by Sarah Al-Obaydi, Eileen Hennrikus, Nazar Mohammad, Erik B. Lehman, Abhishek Thakur, Taha Al-ShaikhlyBackground
Hesitancy and incomplete vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains an obstacle to achieving herd immunity. Because of fear of vaccine reactions, patients with medical and allergic co-morbidities express heightened hesitancy. Limited information is available to guide these patients. We sought to identify factors associated with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines hesitancy and reactogenicity.Methods
We surveyed employees of a multi-site health system in central Pennsylvania who were offered the COVID-19 vaccine (N = 18,740) inquiring about their experience with the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA-based vaccines. The survey was administered online using the REDCap platform. We used multivariable regression analysis to determine whether a particular factor(s) (e.g., demographics, selected co-morbid allergic and medical conditions, vaccine brand, and prior COVID-19) were associated with vaccine reactogenicity including the occurrence and severity of local and systemic reactions. We also explored factors and reasons associated with vaccine hesitancy.Results
Of the 5709 who completed the survey (response rate, 30.4%), 369 (6.5%) did not receive the vaccine. Black race and allergy to other vaccines were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Reaction intensity following the first vaccine dose and allergic co-morbidities were associated with incomplete vaccination. Older individuals (>60 years) experienced less reactogenicity. Females had higher odds of local and systemic reactions and reported more severe reactions. Asians reported more severe reactions. As compared to Pfizer-BioNTech, the Moderna vaccine was associated with higher odds of vaccine reactions of higher severity. Prior COVID-19 resulted in more severe reactions following the first dose, but less severe reactions following the second dose.Conclusions
Targeted campaigns to enhance vaccination acceptance should focus on Black individuals, females, and those with allergic co-morbidities. Prior COVID-19 caused more severe reactions after the first but not the second vaccine dose. Moderna vaccine caused more vaccine reactions. Lessons learned from the early rollout of COVID-19 vaccine may serve to inform future novel vaccine experiences.
by Courtney P. Williams, Gabrielle B. Rocque, Nicole E. Caston, Kathleen D. Gallagher, Rebekah S. M. Angove, Eric Anderson, Janet S. de Moor, Michael T. Halpern, Anaeze C. Offodile II, Risha GidwaniUninsured or underinsured individuals with cancer are likely to experience financial hardship, including forgoing healthcare or non-healthcare needs such as food, housing, or utilities. This study evaluates the association between health insurance coverage and financial hardship among cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional analysis used Patient Advocate Foundation (PAF) survey data from May to July 2020. Cancer survivors who previously received case management or financial aid from PAF self-reported challenges paying for healthcare and non-healthcare needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between insurance coverage and payment challenges were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, which allowed for estimation of adjusted relative risks (aRR). Of 1,437 respondents, 74% had annual household incomes
Identifying patients with a possible SARS-CoV-2 infection in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. Symptoms differ, incidence rates vary and test capacity may be limited. As PCR-testing all ED patients is neither feasible nor effective in most centres, a rapid, objective, low-cost early warning score to triage ED patients for a possible infection is developed.
Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands.
The study included patients presenting to the ED with venous blood sampling from July 2019 to July 2020 (n=10 417, 279 SARS-CoV-2-positive). The temporal validation cohort covered the period from July 2020 to October 2021 (n=14 080, 1093 SARS-CoV-2-positive). The external validation cohort consisted of patients presenting to the ED of three hospitals in the Netherlands (n=12 061, 652 SARS-CoV-2-positive).
The primary outcome was one or more positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results within 1 day prior to or 1 week after ED presentation.
The resulting ‘CoLab-score’ consists of 10 routine laboratory measurements and age. The score showed good discriminative ability (AUC: 0.930, 95% CI 0.909 to 0.945). The lowest CoLab-score had high sensitivity for COVID-19 (0.984, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.991; specificity: 0.411, 95% CI 0.285 to 0.520). Conversely, the highest score had high specificity (0.978, 95% CI 0.973 to 0.983; sensitivity: 0.608, 95% CI 0.522 to 0.685). The results were confirmed in temporal and external validation.
The CoLab-score is based on routine laboratory measurements and is available within 1 hour after presentation. Depending on the prevalence, COVID-19 may be safely ruled out in over one-third of ED presentations. Highly suspect cases can be identified regardless of presenting symptoms. The CoLab-score is continuous, in contrast to the binary outcome of lateral flow testing, and can guide PCR testing and triage ED patients.
