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AnteayerInternacionales

Development of a Cadre of Evidence‐Based Practice Mentors for Nurses: What Works?

Abstract

Background

Development of a critical mass of evidence‐based practice (EBP) mentors for healthcare professionals is pivotal in facilitating and sustaining system‐wide implementation of evidence‐based care, especially for nurses. Empirical evidence shows that organizational factors are strongly associated with EBP. However, the understanding of organizational support to promote EBP competency is found lacking, especially in Mainland China.

Aims

The purposes of this study were to (1) establish a baseline assessment of EBP nursing leadership and work environment support as well as EBP competency for EBP mentors of nurses in Western China, and (2) explore how nursing leadership and work environment impact the EBP competencies of mentors.

Methods

A cross‐sectional study was conducted. The study population was 286 EBP mentors for nurses from six urban general hospitals in Xi’an City, Shanxi Province. The EBP Nursing Leadership Scale and the EBP Work Environment Scale were used to evaluate their perceived organizational support. EBP competency was measured by the Evidence‐Based Practice Questionnaire.

Results

There was insufficient time for EBP mentors of nurses to engage in EBP. Lack of experts in EBP and educational offerings about EBP were identified as the two lowest workplace organizational supports for EBP. The respondents reported themselves as not competent in EBP, especially for the knowledge/skills. EBP nursing leadership and work environment support were key predictors of the self‐reported EBP competency in the stepwise multiple linear regression models (β = .211–.345, p < .01).

Linking Evidence to Action

It is imperative to provide EBP mentors for nurses with the knowledge and skills to achieve the expected level of EBP competency. Strategies for developing a cadre of EBP mentors for nurses who have competency in EBP need to be multipronged and target the cultivation of an organizational culture that supports EBP.

Animal‐Assisted Therapy as an Intervention for Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis to Guide Evidence‐Based Practice

Abstract

Background

Animal‐assisted therapy (AAT) can ameliorate diverse health problems in older adults. However, applications of AAT have been limited because of the lack of intervention guidelines for older adults.

Aims

This study aimed to explore applications of AAT to older adults, analyze its health effects, and provide evidence for future interventions.

Methods

A systematic review and meta‐analysis were conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses checklist. Data were analyzed based on both a narrative synthesis and a meta‐analysis specifically for depression.

Results

A total of 47 studies were selected for analysis. About 45% focused on older adults with diseases such as dementia, and 57.4% selected dog(s) as an intervention animal. About 34.0% delivered interventions once a week, and the behavioral outcome domain was the most frequently investigated. The meta‐analysis showed that the effect sizes of the AAT group were −1.310 (95% CI [−1.900, −.721]).

Linking Evidence to Action

This review provides evidence for AAT as an intervention in the physiological, psychosocial, cognitive, and behavioral domains of older adults. When planning interventions for older adults, nurses should consider intended health outcomes, appropriate therapeutic animals, and the consequent intervention contents.

A Mobile Healing Program Using Virtual Reality for Sexual Violence Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

Abstract

Background

Many young women suffer from sexual violence, but few practice self‐healing activities.

Aims

This study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effects of a mobile virtual intervention, Sister, I will tell you!©, to heal young women after sexual violence in South Korea.

Methods

A mobile virtual intervention, Sister, I will tell you!©, was developed based on a literature review and preliminary studies. In collaboration with sexual violence survivors and experts, eight modules for reflective writing and six modules for mindfulness meditation were included in this 4‐week mobile virtual intervention. Thirty‐four female sexual violence survivors were randomly assigned to either experimental (n = 19) or control groups (n = 15). The experimental group practiced reflective writing and mindfulness meditation, guided by the mobile virtual intervention. The control group practiced audio‐guided mindfulness meditation. Pretest, posttest, and post‐4‐week evaluations with standardized instruments measured perceived support, negative impact from sexual violence, and suicidal ideation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze survey data and content analysis to analyze reflective writing.

Results

Among 34 enrolled participants, 26 completed the 4‐week intervention and posttest evaluations; 24 completed post‐4‐week evaluations. Significant improvements were found among participants in the areas of perceived support, negative impact from sexual violence, and suicidal ideation. The effect size of the intervention was moderate. Four themes that emerged from reflective writings were objectifying sexual violence, healing beginning with action, confronting issues, and sharing experiences.

