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AnteayerInternacionales

Nurses' Use and Ways of Understanding Web-Based National Guidelines for Child Healthcare

imageThe national Rikshandboken for child healthcare is both a Web-based guideline containing knowledge and methodological guidance and a national child healthcare program in the process of being implemented in Sweden. The aim of this study was to examine child healthcare nurses' use and ways of understanding the national Web-based Rikshandboken. A mixed-methods study with sequential explanatory design in two phases was used; a Web survey with descriptive statistics was followed with telephone interviews with phenomenographic analysis. The study showed variations in use and contributed deeper knowledge of child healthcare nurses' ways of understanding the unit Rikshandboken whose varied parts interact with each other. To be reliable, useful, and relevant for nurses in their specific contexts, Rikshandboken must be kept updated and involve the end users in the development process. With access to technical devices and optimal use of the possibilities of information and communication technology, Rikshandboken can be a resource for continuing learning, a tool in everyday work, and a possible determinant to equality in child healthcare. The study contributes valuable knowledge for the design of Web-based national guidelines for healthcare, making them useful and relevant for the end users.

Factors Affecting Patient Prioritization Decisions at Admission to Home Healthcare: A Predictive Study to Develop a Risk Screening Tool

imageThere is a lack of evidence on how to identify high-risk patients admitted to home healthcare. This study aimed (1) to identify which disease characteristics, medications, patient needs, social support characteristics, and other factors are associated with patient priority for the first home health nursing visit; and (2) to construct and validate a predictive model of patient priority for the first home health nursing visit. This was a predictive study of home health visit priority decisions made by 20 nurses for 519 older adults. The study found that nurses were more likely to prioritize patients who had wounds (odds ratio = 1.88), comorbid condition of depression (odds ratio = 1.73), limitation in current toileting status (odds ratio = 2.02), higher number of medications (increase in odds ratio for each medication = 1.04), and comorbid conditions (increase in odds ratio for each condition = 1.04). This study developed one of the first clinical decision support tools for home healthcare called “PREVENT”. (PRiority home health Visit Tool). Further work is needed to increase the specificity and generalizability of the tool and to test its effects on patient outcomes.

Promoting Emotional Well-being in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents With Virtual Reality: Usability and Acceptability of a Randomized Controlled Trial

imageThe aim of this study was to describe and compare small-sized preliminary data on the usability and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial. This study compares a one-to-one cognitive-behavioral treatment and a virtual reality treatment for children and adolescents hospitalized for long-term physical conditions. The final sample was composed of 19 children and adolescents with chronic illness who were hospitalized. The sample was randomly allocated to two intervention groups: cognitive-behavioral usual treatment and virtual reality–based treatment. Participants in the virtual reality group demonstrated higher perceived efficacy scores for every treatment component than for traditional treatment. Statistically significant differences were found for the total usability and acceptability scores. Participants in the virtual reality group show high acceptability of all the virtual environments. The components and environments of virtual reality were well accepted. The virtual reality program received high scores in immersion, feasibility of use, and sense of reality. Technology-based treatments, that is, virtual reality, can provide motivational benefits in relation to traditional treatments.

Steps to Develop a Mobile App for Pain Assessment of Cancer Patients: A Usability Study

imageHealth-related mobile apps have the potential to allow patients and providers to proactively and responsibly manage pain together. However, there is a gap between the science of pain and current mobile apps. To develop a prototype science-based pain assessment mobile app (PainSmart) for Android smartphones, pain assessment tasks were extracted from a clinical guideline. These tasks were then converted to activity diagrams and became the logic of PainSmart. Five participants diagnosed with breast cancer evaluated usability of PainSmart with the System Usability Scale. Patient experience was recorded using Camtasia Studio Version 9 software. The five participants were able to explore the pain app after only 20 minutes of training. Using the System Usability Scale with comments, participant mean usability score was 77.5; above 68 is considered an above average system. A prototype of a pain assessment mobile app for cancer patients demonstrated high usability and will be refined based on participant feedback.

Exploring Family Nurse Practitioners' Practices in Recommending mHealth Apps to Patients

imagePatients frequently download mHealth apps, which can be used to support health promotion. It remains unclear, however, if family nurse practitioners are recommending apps to patients. This study identified family nurse practitioners' current practices of recommending apps to patients and described their use and intent to use mHealth apps for health promotion with their patients. Nearly 70% of the 303 participants surveyed recommended mHealth apps to their patients, with the most common types comprising patient portal, diet and nutrition, and fitness apps. However, the frequency with which apps were recommended was low. Participants reported that apps complement patient care, enable health promotion behaviors, are easy to use, and improve clarity of patient data. These factors facilitated their intent to recommend mHealth apps to patients. Healthcare organizational support influenced participants' intent to recommend apps, and access to trustworthy apps and electronic health records compatibility increased usage. Barriers to recommending involved patient-specific characteristics and provider concerns about reliability, privacy, and efficacy of apps. Family nurse practitioners must be supported in guiding patients to use reliable, safe, and HIPAA-compliant apps. To help engage patients, clinicians should be educated on methods to evaluate mHealth apps and how to incorporate them into patient care.