To estimate the changes in costs associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions in New Zealand (NZ) public hospitals over a 12-year period.
A cost-burden study of ACS in NZ was conducted from the NZ healthcare system perspective.
Hospital admission costs were estimated using relevant diagnosis-related groups and their costs for publicly funded casemix hospitalisations, and applied to 190 364 patients with ACS admitted to NZ public hospitals between 2007 and 2018 identified from routine national hospital datasets. Trends in the costs of index ACS hospitalisation, hospital admissions costs, coronary revascularisation and all-cause mortality up to 1 year were evaluated. All costs were presented as 2019 NZ dollars.
Healthcare costs attributed to ACS admissions in NZ over time.
Between 2007 and 2018, there was a 42% decrease in costs attributed to ACS (NZ$7.7 million (M) to NZ$4.4 M per 100 000 per year), representing a decrease of NZ$298 827 per 100 000 population per year. Mean admission costs associated with each admission declined from NZ$18 411 in 2007 to NZ$16 898 over this period (p
The economic cost of hospitalisations for ACS in NZ decreased considerably over time. Further studies are warranted to explore the association between reductions in ACS cost burden and changes in the management of ACS.
To investigate factors that promote and prevent the use of compression therapy in people with venous leg ulcers.
Qualitative interview study with nurses using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF).
Three National Health Service Trusts in England.
Purposive sample of 15 nurses delivering wound care.
Nurses described factors which made provision of compression therapy challenging. Organisational barriers (TDF domains environmental context and resources/knowledge, skills/behavioural regulation) included heavy/increasing caseloads; lack of knowledge/skills and the provision of training; and prescribing issues (variations in bandaging systems/whether nurses could prescribe). Absence of specialist leg ulcer services to refer patients into was perceived as a barrier to providing optimal care by some community-based nurses. Compression use was perceived to be facilitated by clinics for timely initial assessment; continuity of staff and good liaison between vascular/leg ulcer clinics and community teams; clear local policies and care pathways; and opportunities for training such as ‘shadowing’ in vascular/leg ulcer clinics. Patient engagement barriers (TDF domains goals/beliefs about consequences) focused on getting patients ‘on board’ with compression, and supporting them in using it. Clear explanations were seen as key in promoting compression use.
Rising workload pressures present significant challenges to enhancing leg ulcer services. There may be opportunities to develop facilitated approaches to enable community nursing teams to make changes to practice, enhancing quality of patient care. The majority of venous leg ulcers could be managed in the community without referral to specialist community services if issues relating to workloads/skills/training are addressed. Barriers to promoting compression use could also be targeted, for example, through the development of clear patient information leaflets. While the patient engagement barriers may be easier/quicker to address than organisational barriers, unless organisational barriers are addressed it seems unlikely that all people who would benefit from compression therapy will receive it.
Telerehabilitation for individuals with vision impairment aims to maintain maximum physical and/or psychological functioning through remote service delivery. This review aims to describe the type of telerehabilitation services available to people with vision impairment and summarise evidence on health-related outcomes, well-being and cost-effectiveness.
CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsychINFO, Embase, PubMed, HMIC and Ovid Emcare were searched, without date restrictions up to 24 May 2021. Charity and government websites, conference proceedings and clinical trial databases were also examined.
Eligible studies evaluated benefits of telerehabilitation services for adults with vision impairment. Studies were excluded if they were not available in English, or focused on distance learning of visually impaired students.
Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. A risk of bias analysis was performed.
Measures of benefit included performance-based assessment, patient-reported outcomes and cost-effectiveness.
Of 4472 articles, 10 eligible studies were included. Outcomes addressed patient satisfaction (n=4;33.3%), quality-of-life, activities of daily living and well-being (n=4;33.3%), objective visual function (n=2;16.6%) and knowledge relating to ocular symptoms (n=1;8.3%). Two studies addressed multiple outcomes. Cost-effectiveness was addressed in one article (8.3%). Patients were generally satisfied with their experiences, which had a range of positive benefits on functional and quality-of-life outcomes in areas relating to daily activities (eg, reading, making phone calls). Telerehabilitation allowed patients to undertake vision optimisation training to prevent vision deterioration. Grey literature indicated that there are no completed clinical trials relating to low vision telerehabilitation. Charity services had implemented digital skills training to help beneficiaries communicate remotely.