Linking Evidence to Action

The intervention showed potential for initiating young women’s engagement in healing from sexual violence. A simple mobile audio intervention without human interaction could benefit sexual violence survivors.

Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Care for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common chronic disease. As this disease is extremely complex, multidisciplinary care (MDC) is needed to provide complete and continuous care.

Aim

A systematic literature review was performed to examine the constituents of MDC, the content of MDC interventions, and the health outcomes in CKD patients receiving MDC.

Methods

Searches of five Chinese and English databases for studies of CKD patients who had received MDC from 2007 to 2019 revealed 11 studies, which comprised 16,066 CKD patients. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale (Physiotherapy Evidence Database, 2017) was used to appraise study quality for randomized controlled trials, and the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools (Joanna Briggs Institute, 2017) were for cohort studies.

Results

The MDC teams that provided comprehensive medical care for these patients included nephrologists, nurses, surgeons, general practitioners, pharmacists, psychotherapists, social workers, nutritionists, and other specialists. The literature review revealed that MDC for CKD slows the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and decreases patient mortality, the risk of renal replacement therapy, the need for emergent dialysis, and annual medical costs. Analyses of biochemical markers in the CKD patients showed that MDC improves control of serum levels of calcium and phosphate, improves control of parathyroid hormone, and reduces proteinuria and fasting blood glucose values. However, further studies are needed to determine the effects of MDC on all‐cause mortality, blood pressure control, hospitalization rate, hospitalization for cardiovascular or infection events, medications use, and other biochemical markers in CKD patients.

Linking Evidence to Action

Cross‐disciplinary collaboration of healthcare professionals is needed to ensure that patients undergo regular follow‐up and periodic assessment of clinical status, in addition to ensuring that relevant resources and assistance are provided in a timely manner. A follow‐up period of at least 2 years is also needed to ensure sufficient time to observe MDC results.

Evidence‐Based Practice: A New Dissemination Guide

Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, Volume 18, Issue 1, Page 4-7, February 2021.

Effectiveness of Evidence‐Based Practice (EBP) Education on Emergency Nurses’ EBP Attitudes, Knowledge, Self‐Efficacy, Skills, and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Abstract

Background

Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence‐based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses’ use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated.

Aims

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses’ EBP attitudes, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners’ satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention.

Methods

A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self‐directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses’ EBP attitudes, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education.

Results

Thirty‐five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p < .05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self‐efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6‐month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self‐efficacy than the control group. At the 12‐month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions.

Linking Evidence to Action

The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses’ EBP attitudes, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.

Is It Possible for Registered Nurses and Physicians to Combine Research and Clinical Work to Facilitate Evidence‐Based Practice?

Abstract

Background

Evidence‐based patient care requires clinicians to make decisions based on the best available evidence and researchers to provide new scientific knowledge. Clinician‐scientists (i.e., registered nurses [RNs] and physicians with a PhD) make important contributions to health care; yet, their roles are not fully understood, supported, or recognized by healthcare leaders. Only a few studies have addressed the factors that enable RNs and physicians to simultaneously pursue both clinical work and research after earning a PhD.

Aim

To explore what factors have a bearing on the ability of RNs and physicians to pursue research and clinical work simultaneously after earning a PhD.

Methods

The study used a qualitative design based on open‐ended, in‐depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis.

Results

Analysis of the data yielded a broad range of factors that RNs and physicians perceived to either facilitate or hinder continued research while simultaneously undertaking clinical work. Most of the perceived barriers were due to factors external to the individual. Several factors applied to both professions yet differed in impact. Factors mentioned as fundamental to continued research were financial support and allocated time for research. Maintenance of a good relationship with academia and support from management were also considered to be important. In addition, personal factors, such as motivation to pursue a research career after obtaining a PhD, were influential.

Linking Evidence to Action

A supportive infrastructure is important for enabling clinician‐scientists to pursue research after earning a PhD. Creating favorable conditions for RNs and physicians to combine research with clinical work can facilitate evidence‐based practice. This information can be used for interventions aimed at improving the conditions for clinician‐scientists.