Authentic Connections Groups: A Pilot Test of an Intervention Aimed at Enhancing Resilience Among Nurse Leader Mothers

Abstract

Background

Nurse leaders who are mothers are at significant risk for experiencing stress, burnout, and occupational fatigue. Authentic Connections (AC) Groups is an intervention shown to be effective for fostering resilience among at‐risk moms, including physicians; however, it has not previously been tested with nurse leaders.

Aims

Our aims were to test the feasibility and acceptability of the AC Groups intervention with nurse leader mothers and examine its effects on participant resilience, as measured by increased self‐compassion and decreased distress, depression, perceived stress, and burnout.

Methods

A randomized controlled trial design was employed for this pilot study, with 36 nurse leaders at Mayo Clinic. AC participants attended group sessions for an hour per week for 12 weeks. Control group members were provided 1 hr per week of free time over 12 weeks. Multiple self‐report psychological measures were completed at baseline, post‐intervention, and 3‐month follow‐up.

Results

The AC Groups intervention was feasible and well‐received by nurse leaders. Session attendance rates averaged 92%. Despite the small n’s, repeated measures of Analysis of Variance showed significantly greater improvements (p < .05) for participants in the AC Groups than control condition for depression, self‐compassion, and perceived stress, with large effect sizes ( 0.18–0.22). In addition, effect sizes for anxiety and feeling loved approximated the moderate range ( 0.05 and .07).

Linking Evidence to Action

The AC intervention shows promise as a feasible intervention for mitigating nurse leader mothers’ stress by positively impacting indices of well‐being, including depression, self‐compassion, and perceived stress. Given, the prevalence of stress and burnout among nurse leaders, the effectiveness of the AC intervention in fostering resilience in this population has significant implications for research and practice. Further research is warranted with larger numbers from multiple sites, longer follow‐up periods, and biomarker measures of stress.

A Longitudinal Analysis of Nurse Suicide in the United States (2005–2016) With Recommendations for Action

Abstract

Background

Previous studies have demonstrated nurses are at risk of suicide. This is the first national longitudinal study of U.S. nurse suicide.

Aims

To identify the longitudinal incidence, method, and risks of nurse suicide in the United States.

Methods

2005 to 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Violent Death Reporting System retrospective analysis of suicide incident rate ratios (IRR).

Results

A total of 1,824 nurse and 152,495 non‐nurse suicides were evaluated. Nurses were at greater risk of suicide than the general population (female IRR 1.395, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.323, 1.470, p < .001; male IRR 1.205, 95% CI 1.083, 1.338, p < .001). Female nurses who completed suicide did so most frequently by pharmacologic poisoning (n = 399, 27.2% vs. n = 8,843, 26.9%), whereby male nurses and the general public used firearms (n = 148, 41.7% vs. n = 57,887, 48.4%). Job problems were more likely in nurses (female odds ratio [OR] 1.989, 95% CI 1.695, 2.325, p < .001; male OR 1.814, 95% CI 1.380, 2.359, p < .001), as well as mental health history (female OR 1.126, 95% CI 1.013, 1.253, p < .027; male OR 1.302, 95% CI 1.048, 1.614, p = .016) and leaving a suicide note (female OR 1.221, 95% CI 1.096, 1.360, p < .001; male OR 1.756 [1.412, 2.181], p < .001).

Linking Evidence to Action

The increased risk of suicide in nurses is congruent with previous reports. The consistency in results increases confidence that findings are generalizable and warrant action. The use of pharmacologic poisoning as a method of suicide, most often by opioids and benzodiazepines, indicates a need for improved identification and treatment of nurses with substance use. Workplace wellness programs need to focus on reducing workplace stressors. Further research is indicated to determine best prevention methods. Policy indications include the need to accurately track gender in nursing, enhance substance use disorder programs, and mandate suicide prevention activities.

Sustainability and Outcomes of a Suicide Prevention Program for Nurses

Abstract

Background

We now know that nurses are at greater risk for suicide than others in the general population. It is known that job stressors are prevalent in nurses who die by suicide. Yet, little is known about targeted suicide prevention for nurses. The first nurse‐centric Healer Education Assessment and Referral (HEAR) suicide prevention program was piloted for 6 months in 2016. The HEAR program was effective in identifying at‐risk nurses.