While acceptability of telerehabilitation was mostly high, limited real-world data are available which raises questions around the long-term desirability of this approach. Further trials are needed to evaluate telerehabilitation using a robust set of outcome measures.
There is an increased demand for services for hospitalised older patients with acute medical conditions due to rapidly ageing population. The COMPrehensive geriatric AsseSSment and multidisciplinary team intervention for hospitalised older adults (COMPASS) study will test the effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and multidisciplinary intervention by comparing it with conventional care among acute hospitalised older adults in Korea.
A multicentre trial within a cohort comprising three substudies (randomised controlled trials) will be conducted. The intervention includes CGA and CGA-based multidisciplinary interventions by physicians (geriatricians, oncologists), nurses, nutritionists and pharmacists. The multidisciplinary intervention includes nutritional support, medication review and adjustment, rehabilitation, early discharge planning and prevention of geriatric syndromes (falls, delirium, pressure sore and urinary retention). The analysis will be based on an intention-to-treat principle. The primary outcome is living at home 3 months after discharge. In addition to assessing the economic effects of the intervention, a cost-utility analysis will be conducted.
The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and each study site. The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Subgroup and further in-depth analyses will subsequently be published.
This study aimed to understand the perceptions and experiences of sexual violence among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong.
The study adopted a qualitative descriptive design with thematic analysis.
Thirty-one Chinese MSM were recruited in Hong Kong from May to June 2019 using purposive sampling. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The interview data were transcribed verbatim from the recordings and analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis approach.
Four themes were identified: (1) different forms of sexual violence, from physical to virtual; (2) inner struggles with fears and worry; (3) low awareness and perceived risk of sexual violence – ‘it has nothing to do with me’ and (4) dilemma towards sexual violence prevention.
The study provided qualitative evidence regarding the experiences and perceptions of sexual violence among Chinese MSM in Hong Kong. Physical and image-based forms of sexual violence were identified, which led the participants to experience psychological distress, fear of contracting human immunodeficiency virus/other sexually transmitted infections, notoriety within the gay community, and discrimination and stigmatization within their family and workplace. To reduce the risk of sexual violence, some participants were cautious about the venue in which they engaged in sex and the habit of sharing sexually explicit photos with others. However, some participants had low awareness and perceived risk of sexual violence.
This study was the first to fill the research gap on sexual violence issues among Chinese MSM using dating apps in Hong Kong. The qualitative findings enhanced the scholarly understanding of Chinese MSM's perceptions and experiences of sexual violence. The study findings can help nursing staff and other healthcare professionals to develop tailored primary, secondary and tertiary sexual violence prevention programmes for MSM or beyond.
This commentary elucidates the challenges for nurses in effectively identifying and supporting gay and bisexual men who experience intimate partner violence and offers guidance for education, training and practice to nurses when responding to patients who may be experiencing intimate partner violence.
The commentary highlights issues raised by Callan et al.’s (2020) scoping review, translating the experiences of male sexual minorities undergoing abuse to a nursing context, in particular, issues such as homophobic remarks and heteronormative practices in health care and nursing-led environments militate against the identification of individuals who may be experiencing coerced sexual risk-taking, homophobia and sexual orientation outing.
Intimate partner violence is a widespread issue that permeates across heterosexual and LGBTQ+ communities, while impressing on the everyday realities of nurses. The potential for discrimination against sexual minority patients may be offset by improving training, education and offering recommendations for nurses in how to identify IPV and how to assess risk.
Nurses possess essential training and transferable skills such as empathy, adaptability, active listening and diplomacy and are ideally placed to facilitate disclosure of intimate partner violence. Gaps in knowledge, training and organizational support for nurses may be effectively addressed through drawing on extant research and international best practice guidelines.
Suggestions for research, education and practice to identify gay and bisexual male survivors, intervene appropriately and avoid missed disclosure opportunities are made. We conclude with a table of recommendations with a view to enhancing the essential response of nurses in addressing intimate partner violence in marginalized communities.
To demonstrate how implementing a system-wide measurement and improvement programme can make the delivery of the Fundamentals of Care visible in practice.
A retrospective evaluation of the experience of implementing a system-wide peer review programme using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework.
Implementing this programme engages nursing leaders at all levels in fundamental care delivery, evaluation and improvement. It positions nursing leaders as accountable for and champions of fundamental care.
