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Piperacillin-tazobactam versus meropenem for treatment of bloodstream infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a study protocol for a non-inferiority open-label randomised controlled trial (PeterPen)

Por: Bitterman · R. · Koppel · F. · Mussini · C. · Geffen · Y. · Chowers · M. · Rahav · G. · Nesher · L. · Ben-Ami · R. · Turjeman · A. · Huberman Samuel · M. · Cheng · M. P. · Lee · T. C. · Leibovici · L. · Yahav · D. · Paul · M.
Introduction

The optimal treatment for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections has yet to be defined. Retrospective studies have shown conflicting results, with most data suggesting the non-inferiority of beta-lactam–beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations compared with carbapenems. However, the recently published MERINO trial failed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of piperacillin–tazobactam to meropenem. The potential implications of the MERINO trial are profound, as widespread adoption of carbapenem treatment will have detrimental effects on antimicrobial stewardship in areas endemic for ESBL and carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we believe that it is justified to re-examine the comparison in a second randomised controlled trial prior to changing clinical practice.

Methods and analysis

PeterPen is a multicentre, investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, comparing piperacillin–tazobactam with meropenem for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella bloodstream infections. The study is currently being conducted in six centres in Israel and one in Canada with other centres from Israel, Italy and Canada expected to join. The two primary outcomes are all-cause mortality at day 30 from enrolment and treatment failure at day seven (death, fever above 38°C in the last 48 hours, continuous symptoms, increasing Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score or persistent blood cultures with the index pathogen). A sample size of 1084 patients was calculated for the mortality endpoint assuming a 12.5% mortality rate in the control group with a 5% non-inferiority margin and assuming 100% follow-up for this outcome.

Ethics and dissemination

The study is approved by local and national ethics committees as required. Results will be published, and trial data will be made available.

Trial registration numbers

ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03671967); Israeli Ministry of Health Trials Registry (MOH_2018-12-25_004857).

Quantitative Results of Perfusion Utilising Hyperspectral Imaging on Non‐diabetics and Diabetics: A Pilot Study

Abstract

There is a paucity of quantitative measures of microvascular perfusion values in the skin. Newly developed, handheld hyperspectral imaging devices identify unique spectral fingerprints of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the superficial microvasculature. Establishing value ranges for healthy patients without vascular complications will subsequently help standardise assessments for perfusion defects. In particular, diabetics who are prone to vascular calcifications and lower extremity wounds may benefit. A total of 73 subjects were enrolled in the study and split in two cohorts: 36 ‘non‐diabetic’ non‐vascularly compromised patients and 37 ‘diabetic’ patients with a formal diagnosis of diabetes but without history of pedal ulceration. Values of oxygenated haemoglobin (HT‐Oxy) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (HT‐DeOxy) from both devices are analysed.

Prevention of pressure injury in the operating room: Heels operating room pressure injury trial

Abstract

The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of multi‐layered silicone foam (intervention) compared with transparent polyurethane film (control) in preventing heel pressure injuries caused by surgical positioning of individuals undergoing elective surgery. It was designed an intra‐patient, open, parallel, randomised controlled trial was conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil, from March 2019 to February 2020, with patients undergoing elective surgeries of cardiac and gastrointestinal specialties. The patients who met the selection criteria constituted, simultaneously, a single group receiving the intervention and active control, through paired analysis of the cutaneous sites (right heel and left heel). The outcome was the occurrence of PI, within the follow‐up period was 72 hours. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR‐5GKNG5. There was analysis of 135 patients/270 heels, with an overall incidence of 36.7%. The pressure injury incidence was significantly lower in the intervention group (26.7%), compared with the control group (P = .001); relative risk of 0.57. In the intervention group, the estimated pressure injury‐free time (survival) was 57.5 hours and in the control group, 43.9 hours. It was concluded that Multi‐layered silicone foam (intervention) is more efficacious than transparent polyurethane film (control) in the prevention of pressure injuries caused by surgical positioning of individuals undergoing elective surgery.