Translation, Cross‐Cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Analysis of the Attitudes Towards Homelessness Inventory for Use in Sweden

Abstract

Background

Homelessness is an increasing problem worldwide, and the origins of homelessness in high‐income countries are multifaceted. Due to stigma and discrimination, persons in homelessness delay seeking health care, resulting in avoidable illness and death. The Attitudes Towards Homelessness Inventory (ATHI) was developed to cover multiple dimensions of attitudes toward persons in homelessness and to detect changes in multiple segments of populations. It has, however, not previously been translated to Swedish.

Aims

The aim of the present study was to translate, cross‐culturally adapt, and psychometrically test the ATHI for use in a Swedish healthcare context.

Methods

The project used a traditional forward‐ and back‐translation process in six stages: (1) two simultaneous translations by bilingual experts; (2) expert review committee synthesis; (3) blind back‐translation; (4) expert review committee deliberations; (5) pre‐testing with cognitive interviews including registered nurses (n = 5), nursing students (n = 5), and women in homelessness (n = 5); and (6) psychometric evaluations. The final ATHI questionnaire was answered by 228 registered nurses and nursing students in the year 2019.

Results

The translation process was systematically conducted and entailed discussions regarding semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine if the collected data fitted the hypothesized four‐factor structure of the ATHI. Overall, it was found that the model had an acceptable fit and that the Swedish version of ATHI may be used in a Swedish healthcare context.

Linking Evidence to Action

The ATHI has been shown to be a psychometrically acceptable research instrument for use in a Swedish healthcare context. The systematic and rigorous process applied in this study, including experts with diverse competencies in translation proceedings and testing, improved the reliability and validity of the final Swedish version of the ATHI. The instrument may be used to investigate attitudes toward women in homelessness among nursing students and RNs in Sweden.

Issue Information

Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, Volume 18, Issue 1, Page 1-3, February 2021.

Evaluation of the Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Timely Extubation of Critically Ill Adults: An Interprofessional Survey

Abstract

Background

Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are an evidence‐based way of identifying patients ready for mechanical ventilation (MV) liberation. Despite their effectiveness, global SBT performance rates remain suboptimal, and many patients who demonstrate the ability to breathe on their own remain on MV. The factors that influence clinicians’ decision to discontinue MV following a successful SBT remain unclear.

Aims

The aim of this study was to explore the underlying causes of extubation delays in the intensive care unit (ICU) from an interprofessional perspective.

Methods

An exploratory, descriptive, cross‐sectional design was used. An online survey was administered in December 2019 to clinicians practicing in three ICUs at a single medical center in the U.S. Survey questions focused on clinicians’ perceptions of current MV liberation practices and perceived barriers or facilitators to timely extubation after a successful SBT.

Results

Of 425 eligible clinicians, 135 completed the survey (31.7% response rate). The majority of clinicians believed the current SBT and extubation process took too long (n = 108; 80.0%) and that this delay negatively affected patient outcomes. While professional groups differed in their rankings of importance, factors perceived to contribute to extubation delays most commonly included SBT timing, low provider confidence levels in making extubation decisions, and patient‐specific factors. Potential strategies to overcome these barriers included developing an automated extubation protocol, performing SBTs when the provider responsible for final extubation decisions is physically present, and decreasing clinician perception of reprimand or condemnation for failed extubations.

Linking Evidence to Action

The MV liberation process is complex and dependent on the decisions of various ICU professionals. Clinicians perceive a number of potentially modifiable provider‐ and organizational‐level factors that cause extubation delays in everyday practice. Understanding and addressing these barriers is essential for improving ICU quality and patient outcomes. Future research should explore the effect of nurse and respiratory therapist‐driven extubation protocols on MV liberation rates.

Implementation and Evaluation of a Standardized Nurse‐Administered Assessment of Functional and Psychosocial Issues for Patients in Acute Care

Abstract

Background

Increasingly, adults presenting to healthcare facilities have multiple morbidities that impact medical management and require initial and ongoing assessment. The interRAI Acute Care (AC), one of a suite of instruments used for integrated care, is a nurse‐administered standardized assessment of functional and psychosocial domains that contribute to complexity of patients admitted to acute care.