The peer review programme offers a solution to the complex challenge of measuring the fundamentals of care in practice. Successful implementations of this programme at two New Zealand inpatient sites have shown positive results in improved care and patient experience. This makes it worthy of consideration for other health organizations. Nursing leadership has proven to be critical to success. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework highlights the components that assist with successful implementation and assists in presenting a case for change.
This paper addressed the problem of the lack of action and dearth of quality, integrated data, visibility of the patient experience and the contribution of nursing leadership in an inpatient setting. Findings indicate that the peer review programme is translatable, modifiable and sensitive to ethnicity and disability. Using the implementation framework to evaluate the process has provided a guide for future implementations.
Fundamentals of care are particularly important for older people in acute inpatient settings, who are at increased risk of serious hospital-associated complications like delirium and functional decline. These complications occur due to interactions between clinical complexity and the complex processes and context of hospital care and can be reduced by consistent attention to the fundamentals of care. This paper aims to illustrate of how multi-level nursing leadership of fundamentals of care can be supported to emerge within complex multidisciplinary delivery systems in acute care.
Discussion paper informed by clinical and organizational experience of a multidisciplinary leadership team and complexity leadership theory.
We provide a series of vignettes as practical illustrations of a successful multidisciplinary improvement program called Eat Walk Engage which supports the delivery of better care for older inpatients, significantly reducing delirium. We argue that taking a broader complexity-based approach including collaborative multidisciplinary engagement, iterative and integrated interventions and appropriate knowledge translation frameworks can enable emergent leadership by nurses at all levels.
This promising approach to improving care for older patients requires organizational support for facilitation and reflective practice, and for meaningful data to support change. Our discussion challenges nursing leaders to support the time, agency and connections their nursing staff need in order to emerge as local leaders in fundamental care.
The debate around scope and responsibilities for fundamentals of care in hospital care has important practical implications for conceptualizing leadership and accountability for improvement.
Our discussion illustrates how a structured multidisciplinary approach that acknowledges and navigates complexity can empower nurses to lead and improve outcomes of older patients in acute care.
To develop and test a predictive model of self-management based on the theory of the information–motivation–behavioural skills model and previous literature on self-management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used.
A convenience sample recruited 248 patients with COPD from the pulmonary medicine clinic in South Korea between July 2020 and June 2021. We used self-administrated, structured questionnaires for dyspnoea, health status, knowledge, attitude, social support, self-efficacy and self-management. Data were analysed using path analysis to test a self-management model for patients with COPD.
Gender, COPD self-management knowledge, social support and COPD self-efficacy had a direct effect on COPD self-management. Dyspnoea, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage, health status, COPD self-management attitude and social support had an indirect effect on self-management in patients with COPD. These variables explained 43.2% of the total variance for self-management in patients with COPD.
When assessing self-management of COPD; demographic and clinical factors, knowledge, attitudes, social support and self-efficacy included in the information–motivation–behavioural skills model should be considered together.
Disparities faced by individuals experiencing homelessness pose significant threats to the health and wellbeing of communities. Survivors of intimate partner violence are at heightened risk, with over 80% experiencing homelessness at some point in time. The intersection of homelessness and survivorship creates numerous barriers to care including safety concerns, stable housing, employment and childcare needs. The establishment of community institutional partnerships offers an opportunity to provide healthcare in transitional housing settings.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the need for community institutional partnerships in addressing the health needs of intimate partner violence survivors and provide a working example of an existing partnership.
A critical literature review of the literature was conducted. Multiple databases were searched to identify articles relating to health services, community institutional partnerships, intimate partner violence and sheltered housing. Articles were reviewed using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Quality Guide.
Three types of partnerships that can be leveraged to address the needs of individuals experiencing homelessness were identified: academic-community, hospital-community, and large-scale partnerships. Only one article was identified that focused on the health needs of survivors experiencing homelessness, pointing to the need for implementation of more community institutional partnerships to address the unique needs of homeless intimate partner violence survivors. We highlighted a current successful community institutional partnership that addresses the health needs of survivors living in an emergency shelter.
Addressing the complex needs of this population is imperative to dismantle health inequities and structural barriers to healthcare. Holistic, nurse-led approaches to care are essential to address the health of intimate partner violence survivors experiencing homelessness. The example of a successful community institutional partnership provides a framework for delivering a wide range of healthcare services. Future nursing research is needed to evaluate programmes and provide foundational support for increased funding.