Update on the role of antiseptics in the management of chronic wounds with critical colonisation and/or biofilm

Abstract

Biofilms play a major role in delaying chronic wounds from healing. A wound infiltrated with biofilm, or “critically colonised” wound, may become clinically infected if the number of microbes exceeds a critical level. Chronic wound biofilms represent a significant treatment challenge by demonstrating recalcitrance towards antimicrobial agents. However, a “window of opportunity” may exist after wound debridement when biofilms are more susceptible to topical antiseptics. Here, we discuss the role of antiseptics in the management of chronic wounds and biofilm, focusing on povidone‐iodine (PVP‐I) in comparison with two commonly used antiseptics: polyhexanide (PHMB) and silver. This article is based on the literature reviewed during a focus group meeting on antiseptics in wound care and biofilm management, and on a PubMed search conducted in March 2020. Compared with PHMB and silver, PVP‐I has a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, potent antibiofilm efficacy, no acquired bacterial resistance or cross‐resistance, low cytotoxicity, good tolerability, and an ability to promote wound healing. PVP‐I represents a viable therapeutic option in wound care and biofilm management, with the potential to treat biofilm‐infiltrated, critically colonised wounds. We propose a practical algorithm to guide the management of chronic, non‐healing wounds due to critical colonisation or biofilm, using PVP‐I.

The sorptivity and durability of gelling fibre dressings tested in a simulated sacral pressure ulcer system

Abstract

Wound‐dressing performances are affected by exudate viscosity, resistance to flow because of gravity, and bodyweight loads, the level of which is related to the body position. Here, we focussed on two dressing properties: (a) Sorptivity—the ability of dressings to transfer exudate away from the wound bed by capillary action—and (b) Durability—the capacity of dressings to maintain their integrity over time and during their removal. Both properties are critically important for avoiding further tissue damage but require the development of new laboratory tests for their measurement. A computer‐controlled phantom of an exuding sacral pressure ulcer has therefore been developed and used to compare the performances of Exufiber (Mölnlycke Health Care) vs an alternative market‐leading dressing. Sorptivity was determined using weight tests, and durability was measured through tensile tests of the used dressings. For a supine configuration, the Exufiber dressing demonstrated ~three times higher sorptivity and better durability, withstanding ~five times greater strain energy than the other product before failure occurred. This work paves the way for quantitative, standardised testing of dressings in all aspects of exudate management. The reported tests are further suitable for testing dressing combinations or how dressings interact with negative pressure wound therapy.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress in human chronic wound healing: Rescue by 4‐phenylbutyrate

Abstract

During wound healing, cells have a high rate of protein synthesis and many proteins need to be folded post‐translationally to function, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition to proliferation, several cellular stress conditions, such as hypoxia, in the wound micro‐environment lead to the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER, causing ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a signalling system to manage ER stress called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mild UPR activation has a beneficial homeostatic effect; however, excessive UPR induces cell death. Herein, we examined venous leg ulcer biopsies versus normal acute incisional wounds in age‐matched elderly subjects and found a large increase in ER stress markers. To study the underlying mechanism, we established several cell cultures from amputated legs from the elderly that showed inherent ER stress. While both keratinocytes and fibroblasts migration was impaired by ER stress, migration of elderly leg skin keratinocytes was markedly improved after treatment with the chemical chaperone and clinically established drug 4‐phenylbutyrate (4‐PBA) and demonstrated a reduction in ER stress markers. In a full‐thickness human skin wound healing model, 4‐PBA improved the reepithelialisation rate, which suggests it as a promising drug repurposing candidate for wound healing.

There is an urgent need for evidence-based internationally agreed guidelines for minimising readmissions after paediatric sepsis

Por: Paul · S. P. · Walsh · H. R.

Commentary on: Carlton E, Kohne J, Shankar-Hari, et al. Readmission diagnoses after paediatric severe sepsis hospitalisation. Crit Care Med 2019;47:583–90.

Implications for practice and research

  • Children with coexisting comorbidities when discharged following severe sepsis have a higher rate of readmission as compared with matched hospitalisations for other acute medical conditions.

  • There is a need for internationally agreed evidence-based guidelines/consensus paper to minimise post-sepsis readmissions through identification of potentially preventable factors, appropriate discharge criteria and parental education.