Aim

This study aimed to implement and evaluate the interRAI AC assessment system using a multi‐strategy approach based on the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i‐PARIHS) framework.

Methods

This nurse‐led quality improvement study was piloted in a 200‐bed public hospital in Brisbane, Australia, over the period 2017 to 2018. The interRAI AC is a set of clinical observations of functional and psychosocial domains, supported by software to derive diagnostic and risk screeners, scales to measure and monitor severity, and alerts to assist in care planning. Empirical data, surveys, and qualitative feedback were used to measure process and impact outcomes using the RE‐AIM evaluation framework (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance).

Results

In comparison to usual practice, the interRAI assessment system and supporting software was able to improve the integrity and compliance of nurse assessments, identifying key risk domains to facilitate management of care. Pre‐implementation documentation (630 items in 45 patient admissions) had 39% missing data compared with 1% missing data during the interRAI implementation phase (9,030 items in 645 patient admissions). Qualitative feedback from nurses in relation to staff engagement and behavioral intention to use the new technology was mixed.

Linking Evidence to Action

Despite challenges to implementing a system‐wide change, evaluation results demonstrated considerable efficiency gains in the nursing assessment system. For successful implementation of the interRAI AC, study findings suggest the need for interoperability with other information systems, access to training, and continued leadership support.

Mediating Effects of Anger Expression in the Relationship of Work Stress with Burnout among Hospital Nurses Depending on Career Experience

Abstract

Objectives

This study examined the mediating effects of anger expression in the relationship between work stress and burnout among nurses with more than or less than 3 years of career experience.

Methods

A cross‐sectional study was conducted with 454 nurses working at three university hospitals in South Korea. Nurses completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Work Stress Scale, and the Korean version of the Anger Expression Inventory. A multiple‐group mediation analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. Results: In total (N = 454), work stress directly affected burnout, and all anger expressions indirectly affected the relationship of work stress with burnout. Different mediating effects of anger expression style according to career experience were shown; anger‐out and anger‐in in nurses with less experience (n = 184) and only anger‐in in those with more experience (n = 270) partially mediated the relationship of work stress with burnout.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The indirect effect of anger‐in style was higher than other anger expression styles in all nurses; suppression of anger caused by work stress can increase burnout. Anger‐out played a functional role in the relationship of work stress with burnout among nurses who had less career experience. Therefore, to reduce burnout, creating a work environment with collaborative culture including authentic leadership and providing anger management programs will help to manage nurses’ anger properly. For new nurses, promoting work and life balance, and creating a culturally empowering work environment to help them use anger‐out expression constructively, are important to reduce burnout.

Audit and Feedback: An Evidence‐Based Practice Literature Review of Nursing Report Cards

Abstract

Background

As more hospitals transition to electronic health records (EHR) and rely on technology to inform practice, what is done with that information is increasingly important. Performance report cards for physicians and nurses are not new, yet there is little recent evidence on nurse‐specific audit and feedback.

Aim

The aim of the project was to conduct an evidence‐based practice (EBP) review to answer the question, “Does implementing an individualized audit and feedback report tool for nurses improve compliance, adherence, and/or performance of nursing tasks?”.

Methods

Evidence was gathered from several databases. Reviewers read and appraised articles that answered the EBP question using the Johns Hopkins Nursing EBP Model. Data were then collated to synthesize and generate recommendations.

Results

Of the initial 613 unique articles, eight (two research and six quality improvement) were included. Six articles demonstrated improvements while two did not. Articles analyzed nursing documentation (n = 3), tasks or skills (n = 2), and best practice compliance (n = 3). One manuscript utilized an EHR‐generated report; all others were completed by hand. Overall, there was not consistent and compelling evidence to support individualized audit and feedback report tools in nursing. However, several themes emerged related to sustainability, timing of feedback, audit, and feedback in the context of quality improvement, and the methods of acquiring and distributing data.

Linking Evidence to Action

The ubiquity and ease of the EHR make providing automated feedback to nurses tempting, yet it is not supported by the literature. More implementation science research is needed to explore audit and feedback reports in nursing. This article adds to the literature by highlighting a significant lack of consistent and compelling positive results from the well‐established quality improvement strategy of audit and feedback in the nursing population. The absence of good data is as telling as its presence.