This paper focuses on the benefits of inclusive leadership when undertaking a priority setting partnership in community nursing, through providing a collaborative and committed nurse-led forum for initiating impactful changes, identifying evidence uncertainties and driving research capacity-building initiatives.
This is a Discussion paper. The project was undertaken between 2020 and 2021.
This paper is based on shared reflections as 70@70 Senior Nurse Research Leaders and is supported by literature and theory. It draws on issues relating to collective leadership, stakeholder engagement, diversity, inclusivity and COVID-19.
The James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership catalysed the development of a rigorous evidence-base in community nursing. The collaborative opportunities, networks and connections developed with patients, carers, nursing leaders, policy makers and healthcare colleagues raised the profile of community nursing research. This will benefit nursing research, practice, education and patients in receipt of community nursing care. Collective buy in from national leaders in policy, education, funding and commissioning has secured a commitment that the evidence uncertainties will be funded.
Four key learnings emerged: collective leadership can ensure learning is embedded and sustained; developing an engaged stakeholder community to promote community nursing research is essential; a diverse membership ensures inclusivity and representation; and insights into the impact of COVID-19 aid progress. The process increased research engagement and created capacity and capability-building initiatives. This will help community nurses feel empowered to lead changes to practice. Sustained engagement and commitment are required to integrate research priorities into community nursing research, education and practice and to drive forward changes to commissioning and service delivery.
The study promoted research capacity building through inclusive leadership. This can increase community nurses' research engagement and career development and patient care quality and safety; this can incentivize funders and policy makers to prioritize community nursing research.
Telehealth-assisted interventions have been used as secondary prevention measures in cardiac rehabilitation, especially for the delivery of information between healthcare service providers and patients. However, as the application of this intervention modality broadens, investigation of its effects in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is necessary.
To identify the effectiveness of telehealth-assisted interventions for secondary prevention of CVD.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The full text of articles was obtained from six databases for the period from database establishment to 25 November 2021. To assess the methodological quality of the studies reviewed, the updated Cochrane risk-of-bias checklist for randomised trials was employed. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate the pooled effects of telehealth-assisted interventions for secondary CVD prevention.
The final analysis included 4012 individuals from 18 different trials. Telehealth-assisted interventions were shown to improve medication adherence (standardised mean difference [SMD]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33–0.59) and reduce depression (SMD: −0.28; 95% CI: −0.46 to −0.10).
Telehealth-assisted interventions appear to improve adherence to medication and reduce depression of individuals with CVD. These intervention strategies could be offered to both healthcare providers and individuals with CVD as an option in delivering and facilitating the use of health services to improve health behaviours and overall outcomes. Furthermore, this study may be used as guidance for future research to provide an appropriate plan of care for this population.
The findings imply that the delivery of care remotely via telehealth-assisted interventions for secondary prevention of CVD is beneficial in improving CVD survivors' health and access to healthcare services.
The International Prospective Register of Systematic Review: (PROSPERO): CRD 42021290111.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes various complications over time, one such complication is diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), which are challenging to treat and can lead to amputation. Additionally, a system for accurate prediction of amputation has yet to be developed. In total, 131 patients were included in the study after retrospectively collecting data from 2016 to 2020 about DFU. The collected data were used for comparison of the accuracy between five existing classification systems and the newly revised DIRECT coding system, and investigation of risk factors for lower extremity amputation (LEA). The existing five classification systems and DIRECT system can effectively predict LEA. The DIRECT3 system has three elements, C-reactive protein (CRP), ulcer history (UH), and hypertension (HTN) in addition to those of the DIRECT system. It had a high predictive value and accuracy similar to that of Wagner and University of Texas (UT) on depth among the five classification systems. Among the statistically significant risk factors, duration of DM and HTN, haemoglobin (Hb), CRP, and UH showed an association with LEA. The DIRECT coding system is effective for predicting LEA and explaining appropriate treatment methods for DFU, and is widely applicable because of its user accessibility and convenience.