Aim

The purpose of this paper is to report the 3‐year sustainability and outcomes of this nurse suicide prevention program.

Methods

Descriptive statistics are provided of program outcomes over the course of 3 years.

Results

Over the 3 years, 527 nurses have taken advantage of the screening portion of the program. Of these, 254 (48%) were Tier 1 high risk, and 270 (51.2%) were Tier 2 moderate risk. A startling 48 (9%) had expressed thoughts of taking their own life, 51 (9.7%) had a previous suicide attempt, whereas only 79 (15%) were receiving counseling or therapy. One hundred seventy‐six nurses received support from therapists electronically, over the phone, or in person; 98 nurses accepted referral for treatment. The number of group emotional debriefs rose from eight in 2016 to 15 in 2017 to 38 in fiscal year 2019. Many of the debriefs are now requested (vs. offered), demonstrating the development of a culture open to reaching out for mental health treatment.

Linking Evidence to Action

The initial success of this pilot program has been sustained. A nurse suicide prevention program of education, assessment, and referral is feasible, well‐received, proactively identifies nurses with reported suicidality and facilitates referral for care. The HEAR program has provided service to physicians and residents for 10 years and now supports effectiveness in nurses. The HEAR program is portable and ready for replication at other institutions.

The Effects of an Intensive Evidence‐Based Practice Educational and Skills Building Program on EBP Competency and Attributes

Abstract

Background and Significance

Evidence‐based practice (EBP) is a systematic problem‐solving approach to the delivery of health care that improves quality and population health outcomes as well as reduces costs and empowers clinicians to fully engage in their role, otherwise known as the quadruple aim in health care. The Helene Fuld Health Trust National Institute for Evidence‐based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare at The Ohio State University College of Nursing has been offering 5‐day EBP immersion programs since 2012. The goal of the program is for the participants to acquire EBP competence (e.g., knowledge, skills, and attitude) and sustain it over time.

Purpose and Aims

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the 5‐day EBP immersion (i.e., an education and skills building program) on EBP attributes and competence over time.

Method and Design

A longitudinal pre‐experimental study was conducted that gathered data with an anonymous online survey from 400 program attendees who attended 16 5‐day immersions between September 2014 and May 2016. Participants completed five valid and reliable instruments at four points over 12 months, including EBP beliefs, implementation, competency, knowledge, and perception of organizational readiness and culture.

Results

Findings indicated statistically significant improvements in EBP attributes and competency over time. The results of this study support the hypotheses that EBP competency and attributes can be significantly improved and sustained by attending an intensive 5‐day EBP educational and skills building program such as the one described in this study. This study can help leaders and organizations to mitigate many of the traditional barriers to EBP.

Linking Evidence to Action

The results of this study indicate that EBP attributes and competencies can be improved and sustained by attending an intensive 5‐day EBP immersion, regardless of clinicians’ prior educational preparation.

Issue Information

Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 1-1, February 2020.

Social media and drug resistance in nursing training: Using a Twitterchat to develop an international community of practice for antimicrobial resistance

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To assess the impact of a Twitterchat focusing on antimicrobial resistance and it is feasibility for integration within a nursing prelicensure research methods class.

Background

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health and food security. Consequently, developing a global approach with large outreach is critical. Twitter, as a popular social media platform, is useful for creating communities of practice and communities of interest.

Design

A case study design using a Twitterchat is a hosted, convened and focussed discussion on a particular topic using a discrete hashtag.

Method

Using a standardised protocol, a Twitterchat was undertaken over a 24‐hr period and digital metrics assessed at 72 hr. A summary of impact was undertaken using an online tool provided by Union Metrics (https://unionmetrics.com/).

Conclusions

At 72 hr, 2,632,762 accounts were reached and over 10 million impressions achieved. Twitterchats can be useful in creating awareness and fostering a community of interest and demonstrating the role of nurses in thought leadership. A formalised research study will draw on this case study to evaluate the impact on the Twitter participants and nursing students.

Relevance to clinical practice

Social media are an accessible and useful tool to harness focus and attention on clinical issues with global relevance. Demonstrating the utility and leverage to nursing students is important in increasing their understanding of the importance of communication and diffusion of information.

Intensive critical care nurses' with limited experience: Experiences of caring for an organ donor during the donation process

Abstract

Objective

To describe how intensive critical care nurses, whose experience is limited, experience caring for an organ donor during the donation process.

Background

Intensive critical care nurses are involved in the care of organ donors and their relatives. This may be challenging and evoke a sense of providing an inhumane care. Few studies have explored how intensive critical care nurses whose experience is limited experience caring for an organ donor during the donation process.