Effectiveness of a Nurse‐Led Tele‐Homecare Program for Patients With Multiple Chronic Illnesses and a High Risk for Readmission: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Abstract

Purpose

Multiple chronic illnesses, such as those associated with advanced age, are leading causes of poor health, disability, death, and high healthcare expenditures. Tele‐homecare is a novel method for providing home care to patients with chronic illnesses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated nurse‐led tele‐homecare program for patients with multiple chronic illnesses and a high risk for readmission.

Design

A randomized controlled trial.

Methods

Two hundred patients from a regional hospital who were scheduled to receive home care after discharge were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 100) or the control group (n = 100). The patients in the intervention group participated in an integrated tele‐homecare program. For outcome evaluation, primary outcomes included the number of emergency department (ED) visits as well as readmittance and mortality. Secondary outcomes included patients’ medication adherence, activities of daily living, health status, and quality of life (QOL). Data were collected at three time points: pretest baseline (T0), 3 months after intervention (T3), and 6 months after intervention (T6). A generalized estimating equation model was used to compare changes and evaluate the effect of differences between the two groups over time.

Findings

For primary outcome evaluation, we found that the tele‐homecare program significantly reduced mortality and ED visits, whereas no significant effect on readmission was observed. For secondary outcome evaluation, patients’ QOL indicated significant improvement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The nurse‐led tele‐homecare program involves daily 24‐hr remote monitoring and surveillance. In this study, the system detected patients’ physical changes early and provided timely and appropriate management, consequently reducing ED visits and mortality. Additionally, it improved patients’ QOL. On the basis of our findings, nurses’ independent roles and functions revealed that the effectiveness of this nurse‐led tele‐homecare program strengthened the care of patients with multiple chronic illnesses.

Preparing Nursing Contexts for Evidence‐Based Practice Implementation: Where Should We Go From Here?

Abstract

Background

Context is important to the adoption and sustainability of evidence‐based practices (EBPs). Currently, most published implementation efforts address context in relation to one specific EBP or a bundle of related EBPs. Since EBP and implementation are ongoing and dynamic, more discussion is needed on preparing nursing contexts to be more conducive to implementation generally.

Aim

To discuss the need to create contexts that are more adaptable to ongoing change due to the dynamic nature of EBPs and the ever‐changing healthcare environment.

Methods

This paper builds on a collection of our previous work, as nursing implementation scientists representing the Canadian and American healthcare contexts, and a literature review of the implementation science, knowledge translation, and sustainability literatures from 2006 to 2019.

Results

We argue for a different way of thinking about the influence of context and implementation of EBPs. We contend that nursing contexts must be prepared to be more flexible and conducive to ongoing EBP implementation more generally. Contexts that embrace, facilitate, and have the capacity for change may be more likely to effectively de‐implement ineffective interventions or implement and sustain new EBPs. We outline future directions to build a program of research on preparing the soil for implementation of EBPs, including building capacity among nurses, supporting organizations to embrace change, co‐producing research evidence, and contributing to implementation science.

Linking Evidence to Action

Supporting contexts to adopt and sustain evidence in nursing practice is essential for bridging the evidence to practice gap and improving outcomes for patients, clinicians, and the health system. Moving forward, we need to develop a better understanding of how to create contexts that embrace change prior to the implementation of EBPs in order sustain improvements to patient and health system outcomes.

The Transition to Adult Health Care in Youth With Spina Bifida: Theory, Measurement, and Interventions

Abstract

Purpose

This article focuses on the transition to adult health care in youth with spina bifida (SB) from the perspective of theory, measurement, and interventions.

Methods

The purpose of this article is to discuss (a) a theory of linkages between the transfer of medical responsibility from parent to child and the transition from pediatric to adult health care, as mediated by transition readiness; (b) measurement issues in the study of self‐management and the transition to adult health care; and (c) U.S.‐based and international interventions focused on the transition to adult health care in young adults with SB.