Cigarette smoking is associated with surgical complications, including wound healing and surgical site infection. However, the association between smoking status and postoperative wound complications is not completely understood. Our objective was to investigate the effect of smoking on postoperative wound complications for major surgeries. Data were collected from the 2013 to 2018 participant use files of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. A propensity score matching procedure was used to create the balanced smoker and nonsmoker groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for postoperative wound complications, pulmonary complications, and in-hospital mortality associated with smokers. A total of 1 156 002 patients (578 001 smokers and 578 001 nonsmokers) were included in the propensity score matching analysis. Smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of postoperative wound disruption (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.56-1.75), surgical site infection (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.28-1.34), reintubation (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54), and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19) compared with nonsmoking. The length of hospital stay was significantly increased in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Our analysis indicates that smoking is associated with an increased risk of surgical site infection, wound disruption, and postoperative pulmonary complications. The results may drive the clinicians to encourage patients to quit smoking before surgery.
To evaluate nurse-led nonpharmacological interventions for improving cognition in people with dementia.
Starting in 2006, donepezil was administered worldwide to improve cognition; however, its side effects limited its therapeutic value for long-term use, prompting a need for nonpharmacological interventions to improve cognition. Nurse-led nonpharmacological interventions are especially important because they are effective in terms of resources and costs, reduce patient latency and improve patient safety and satisfaction.
A systematic review was identified by searching 10 electronic databases. The search period was between 1 January 2007, and 30 September 2021. Languages were limited to English and Korean. The inclusion criteria were studies of nurse-led interventions that evaluated cognition using validated instruments. The exclusion criteria were qualitative research, scale development studies, abstracts and grey literature. Quality appraisal of research was conducted using the Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies of Interventions for quasi-experimental studies and the Risk of Bias 2.0 for randomised controlled studies. This study was conducted in accordance with PRISMA reporting guideline (Appendix S1). The search protocol was registered in the PROSPERO (CRD 42021229358).
A total of 24 studies were included in the systematic review, and 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis included 8 RCT and 7 quasi-experimental studies. The studies (11 quasi-experimental studies and 9 randomised controlled studies) demonstrated low to moderate quality of evidence for improving the cognition of people with dementia. The meta-analysis showed that nurse-led single nonpharmacological interventions more effectively improved cognition than complex interventions in people with dementia.
Nurse-led nonpharmacological interventions were effective for improving cognition in people with dementia.
Nurses are qualified professionals with expertise in providing nonpharmacological interventions to improve cognition in people with dementia. Nurse-led nonpharmacological interventions for this purpose should be developed in future research.
The use of Clinical Data Warehouse (CDW) for research and quality improvement has become more frequent in the last 10 years. In this study, we used CDW to determine the effectiveness of pressure ulcer interventions offered by ward nurses and wound care nursing specialists. A retrospective clinical outcomes study that utilise CDW has been carried out. We identified 1415 patients who were evaluated as pressure ulcer risk group from 1 July 2019 to 31 December 2019. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to estimate the time to occurrence of pressure ulcers. We compared the survival curves of each group by applying the log-rank test for significance. The overall median time to occurrence for both groups was 13 days (95% CI range: 11-14 days). The control group showed a longer median time (14 days) to occurrence than the case group (12 days). In the pressure ulcer stage I, the case group showed a longer median time (14 days) to occurrence than the control group (8 days), indicating that the intervention provided by the wound care nursing specialist was effective in stage I, and delayed the occurrence of pressure ulcers. The findings may be used as preliminary data for the utilisation of the CDW in the field of nursing research in the future. Also, facilitating the accessibility of the wound care nursing specialist in the general wards should be effective to decrease the incidence rates.
Plastic surgeons commonly encounter patients with facial lacerations and/or abrasions in the emergency room. If they are properly treated, facial wounds generally heal well without complications. However, infection can sometimes cause delayed wound healing. We performed wound culture for the early detection of infection and to promote the healing of infected facial wounds. We included 5033 patients with facial wounds who visited the emergency room of Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital between January 2018 and February 2021. Among them, 104 patients underwent wound culture. We analysed the pathogens isolated and the patients' age, sex, wound site, mechanism of injury, wound healing time, time from injury to culture, time to culture results, and dressing methods used. Pathogens were isolated in slightly less than half of the patients (38.46%); among them, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common (47.5%). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in six (15%) patients. Patients with complicated wounds had a longer mean wound healing time (10.83 ± 5.91 days) than those with non-complicated wounds (6.06 ± 1.68 days). Wound culture of complicated facial wounds resulted in the isolation of various types of pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi. We recommend the use of wound culture for early detection of infection to prevent delayed wound healing.