  • More research is required into strategies towards prevention of readmissions following discharge after an episode of severe sepsis in children.

  • Context

    Sepsis is a leading cause of avoidable death across all age groups.1 Attempts have been made to streamline the management pathways in the UK and elsewhere through publication of national guidelines.1 While robust guidelines exist for management of initial sepsis episodes, strategies...

    Prevention of pressure injury in the operating room: Heels operating room pressure injury trial

    Abstract

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of multi‐layered silicone foam (intervention) compared with transparent polyurethane film (control) in preventing heel pressure injuries caused by surgical positioning of individuals undergoing elective surgery. It was designed an intra‐patient, open, parallel, randomised controlled trial was conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil, from March 2019 to February 2020, with patients undergoing elective surgeries of cardiac and gastrointestinal specialties. The patients who met the selection criteria constituted, simultaneously, a single group receiving the intervention and active control, through paired analysis of the cutaneous sites (right heel and left heel). The outcome was the occurrence of PI, within the follow‐up period was 72 hours. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR‐5GKNG5. There was analysis of 135 patients/270 heels, with an overall incidence of 36.7%. The pressure injury incidence was significantly lower in the intervention group (26.7%), compared with the control group (P = .001); relative risk of 0.57. In the intervention group, the estimated pressure injury‐free time (survival) was 57.5 hours and in the control group, 43.9 hours. It was concluded that Multi‐layered silicone foam (intervention) is more efficacious than transparent polyurethane film (control) in the prevention of pressure injuries caused by surgical positioning of individuals undergoing elective surgery.

    Update on the role of antiseptics in the management of chronic wounds with critical colonisation and/or biofilm

    Abstract

    Biofilms play a major role in delaying chronic wounds from healing. A wound infiltrated with biofilm, or “critically colonised” wound, may become clinically infected if the number of microbes exceeds a critical level. Chronic wound biofilms represent a significant treatment challenge by demonstrating recalcitrance towards antimicrobial agents. However, a “window of opportunity” may exist after wound debridement when biofilms are more susceptible to topical antiseptics. Here, we discuss the role of antiseptics in the management of chronic wounds and biofilm, focusing on povidone‐iodine (PVP‐I) in comparison with two commonly used antiseptics: polyhexanide (PHMB) and silver. This article is based on the literature reviewed during a focus group meeting on antiseptics in wound care and biofilm management, and on a PubMed search conducted in March 2020. Compared with PHMB and silver, PVP‐I has a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, potent antibiofilm efficacy, no acquired bacterial resistance or cross‐resistance, low cytotoxicity, good tolerability, and an ability to promote wound healing. PVP‐I represents a viable therapeutic option in wound care and biofilm management, with the potential to treat biofilm‐infiltrated, critically colonised wounds. We propose a practical algorithm to guide the management of chronic, non‐healing wounds due to critical colonisation or biofilm, using PVP‐I.

    The relationship between work‐life balance, the need for achievement, and intention to leave: Mixed‐method study

    Abstract

    Aims

    To examine the mediating role of employee well‐being on the relationship between work‐life balance practices, the need for achievement and intention to leave among nurses in Malaysia.

    Background

    Work‐life balance practices are associated with employee perceptions of the need for achievement and well‐being which subsequently influence their intention to leave the organization. This study contributes new knowledge to nursing studies on work‐life balance in an Asian and Islamic society where the expectations for women are to focus on family rather than career.

    Design

    A cross‐sectional, explanatory mixed methodology.

    Methods

    This is a two‐phase study conducted between 2015–2017 with 401 nurses in East Malaysia. In Phase 1, researchers surveyed 379 nurses to test eight hypotheses and in Phase 2 researchers interviewed 22 nurses to explore the results of Phase 1.

    Results

    Phase 1 revealed job satisfaction mediates the relationship between work‐life balance practices (e.g. flexibility and choice in working hours, supportive supervision), financial success, and intention to leave. However, life satisfaction and money as a motivator did not mediate such relationships. Phase 2 identified four important factors that cast light on survey results: working conditions of Malaysian nurses; inadequate compensation in the public healthcare sector; team‐based practices; and pressure on senior nurses in both administrative and clinical roles.

