To determine feasibility, in terms of acceptability and system fidelity, of continuous vital signs monitoring in abdominal surgery patients on a general ward.
Observational cohort study.
Tertiary teaching hospital.
Postoperative abdominal surgical patients (n=30) and nurses (n=23).
Patients were continuously monitored with the SensiumVitals wearable device until discharge in addition to usual care, which is intermittent Modified Early Warning Score measurements. Heart rate, respiratory rate and axillary temperature were monitored every 2 min. Values and trends were visualised and alerts sent to the nurses.
System fidelity was measured by analysis of the monitoring data. Acceptability by patients and nurses was assessed using questionnaires.
Thirty patients were monitored for a median duration of 81 hours (IQR 47–143) per patient, resulting in 115 217 measurements per parameter. In total, 19% (n=21 311) of heart rate, 51% (n=59 184) of respiratory rate and 9% of temperature measurements showed artefacts (n=10 269). The system algorithm sent 972 alerts (median alert rate of 4.5 per patient per day), of which 90.3% (n=878) were system alerts and 9.7% (n=94) were vital sign alerts. 35% (n=33) of vital sign alerts were true positives. 93% (n=25) of patients rated the patch as comfortable, 67% (n=18) felt safer and 89% (n=24) would like to wear it next time in the hospital. Nurses were neutral about usefulness, with a median score of 3.5 (IQR 3.1–4) on a 7-point Likert scale, ease of use 3.7 (IQR 3.2–4.8) and satisfaction 3.7 (IQR 3.2–4.8), but agreed on ease of learning at 5.0 (IQR 4.0–5.8). Neutral scores were mostly related to the perceived limited fidelity of the system.
Continuous monitoring of vital signs with a wearable device was well accepted by patients. Nurses’ ratings were highly variable, resulting in on average neutral attitude towards remote monitoring. Our results suggest it is feasible to monitor vital signs continuously on general wards, although acceptability of the device among nurses needs further improvement.
To examine non-communicable diseases (NCDs) multimorbidity level and its relation to households’ socioeconomic characteristics, health service use, catastrophic health expenditures and productivity loss.
This study used panel data of the Indonesian Family Life Survey conducted in 2007 (Wave 4) and 2014 (Wave 5).
The original sampling frame was based on 13 out of 27 provinces in 1993, representing 83% of the Indonesian population.
We included respondents aged 50 years and above in 2007, excluding those who did not participate in both Waves 4 and 5. The total number of participants in this study are 3678 respondents.
We examined three main outcomes; health service use (outpatient and inpatient care), financial burden (catastrophic health expenditure) and productivity loss (labour participation, days primary activity missed, days confined in bed). We applied multilevel mixed-effects regression models to assess the associations between NCD multimorbidity and outcome variables,
Women were more likely to have NCD multimorbidity than men and the prevalence of NCD multimorbidity increased with higher socioeconomic status. NCD multimorbidity was associated with a higher number of outpatient visits (compared with those without NCD, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95% CI 3.33 to 5.42 for individuals with >3 NCDs) and inpatient visits (IRR 3.68, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.12 for individuals with >3 NCDs). NCD multimorbidity was also associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure (for >3 NCDs, adjusted OR (aOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.81) and lower participation in the labour force (aOR 0.23, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.33) compared with no NCD.
NCD multimorbidity is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to individuals, households and the wider society. Our study highlights the importance of preparing health systems for addressing the burden of multimorbidity in low-income and middle-income countries.
Vaccine-specific immune responses vary between populations and are often impaired in low income, rural settings. Drivers of these differences are not fully elucidated, hampering identification of strategies for optimising vaccine effectiveness. We hypothesise that urban–rural (and regional and international) differences in vaccine responses are mediated to an important extent by differential exposure to chronic infections, particularly parasitic infections.
Three related trials sharing core elements of study design and procedures (allowing comparison of outcomes across the trials) will test the effects of (1) individually randomised intervention against schistosomiasis (trial A) and malaria (trial B), and (2) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) revaccination (trial C), on a common set of vaccine responses. We will enrol adolescents from Ugandan schools in rural high-schistosomiasis (trial A) and rural high-malaria (trial B) settings and from an established urban birth cohort (trial C). All participants will receive BCG on day ‘0’; yellow fever, oral typhoid and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines at week 4; and HPV and tetanus/diphtheria booster vaccine at week 28. Primary outcomes are BCG-specific IFN- responses (8 weeks after BCG) and for other vaccines, antibody responses to key vaccine antigens at 4 weeks after immunisation. Secondary analyses will determine effects of interventions on correlates of protective immunity, vaccine response waning, priming versus boosting immunisations, and parasite infection status and intensity. Overarching analyses will compare outcomes between the three trial settings. Sample archives will offer opportunities for exploratory evaluation of the role of immunological and ‘trans-kingdom’ mediators in parasite modulation of vaccine-specific responses.
Ethics approval has been obtained from relevant Ugandan and UK ethics committees. Results will be shared with Uganda Ministry of Health, relevant district councils, community leaders and study participants. Further dissemination will be done through conference proceedings and publications.
Animal‐assisted therapy (AAT) can ameliorate diverse health problems in older adults. However, applications of AAT have been limited because of the lack of intervention guidelines for older adults.
This study aimed to explore applications of AAT to older adults, analyze its health effects, and provide evidence for future interventions.
A systematic review and meta‐analysis were conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses checklist. Data were analyzed based on both a narrative synthesis and a meta‐analysis specifically for depression.
A total of 47 studies were selected for analysis. About 45% focused on older adults with diseases such as dementia, and 57.4% selected dog(s) as an intervention animal. About 34.0% delivered interventions once a week, and the behavioral outcome domain was the most frequently investigated. The meta‐analysis showed that the effect sizes of the AAT group were −1.310 (95% CI [−1.900, −.721]).
