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Pressure injuries among admissions to a hospital in the tropics

Abstract

We report incidence rates for pressure injuries seen in an acute hospital in Singapore that were classified as Stage 3 or Stage 4. The characteristics of patients and the factors that explain variation in the primary outcome of duration of hospital stay are summarized. Existing data were available from Singapore General Hospital for all admissions from January 2016 to December 2019. Univariable analysis was done and a multivariable Poisson regression model estimated. Incidence rates declined from 4.05 to 3.4 per 1000 admissions in the 48 months between 2016 and 2019. The vast majority were community acquired with 75% in admission from the patients' home. Factors that explain variation in length of stay were, ethnicity; site of injury; community versus healthcare associated; inter‐hospital transfer; fracture as reason for admission; and the number of days between admission and assessment of wound by specialist nurse. Stage 3 and 4 injuries arise in a home environment most often and are subsequently managed in acute hospital at high cost. These are novel epidemiological data from a hospital in the tropics where the potential to improve outcomes, implement screening and prevention, and thus increase the performance of health services is strong.

2020 the year we would rather forget

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 6, Page 1555-1555, December 2020.

Hyperspectral imaging in wound care: A systematic review

Abstract

Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are emerging imaging techniques with the potential to transform the way patients with wounds are cared for, but it is not clear whether current systems are capable of delivering real‐time tissue characterisation and treatment guidance. We conducted a systematic review of HSI systems that have been assessed in patients, published over the past 32 years. We analysed 140 studies, including 10 different HSI systems. Current in vivo HSI systems generate a tissue oxygenation map. Tissue oxygenation measurements may help to predict those patients at risk of wound formation or delayed healing. No safety concerns were reported in any studies. A small number of studies have demonstrated the capabilities of in vivo label‐free HSI, but further work is needed to fully integrate it into the current clinical workflow for different wound aetiologies. As an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, HSI offers great potential for non‐invasive disease diagnosis and guidance when treating patients with both acute and chronic wounds.

2020 the year we would rather forget

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 6, Page 1555-1555, December 2020.

Important News from the International Wound Journal

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 5, Page 1105-1105, October 2020.

Hyperspectral imaging in wound care: A systematic review

Abstract

Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are emerging imaging techniques with the potential to transform the way patients with wounds are cared for, but it is not clear whether current systems are capable of delivering real‐time tissue characterisation and treatment guidance. We conducted a systematic review of HSI systems that have been assessed in patients, published over the past 32 years. We analysed 140 studies, including 10 different HSI systems. Current in vivo HSI systems generate a tissue oxygenation map. Tissue oxygenation measurements may help to predict those patients at risk of wound formation or delayed healing. No safety concerns were reported in any studies. A small number of studies have demonstrated the capabilities of in vivo label‐free HSI, but further work is needed to fully integrate it into the current clinical workflow for different wound aetiologies. As an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, HSI offers great potential for non‐invasive disease diagnosis and guidance when treating patients with both acute and chronic wounds.

Pressure injuries among admissions to a hospital in the tropics

Abstract

We report incidence rates for pressure injuries seen in an acute hospital in Singapore that were classified as Stage 3 or Stage 4. The characteristics of patients and the factors that explain variation in the primary outcome of duration of hospital stay are summarized. Existing data were available from Singapore General Hospital for all admissions from January 2016 to December 2019. Univariable analysis was done and a multivariable Poisson regression model estimated. Incidence rates declined from 4.05 to 3.4 per 1000 admissions in the 48 months between 2016 and 2019. The vast majority were community acquired with 75% in admission from the patients' home. Factors that explain variation in length of stay were, ethnicity; site of injury; community versus healthcare associated; inter‐hospital transfer; fracture as reason for admission; and the number of days between admission and assessment of wound by specialist nurse. Stage 3 and 4 injuries arise in a home environment most often and are subsequently managed in acute hospital at high cost. These are novel epidemiological data from a hospital in the tropics where the potential to improve outcomes, implement screening and prevention, and thus increase the performance of health services is strong.

Societal pandemic burnout: A COVID legacy

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 873-874, August 2020.