    Conclusion

    This is one of the first studies to investigate work‐life balance issues among nurses in Malaysia. Outcomes of this study extend the debates on work‐life balance and employee well‐being in an Asian Islamic social context.

    Impact

    The use of flexible working arrangements and collectivist teamwork approaches, improving compensation and employment benefits and eliminating the ‘time‐based job promotion’ policy may help to mitigate work‐life balance issues and intention to leave among nurses in Malaysia.

    Development and psychometric property testing of a skin tear knowledge assessment instrument (OASES) in 37 countries

    Abstract

    Aim

    To develop and psychometrically evaluate a skin tear knowledge assessment instrument (OASES).

    Design

    Prospective psychometric instrument validation study.

    Method

    The skin tear knowledge assessment instrument was developed based on a literature review and expert input (N = 19). Face and content validity were assessed in a two‐round Delphi procedure by 10 international experts affiliated with the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP). The instrument was psychometrically tested in a convenience sample of 387 nurses in 37 countries (April–May 2020). Validity of the multiple‐choice test items (item difficulty, discriminating index, quality of the response alternatives), construct validity, and test–retest reliability (stability) were analysed and evaluated in light of international reference standards.

    Results

    A 20‐item instrument, covering six knowledge domains most relevant to skin tears, was designed. Content validity was established (CVI = 0.90–1.00). Item difficulty varied between 0.24 and 0.94 and the quality of the response alternatives between 0.01–0.52. The discriminating index was acceptable (0.19–0.77). Participants with a theoretically expected higher knowledge level had a significantly higher total score than participants with theoretically expected lower knowledge (p < .001). The 1‐week test‐retest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.78–0.86) for the full instrument and varied between 0.72 (95% CI = 0.64–0.79) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.81–0.89) for the domains. Cohen's Kappa coefficients of the individual items ranged between 0.21 and 0.74.

    Conclusion

    The skin tear knowledge assessment instrument is supported by acceptable psychometric properties and can be applied in nursing education, research, and practice to assess knowledge of healthcare professionals about skin tears.

    Impact

    Prevention and treatment of skin tears are a challenge for healthcare professionals. The provision of adequate care is based on profound and up‐to‐date knowledge. None of the existing instruments to assess skin tear knowledge is psychometrically tested, nor up‐to‐date. OASES can be used worldwide to identify education, practice, and research needs and priorities related to skin tears in clinical practice.

    The sorptivity and durability of gelling fibre dressings tested in a simulated sacral pressure ulcer system

    Abstract

    Wound‐dressing performances are affected by exudate viscosity, resistance to flow because of gravity, and bodyweight loads, the level of which is related to the body position. Here, we focussed on two dressing properties: (a) Sorptivity—the ability of dressings to transfer exudate away from the wound bed by capillary action—and (b) Durability—the capacity of dressings to maintain their integrity over time and during their removal. Both properties are critically important for avoiding further tissue damage but require the development of new laboratory tests for their measurement. A computer‐controlled phantom of an exuding sacral pressure ulcer has therefore been developed and used to compare the performances of Exufiber (Mölnlycke Health Care) vs an alternative market‐leading dressing. Sorptivity was determined using weight tests, and durability was measured through tensile tests of the used dressings. For a supine configuration, the Exufiber dressing demonstrated ~three times higher sorptivity and better durability, withstanding ~five times greater strain energy than the other product before failure occurred. This work paves the way for quantitative, standardised testing of dressings in all aspects of exudate management. The reported tests are further suitable for testing dressing combinations or how dressings interact with negative pressure wound therapy.