Findings

Individuals with SB must adhere to a complex multicomponent treatment regimen while at the same time managing a unique array of cognitive and psychosocial challenges and comorbidities that hinder self‐management, medical adherence, and the transition to adult health care. Moreover, such youth endure multiple transitions to adult health care (e.g., in the areas of urology, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and primary care) that may unfold across different time frames. Finally, three transition‐related constructs need to be assessed, namely, transition readiness, transition completion, and transition success.

Conclusions

SB provides an important exemplar that highlights the complexities of conducting research on the transition to adult health care in youth with chronic health conditions. Many transition trajectories are possible, depending on the functioning level of the child and a host of other factors. Also, no single transition pathway is optimal for all patients with SB.

Clinical Relevance

The success of the process by which a child with SB transitions from pediatric to adult health care can have life‐sustaining implications for the patient.

Characteristics of Advance Care Planning Interventions Across Dementia Stages: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known regarding how advance care planning (ACP) interventions change with the progression of dementia. Thus, the primary purpose of this systematic review is to compare characteristics of ACP interventions across dementia stages. We also identify the role of nurses in implementing ACP interventions for persons with dementia and their surrogates.

Design

A systematic review of ACP intervention studies.

Methods

After searching PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycArticles, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literture (CINAHL), and Scopus, the final sample included 11 studies representing 10 interventions. We conducted a quality assessment and extracted data on dementia stage, intervention characteristics, and the role of nurses in the intervention. The extracted data were categorized according to stages of dementia, and analyzed to identify commonalities and differences between intervention characteristics.

Findings

Three ACP interventions focused on mild dementia and seven on advanced dementia. We observed four primary findings. First, we found a major difference in intervention recipients between the two dementia stages. Second, most ACP interventions included structured discussions regarding the person’s life goals and values, goals of care, and preferences concerning future care via individual, face‐to‐face interactions. Third, ACP interventions designed to promote ongoing discussions and documentation were lacking. Finally, nurses played important roles in implementing ACP interventions.

Conclusions

The findings suggest more nurse‐led, dementia‐related ACP interventions. In addition, ACP interventions should promote ongoing discussions and documentation and target persons with dementia and their surrogates in various countries.

Clinical Relevance

Many persons with dementia and their surrogates have limited knowledge about ACP; thus, more nurse‐led ACP programs that reflect dementia stages may help them prepare for the situations in which persons with dementia lack decision‐making capacity.

Contextualization of Psychological First Aid: An Integrative Literature Review

Abstract

Purpose

Contextualization of psychological first aid (PFA) in different cultural, political, and socioeconomic contexts and in different population groups is essential. This review analyzes the efforts that have been made to contextualize PFA in different parts of the world for different disasters and emergencies.

Design

Integrative literature review.

Methods

The major databases that were searched for related literature published until August 2019 included JBI, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), BIOSIS, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and PsycINFO. A total of 17 studies published in peer‐reviewed journals were included. The review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) model, and the 6W3H tool was applied to synthesize the results.

Findings

PFA has been adapted to various disasters and populations in different countries and regions. The organizations that administer PFA range from community level to national level. Professional or “outside helpers” who enter disaster‐affected locations include psychologists, fire fighters, social workers, and nurses. “Inside helpers,” who live and work in the disaster‐affected areas, include HR staff, teachers, and peer emergency personnel. Only a few studies have reported the exact number of first responders who administered PFA. Some studies revised PFA as group based, and a few reported the classification of groups of victims. Notably, all adaptations adhered to the basic principles of PFA, and the time at which PFA was administered ranged from a few days to months after an incident. PFA was conducted on site in all studies. The selection of the location depended on the type of disaster and local situation with due consideration of safety. Only a few studies specified the rationale for revising the PFA. None of these 17 studies reported the cost, cost‐benefit, or cost‐effectiveness of PFA.

Conclusions

Population‐focused, context‐specific, and group‐based PFA is emerging worldwide. Nurses are actively playing a role in providing PFA. Research gaps exist in differentiating between the roles played by “outside” and “inside” responders, considering vulnerable age groups other than children, incorporating the major PFA concepts such as resilience, and evaluating the cost‐effectiveness of PFA.

Clinical Relevance

It is imperative that nurses and other emergency staff consider the intersection of age, gender, cultural, political, social economic, and spiritual contexts when developing a context appropriate PFA.

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