virtual reality group demonstrated higher perceived efficacy scores for every treatment component than for traditional treatment. Statistically significant differences were found for the total usability and acceptability scores. Participants in the virtual reality group show high acceptability of all the virtual environments. The components and environments of virtual reality were well accepted. The virtual reality program received high scores in immersion, feasibility of use, and sense of reality. Technology-based treatments, that is, virtual reality, can provide motivational benefits in relation to traditional treatments.

Steps to Develop a Mobile App for Pain Assessment of Cancer Patients: A Usability Study

imageHealth-related mobile apps have the potential to allow patients and providers to proactively and responsibly manage pain together. However, there is a gap between the science of pain and current mobile apps. To develop a prototype science-based pain assessment mobile app (PainSmart) for Android smartphones, pain assessment tasks were extracted from a clinical guideline. These tasks were then converted to activity diagrams and became the logic of PainSmart. Five participants diagnosed with breast cancer evaluated usability of PainSmart with the System Usability Scale. Patient experience was recorded using Camtasia Studio Version 9 software. The five participants were able to explore the pain app after only 20 minutes of training. Using the System Usability Scale with comments, participant mean usability score was 77.5; above 68 is considered an above average system. A prototype of a pain assessment mobile app for cancer patients demonstrated high usability and will be refined based on participant feedback.

Exploring Family Nurse Practitioners' Practices in Recommending mHealth Apps to Patients

imagePatients frequently download mHealth apps, which can be used to support health promotion. It remains unclear, however, if family nurse practitioners are recommending apps to patients. This study identified family nurse practitioners' current practices of recommending apps to patients and described their use and intent to use mHealth apps for health promotion with their patients. Nearly 70% of the 303 participants surveyed recommended mHealth apps to their patients, with the most common types comprising patient portal, diet and nutrition, and fitness apps. However, the frequency with which apps were recommended was low. Participants reported that apps complement patient care, enable health promotion behaviors, are easy to use, and improve clarity of patient data. These factors facilitated their intent to recommend mHealth apps to patients. Healthcare organizational support influenced participants' intent to recommend apps, and access to trustworthy apps and electronic health records compatibility increased usage. Barriers to recommending involved patient-specific characteristics and provider concerns about reliability, privacy, and efficacy of apps. Family nurse practitioners must be supported in guiding patients to use reliable, safe, and HIPAA-compliant apps. To help engage patients, clinicians should be educated on methods to evaluate mHealth apps and how to incorporate them into patient care.

Prototype Development, Usability, and Preference of a Culturally-relevant Pictorial Aid to Facilitate Comprehension of Likert-type Levels of Agreement in Caregivers of Children Living With HIV in Ghana

imagePictorial illustrations of Likert-type scales are culturally useful and may reduce error associated with usage of Westernized self-report measures in low- and middle-income countries. Pictorial illustrations can be encounter-specific decision aids in populations with low literacy or English proficiency. In an unanticipated finding from the SANKOFA study, caregivers of children living with human immunodeficiency virus experienced challenges comprehending Likert-type scales. A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted with a SANKOFA participant subset (n = 30) in Ghana. Using an informatics-based formative design approach, we developed a culturally-relevant pictorial aid to assess usability and preference when compared to a Likert-type self-report measure. Ninety percent (n = 27) of substudy participants preferred the pictorial of a traditional Bolga basket over a shallow basket. Forty-three percent (n = 13) preferred the pictorial aid over the Likert-type measure. Fifty percent reported the pictorial aid was easy to use. Fifty-seven percent preferred the Likert-type measure, potentially because English proficiency is regarded in Ghana as a means of upward social and financial mobility. Such cultural norms may have contributed to the lack of consensus and must be considered for pictorial aids to be meaningful. Pictorial aids have been designed for use in clinical and research settings. They reduce barriers associated with lower textual literacy while facilitating comprehension and decision-making.

Contextualizing Instructional Technology to the Demands of Nursing Education

imageThis article reviews current technologies in nursing education and the impact of technology on learning. The integration of technology into nursing curricula is thought to improve efficiency and enhance student experiences through active learning and interactive learning designs. The following focused questions are explored: (1) What are the current technologies used by university students and faculty in nursing programs? (2) How does that technology influence student learning? The primary themes were student-centered technology, with five subthemes, and faculty-centered technology. Consumers of healthcare (patients) demand quality care and expect highly skilled, compassionate, ethical practitioners; to this end, training and education of future nurses by skilled, qualified nurse educators who are comfortable with technological demands of all aspects of healthcare are fundamental. While it is essential that nurses and nurse educators continue to publish as a mechanism for open discussion and transparency in our teaching and learning approaches, we need higher levels of evidence to strengthen the argument that technology improves the learning environment and student outcomes and has a positive impact on clinical settings and patient care.