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress in human chronic wound healing: Rescue by 4‐phenylbutyrate

    Abstract

    During wound healing, cells have a high rate of protein synthesis and many proteins need to be folded post‐translationally to function, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition to proliferation, several cellular stress conditions, such as hypoxia, in the wound micro‐environment lead to the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER, causing ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a signalling system to manage ER stress called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mild UPR activation has a beneficial homeostatic effect; however, excessive UPR induces cell death. Herein, we examined venous leg ulcer biopsies versus normal acute incisional wounds in age‐matched elderly subjects and found a large increase in ER stress markers. To study the underlying mechanism, we established several cell cultures from amputated legs from the elderly that showed inherent ER stress. While both keratinocytes and fibroblasts migration was impaired by ER stress, migration of elderly leg skin keratinocytes was markedly improved after treatment with the chemical chaperone and clinically established drug 4‐phenylbutyrate (4‐PBA) and demonstrated a reduction in ER stress markers. In a full‐thickness human skin wound healing model, 4‐PBA improved the reepithelialisation rate, which suggests it as a promising drug repurposing candidate for wound healing.

    Dose-dependent effects of necrostatin-1 supplementation to tissue culture media of young porcine islets

    by Hien Lau, Nicole Corrales, Samuel Rodriguez, Colleen Luong, Mohammadreza Mohammadi, Veria Khosrawipour, Shiri Li, Michael Alexander, Paul de Vos, Jonathan R. T. Lakey

    Previous studies have shown that necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) supplementation improved the viability of murine islets following exposure to nitric oxide, increased the survival of human islets during hypoxic culture, and augmented the maturation of pre-weaned porcine islets (PPIs) after 7 days of tissue culture. A limitation of these studies is that only one concentration of Nec-1 was used, and no studies have determined the optimal dose of Nec-1 for PPIs. Thus, the present study examined the effects of Nec-1 on PPIs at four different doses—0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM—after 7 days of tissue culture when supplemented on day 3. PPIs were isolated from pancreata of pre-weaned Yorkshire piglets (8–15 days old) and cultured in a specific islet maturation media added with Nec-1 on day 3 of tissue culture at 4 different doses—0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM (n = 6 for each dose). After 7 days of tissue culture, islets were assessed for recovery, viability, endocrine cellular content, GLUT2 expression in beta cells, and insulin secretion after glucose challenge. Nec-1 did not affect the viability of both intact islets and dissociated islets cells during tissue culture regardless of doses. Islets cultured in media supplemented with Nec-1 at 100 μM, but not 25, 50, or 200 μM, had a significantly higher recovery, composition of endocrine cells, GLUT2 expression in beta cells, and insulin secretion capacity than control islets cultured in media without Nec-1 supplementation. Moreover, culturing islets in 200 μM Nec-1 supplemented media not only failed to improve the insulin release but resulted in a lower glucose-induced insulin stimulation index compared to islets cultured in media added with 100 μM Nec-1. Xenotransplantation using porcine islets continues to demonstrate scientific advances to justify this area of research. Our findings indicate that Nec-1 supplementation at 100 μM was most effective to enhance the in vitro maturation of PPIs during tissue culture.

    Nurses’ knowledge, skills and personal attributes for competent health education practice: An instrument development and psychometric validation study

    Abstract

    Aim

    To develop and psychometrically test the Nurse Health Education Competence Instrument for assessing nurses’ knowledge, skills and personal attributes concerning competent health education practice.

    Design

    A psychometric instrument development and validation study.

    Methods

    A four‐step approach was used: Step 1) operational definition based on an up‐to‐date concept analysis and experts’ judgement; step 2) item generation and content validation by expert panel and target population; step 3) item analysis based on acceptability, internal consistency and face validity; and step 4) psychometric evaluation based on construct validity, criterion validity, internal consistency and stability, conducted from January ‐February 2019 with 458 hospital‐care nurses.

    Results

    The operational framework and expert groups showed good content validity, resulting in the first version. From the initial 88‐item pool, 58 items were retained after item analysis. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three scales concerning the cognitive (three‐factor solution with 23 items), psychomotor (two‐factor solution with 26 items) and affective‐attitudinal (one‐factor solution with nine items) competency domains, which respectively accounted for 58%, 53% and 54% of the variance. Known‐group study demonstrated significant differences by years working in the service and training received in health education, providing evidence for the measure's sensitivity. The three scales correlated positively with the criterion variable. Overall Cronbach alphas for the cognitive, psychomotor and affective‐attitudinal scales were 0.95, 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.70.

    Conclusions

    The newly developed Nurse Health Education Competence Instrument is an original and tested self‐reporting psychometric tool, being the first to identify nurses’ knowledge, skills and attributes necessary for planning and assessing health education practice competency.