Cost of managing patients with venous leg ulcers

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate costs associated with the management of patients with venous leg ulcers (VLUs) from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). The analysis was undertaken through the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank which brings together and anonymously links a wide range of person‐based data from around 75% of general practitioner (GP) practices within Wales (population coverage ~2.5 million). The data covered an 11‐year period from 2007 to 2017. All patients linked to the relevant codes were tracked through primary care settings, recording the number of GP practice visits (number of days with an event recorded), and wound treatment utilisation (eg, dressings, bandages, etc.) Resources were valued in monetary terms (£ sterling) and the costs were determined from national published sources of unit costs. This is the first attempt to estimate the costs of managing of VLUs using routine data sources. The direct costs to the Welsh NHS are considerable and represent 1.2% of the annual budget. Nurse visits are the main cost driver with annual estimates of £67.8 million. At a UK level, these costs amount to £1.98 billion. Dressings and compression bandages are also major cost drivers with annual Welsh estimates of £828 790. The direct cost of managing patients with VLUs is £7706 per patient per annum, which translates to an annual cost of over £2 billion, when extrapolated to the UK population. The primary cost driver is the number of district nurse visits. Initiatives to reduce healing times through improving accuracy of initial diagnosis, and improved evidence‐based treatment pathways would result in major financial savings.

COVID‐19 a short‐term challenge, telewound a lifetime change

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 529-529, June 2020.

Clinical and economic burden of wound care in the tropics: a 5‐year institutional population health review

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and economic burden of wound care in the Tropics via a 5‐year institutional population health review. Within our data analysis, wounds are broadly classified into neuro‐ischaemic ulcers (NIUs), venous leg ulcers (VLUs), pressure injuries (PIs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). Between 2013 and 2017, there were a total of 56 583 wound‐related inpatient admissions for 41 461 patients, with a 95.1% increase in wound episodes per 1000 inpatient admissions over this period (142 and 277 wound episodes per 1000 inpatient admissions in 2013 and 2017, respectively). In 2017, the average length of stay for each wound episode was 17.7 days, which was 2.4 times that of an average acute admission at our institution. The average gross charge per wound episode was USD $12 967. Among the 12 218 patients with 16 674 wound episodes in 2017, 71.5% were more than 65 years of age with an average Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 7.2. Half (51.9%) were moderately or severely frail, while 41.3% had two or more wound‐related admission episodes. In 2017, within our healthcare cluster, the gross healthcare costs for all inpatient wound episodes stand at USD $216 million within hospital care and USD $596 000 within primary care. Most NIU patients (97.2%) had diabetes and they had the most comorbidities (average CCI 8.4) and were the frailest group of patients (44.9% severely frail). The majority of the VLU disease burden was at the specialist outpatient setting, with the average 1‐year VLU recurrence rate at 52.5% and median time between healing and recurrence at 9.5 months. PI patients were the oldest (86.5% more than 65 years‐old), constituted the largest cohort of patients with 3874 patients at an incidence of 64.6 per 1000 admissions in 2017, and have a 1‐year all‐cause mortality rate of 14.3%. For SSI patients, there was a 125% increase of 14.2 SSI wound episodes per 1000 inpatient admissions in 2013 to 32.0 in 2017, and a 413% increase in wound‐related 30‐day re‐admissions, from 40 in 2013 (4.1% of all surgeries) to 205 (8.3% of all surgeries) in 2017. The estimated gross healthcare cost per patient ranges from USD $15789–17 761 across the wound categories. Similar to global data, there is a significant and rising trend in the clinical and economic burden of wound care in Tropics.

World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting, 2020

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 2, Page 241-241, April 2020.

Is wound photography becoming sloppy?

International Wound Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, Page 5-6, February 2020.

Final thoughts for 2019

International Wound Journal, Volume 16, Issue 6, Page 1251-1251, December 2019.

Innovation and inertia in wounds

International Wound Journal, Volume 16, Issue 5, Page 1079-1079, October 2019.

Data‐driven specialisation of wound care through artificial intelligence

International Wound Journal, Volume 16, Issue 4, Page 879-880, August 2019.

Communities and resistance

International Wound Journal, Volume 16, Issue 3, Page 591-591, June 2019.

Can health care catch up with technology

International Wound Journal, Volume 15, Issue 6, Page 861-861, December 2018.
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