The Purpose of Bedside Robots: Exploring the Needs of Inpatients and Healthcare Professionals

imageRobotic systems are used to support inpatients and healthcare professionals and to improve the efficiency and quality of nursing. There is a lack of scientific literature on how applied robotic systems can be used to support inpatients. This study uses surveys and focus group interviews to identify the necessary aspects and functions of bedside robots for inpatients. A total of 90 healthcare professionals and 108 inpatients completed the questionnaire, and four physicians and five nurses participated in the focus group interviews. The most highly desired functionalities were related to patient care and monitoring, including alerting staff, measuring vital signs, and sensing falls. Nurses and physicians reported different needs for human-robot interaction. Nurses valued robotic functions such as nonverbal expression recognition, automatic movement, content suggestion, and emotional expressions. The results of the patients' open-ended questions and healthcare professionals' focus groups indicate that the purpose of the robots should primarily be treatment and nursing. Participants believe bedside robots would be helpful but have concerns regarding safety and utility. This study attempts to determine which aspects of robots may increase their acceptance. Our findings suggest that if robots are used in healthcare institutions, they may improve the effectiveness of care.

Using an Evidence-Based Approach for Electronic Health Record Downtime Education in Nurse Onboarding

imageElectronic health record systems have been widely implemented throughout healthcare settings over the last few years, and nurses rely on these systems to obtain information about patients, make clinical decisions, and deliver safe and appropriate care. Health information technology systems have electronic health record downtime episodes both due to scheduled maintenance and unforeseen circumstances. The ability to deliver safe and effective care during electronic health record downtime episodes is important, yet training on electronic health record downtime is rarely included for nursing staff. This quality improvement project implemented an electronic health record downtime training course and administered it to 50 onboarding nurses within the hospital facility. The participants indicated a positive perception of electronic health record downtime preparedness after the course offering related to ability to find and follow downtime procedures. However, no precourse metrics were obtained, and therefore it is uncertain if this positive perception is a direct result of the electronic health record downtime training course. While initial results are promising, further investigation will need to be conducted to determine training course effectiveness.

Knowledge Discovery With Machine Learning for Hospital-Acquired Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

imageMassive generation of health-related data has been key in enabling the big data science initiative to gain new insights in healthcare. Nursing can benefit from this era of big data science, as there is a growing need for new discoveries from large quantities of nursing data to provide evidence-based care. However, there are few nursing studies using big data analytics. The purpose of this article is to explain a knowledge discovery and data mining approach that was employed to discover knowledge about hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections from multiple data sources, including electronic health records and nurse staffing data. Three different machine learning techniques are described: decision trees, logistic regression, and support vector machines. The decision tree model created rules to interpret relationships among associated factors of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The logistic regression model showed what factors were related to a higher risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The support vector machines model was included to compare performance with the other two interpretable models. This article introduces the examples of cutting-edge machine learning approaches that will advance secondary use of electronic health records and integration of multiple data sources as well as provide evidence necessary to guide nursing professionals in practice.

Employing a User-Centered Design to Engage Mothers in the Development of a mHealth Breastfeeding Application

imageBreastfeeding has numerous health benefits; however, many mothers do not continue breastfeeding to the recommended 6 months of age. Breastfeeding support after discharge from the hospital is often lacking in the communities with the greatest need. Therefore, the Mother's Milk Connection mHealth application was designed to improve breastfeeding duration and access to support. This article describes a user-centered design process to engage mothers in the development of the Mother's Milk Connection application. Two phases of stakeholder and user studies were conducted. Phase 1 involved concept generation, prototype development, and usability testing. Phase 2 focused on prototype redesign and usability testing. We used a descriptive mixed-method approach with data collected using a demographic questionnaire, System Usability Scale, exit survey, and focus groups. Final features of the Mother's Milk Connection application included resources and education, peer support, automated activity tracking, and professional support via video conference. Stakeholder and user engagement indicated the integration of four distinct features is acceptable for use as a comprehensive mHealth intervention to improve access to breastfeeding support. mHealth has the potential to be a useful strategy for providing breastfeeding support, and a clinical trial regarding the efficacy of the Mother's Milk Connection application is needed.

Technology-Supported Interventions for Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

imageTechnology is deeply embedded in daily life; thus, more pregnant women seek information through the Internet and incorporate the use of technological devices during their pregnancies. This systematic review aimed to examine to what extent and how technology-supported interventions were developed and delivered to pregnant women, as well as intervention effects on the targeted outcomes. Electronic data were collected from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Scopus. Among the 11 selected studies, most were pilot studies to test the feasibility, acceptability, or preliminary effects of technology-supported interventions. The studies included both women with healthy pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by factors including preterm labor, smoking, and alcohol abuse. Most were conducted in the US, and most participants were white or African American. Interventions were primarily developed by research teams and focused on mental health issues including depression, anxiety, and stress. Interventions incorporated the use of technology including computers, mobile phones, and audiovisual aids. The overall interventions were reported to be feasible, acceptable, and beneficial in all the selected studies. Based on the review of literature, suggestions were provided for future research including the need for careful selection of intervention topics and objectives to target women who can benefit more from technology-supported interventions.