    Impact

    The instrument permits measurable insights into nurses’ perceptions regarding their health education competence and related educational needs. This study provides a valid and specific learning tool that is appropriate to use both in clinical practice and in nursing education programmes.

    Assessment of serological techniques for screening patients for COVID-19 (COVID-SER): a prospective, multicentric study

    Por: Trouillet-Assant · S. · Albert Vega · C. · Bal · A. · Nazare · J. A. · Fascia · P. · Paul · A. · Massardier-Pilonchery · A. · d Aubarede · C. · Guibert · N. · Pitiot · V. · Lahousse · M. · Boibieux · A. · Makhloufi · D. · Simon · C. · Rabilloud · M. · Trabaud · M. A. · Gueyffier · F. · F
    Introduction

    The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 threatens global public health, and there is an urgent public health need to assess acquired immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests might provide results that can be complementary to or confirm suspected COVID-19 cases and reveal previous infection. The performance of serological assays (sensitivity and specificity) has to be evaluated before their use in the general population. The neutralisation capacity of the produced antibodies also has to be evaluated.

    Methods and analysis

    We set up a prospective, multicentric clinical study to evaluate the performance of serological kits among a population of healthcare workers presenting mild symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Four hundred symptomatic healthcare workers will be included in the COVID-SER study. The values obtained from a control cohort included during the prepandemic time will be used as reference. A workflow was set up to study serological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to evaluate antibody neutralisation capacity in patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests will be assessed using molecular detection of the virus as a reference. The measurement of IgM and IgG antibodies will be performed once per week for 6 consecutive weeks and then at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after the diagnosis. The kinetics of IgM and IgG will determine the optimal period to perform serological testing. The proportion of false negative PCR tests in symptomatic subjects will be determined on the basis of subsequent seroconversions.

    Ethics and dissemination

    Ethical approval has been obtained from the national review board for biomedical research in April 2020 (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée I, Marseille, France) (ID RCB 2020-A00932-37). Results will be disseminated through presentations at scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals.

    Trial registration number

    NCT04341142.

    Relationship Between Prescription and Documentation of Pressure Injury Prevention Interventions and Their Implementation: An Exploratory, Descriptive Study

    Abstract

    Background

    Formal assessment by nurses of a patient’s pressure injury (PI) risk level is often highlighted as being key to PI prevention. However, if no action is taken to address the determined risk (i.e., if appropriate preventative interventions are not implemented), the patient remains vulnerable to PI development, and the assessment process is rendered pointless.

    Aim

    To explore the relationship between the prescription (planning) and implementation of PI preventative interventions by nurses following formal risk assessment.

    Methods

    Using an exploratory, descriptive design, the charts and bedside areas of 200 adult patients admitted across four hospital wards were examined. Data collected included PI risk level, documented prescribed preventative interventions, and interventions for which there was evidence of implementation.

    Results

    Of the final sample (n = 187), 66.8% of cases were categorized as being “at‐risk” or above. As the risk category of patients increased, proportionately more patients in each category were prescribed each intervention. However, in most cases, significantly fewer interventions were actually implemented than were prescribed, except for several interventions that were implemented in more cases than were prescribed. There were 14 cases, including four at‐risk and three high‐risk patients, in which no preventative interventions were prescribed, while 88.7% of not at‐risk patients had (unnecessary) preventative interventions prescribed.

    Discussion

    These results indicate that intervention prescription increased relative to assessed level of risk; however, the rates of intervention prescription and actual implementation were suboptimal. The results indicate a significant mismatch between these two steps of PI prevention.

    Linking evidence to action

    These results indicate that intervention prescription increased relative to assessed level of risk; however, the rates of intervention prescription and actual implementation were suboptimal. A significant mismatch between these two steps of PI prevention was evident. Following patient risk assessment, there should be a greater focus on appropriate preventative intervention prescription (planning) with regular review and audit to help ensure that interventions are implemented as prescribed. Improved implementation of preventative interventions should, in turn, help to reduce hospital‐acquired pressure injuries.

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