Design

An interview study with an inductive qualitative approach was conducted. The study was reported according to COREQ guidelines.

Methods

This study was performed during 2019. Participants were intensive critical care nurses (n = 7) from different hospitals (n = 4) with <3 years of experience and involvement in the donation process at least once but no more than three times. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

Findings

Five categories emerged: the donation process is emotionally challenging; supporting relatives is an essential but demanding task; a complex and multifaceted process involving a high level of responsibility; needing appropriate prerequisites in the form of education and collegial support; and providing a dignified care based on respect for the organ donor.

Conclusions

Having limited experience as an intensive critical care nurse may not automatically mean that caring for an organ donor is experienced as more challenging than it is for a more‐experienced colleague. However, certain intensive critical care nurses whose experience caring for an organ donor is limited found it to be highly demanding due to its complexity, specifically in regard to informing relatives of the loss of their loved one and providing them with support.

Relevance to clinical practice

Our study revealed a need for further education. This need could be met by simulation tasks during the specialist education in intensive critical care nursing, where primarily ethical aspects and strategies for meeting with and supporting relatives should be examined and practiced.

The introduction of a safety checklist in two UK hospital emergency departments: A qualitative study of implementation and staff use

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To explore the extent to which a checklist designed to support patient safety in hospital Emergency Departments was recognised and used by staff.

Background

Patient crowding in UK Emergency Departments makes it difficult for staff to monitor all patients for signs of clinical deterioration. An Emergency Department Safety Checklist was developed at a UK hospital to ensure patients are regularly monitored. It was subsequently implemented in six hospitals and recommended for use across the National Health Service in England.

Methods

This was a qualitative study in two UK hospital Emergency Departments. Data collection consisted of sixty‐six hours of nonparticipant observation and interviews with twenty‐six staff. Observations were sampled across different days and times. Interviews sampled a range of staff. Data were analysed thematically. The study was undertaken in accordance with COREQ guidelines.

Results

Staff described the Emergency Department Safety Checklist as a useful prompt and reminder for monitoring patients' vital signs and other aspects of care. It was also reported as effective in communicating patient care status to other staff. However, completing the checklist was also described as a task which could be overlooked during busy periods. During implementation, the checklist was promoted to staff in ways that obscured its core function of maintaining patient safety.

Conclusions

The Emergency Department Safety Checklist can support staff in maintaining patient safety. However, it was not fully recognised by staff as a core component of everyday clinical practice.

Relevance to clinical practice

The Emergency Department Safety Checklist is a response to an overcrowded environment. To realise the potential of the checklist, emergency departments should take the following steps during implementation: (a) focus on the core function of clinical safety, (b) fully integrate the checklist into the existing workflow and (c) employ a departmental team‐based approach to implementation and training.

Oral care practices of long‐term care home residents and caregivers: Secondary analysis of observational video recordings

Abstract

Aims and Objectives

To describe the proportion of toothbrushing task steps, long‐term care residents had an opportunity to complete; the duration and quality of toothbrushing by both residents and caregivers; and the feedback caregivers provided.

Background

Poor oral health is widespread among older adults in long‐term care homes; however, little is known about their actual oral health practices.

Design

Secondary analysis of video recordings.

Methods

A total of 58 video‐recorded sessions were analysed from two long‐term care homes in Canada. Eligible residents had at least one natural tooth, required oral care assistance, had Alzheimer's disease and understood English. Eligible caregivers spoke English and had worked for at least 1 year with people with dementia. Toothbrushing success was identified by the resident's participation in, and completion of, nine toothbrushing steps. Total time spent brushing teeth was calculated by summing the duration of time spent brushing teeth. Quality was described by time spent brushing the facial versus the lingual or occlusal surfaces. Caregiver verbal feedback was pulled from transcripts and analysed using content analysis. STROBE guidelines were used in reporting this study.

Results

The two step residents most frequently completed or attempted were brushing their teeth (77% complete, 7% attempt) and rinsing their mouth (86% complete, 2% attempt). The average time spent brushing teeth was 60.33 s (SD = 35.15). In 66% of observed videos, toothbrushing occurred only on the facial tooth surfaces, with no time spent brushing the lingual or occlusal surfaces.

Conclusion

Caregivers are supporting residents to independently complete toothbrushing; however, the duration and quality of toothbrushing are not sufficient to ensure optimal oral health.

Relevance to Clinical Practice

Clear, detailed guidelines are required to ensure adequate oral care for long‐term care residents. Staff need to be aware that all surfaces should be brushed to ensure proper oral health.

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