This review provides evidence for AAT as an intervention in the physiological, psychosocial, cognitive, and behavioral domains of older adults. When planning interventions for older adults, nurses should consider intended health outcomes, appropriate therapeutic animals, and the consequent intervention contents.
Many young women suffer from sexual violence, but few practice self‐healing activities.
This study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effects of a mobile virtual intervention, Sister, I will tell you!©, to heal young women after sexual violence in South Korea.
A mobile virtual intervention, Sister, I will tell you!©, was developed based on a literature review and preliminary studies. In collaboration with sexual violence survivors and experts, eight modules for reflective writing and six modules for mindfulness meditation were included in this 4‐week mobile virtual intervention. Thirty‐four female sexual violence survivors were randomly assigned to either experimental (n = 19) or control groups (n = 15). The experimental group practiced reflective writing and mindfulness meditation, guided by the mobile virtual intervention. The control group practiced audio‐guided mindfulness meditation. Pretest, posttest, and post‐4‐week evaluations with standardized instruments measured perceived support, negative impact from sexual violence, and suicidal ideation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze survey data and content analysis to analyze reflective writing.
Among 34 enrolled participants, 26 completed the 4‐week intervention and posttest evaluations; 24 completed post‐4‐week evaluations. Significant improvements were found among participants in the areas of perceived support, negative impact from sexual violence, and suicidal ideation. The effect size of the intervention was moderate. Four themes that emerged from reflective writings were objectifying sexual violence, healing beginning with action, confronting issues, and sharing experiences.
The intervention showed potential for initiating young women’s engagement in healing from sexual violence. A simple mobile audio intervention without human interaction could benefit sexual violence survivors.
Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence‐based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses’ use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses’ EBP attitudes, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners’ satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention.
A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self‐directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses’ EBP attitudes, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education.
Thirty‐five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p < .05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self‐efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6‐month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self‐efficacy than the control group. At the 12‐month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions.
The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses’ EBP attitudes, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self‐efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
Prevention of falls and fall-related injuries is a priority due to the substantial health and financial burden of falls on patients and healthcare systems. Deprescribing medications known as ‘fall-risk increasing drugs’ (FRIDs) is a common strategy to prevent falls. We conducted a systematic review to determine its efficacy for the prevention of falls and fall-related complications.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and grey literature from inception to 1 August 2020.
Randomised controlled trials of FRID withdrawal compared with usual care evaluating the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalisations or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged ≥65 years.
Two reviewers independently performed citation screening, data abstraction, risk of bias assessment and certainty of evidence grading. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses.
Five trials involving 1305 participants met eligibility criteria. Deprescribing FRIDs did not change the rate of falls (rate ratio (RaR) 0.98, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.51), the incidence of falls (risk difference 0.01, 95% CI –0.06 to 0.09; relative risk 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.26) or rate of fall-related injuries (RaR 0.89, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.39) over a follow-up period of 6–12 months. No trials evaluated the impact of deprescribing FRIDs on fall-related fractures or hospitalisations.
There is a paucity of robust high-quality evidence to support or refute that a FRID deprescribing strategy alone is effective at preventing falls or fall-related injury in older adults. Although there may be other reasons to deprescribe FRIDs, our systematic review found that it may result in little to no difference in the rate or risk of falls as a sole falls reduction strategy.
The optimal treatment for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections has yet to be defined. Retrospective studies have shown conflicting results, with most data suggesting the non-inferiority of beta-lactam–beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations compared with carbapenems. However, the recently published MERINO trial failed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of piperacillin–tazobactam to meropenem. The potential implications of the MERINO trial are profound, as widespread adoption of carbapenem treatment will have detrimental effects on antimicrobial stewardship in areas endemic for ESBL and carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we believe that it is justified to re-examine the comparison in a second randomised controlled trial prior to changing clinical practice.
PeterPen is a multicentre, investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, comparing piperacillin–tazobactam with meropenem for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella bloodstream infections. The study is currently being conducted in six centres in Israel and one in Canada with other centres from Israel, Italy and Canada expected to join. The two primary outcomes are all-cause mortality at day 30 from enrolment and treatment failure at day seven (death, fever above 38°C in the last 48 hours, continuous symptoms, increasing Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score or persistent blood cultures with the index pathogen). A sample size of 1084 patients was calculated for the mortality endpoint assuming a 12.5% mortality rate in the control group with a 5% non-inferiority margin and assuming 100% follow-up for this outcome.
The study is approved by local and national ethics committees as required. Results will be published, and trial data will be made available.
ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03671967); Israeli Ministry of Health Trials Registry (MOH_2018-12-25_004857).
Dementia prevalence continues to increase, and effective interventions are needed to prevent, delay or slow its progression. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and increased physical activity (PA) have been proposed as strategies to facilitate healthy brain ageing and reduce dementia risk. However, to date, there have been no dementia prevention trials in the UK focussed on combined dietary and PA interventions. This study aims to: (1) assess feasibility and acceptability of a theory-underpinned digital and group-based intervention for dementia risk reduction in an ‘at risk’ UK cohort; (2) evaluate behaviour change responses to the intervention; and, (3) provide information on cognitive, neurological, vascular and physiological outcomes to inform the design of a follow-on, full-scale efficacy trial.
One hundred and eight participants aged 55 to 74 years with a QRISK2 score of ≥10% will be recruited to take part in this 24-week multi-site study. Participants will be randomised into three parallel arms: (1) Control; (2) MedDiet; and, (3) MedDiet+PA. The study will evaluate a personalised website, group session and food delivery intervention to increase MedDiet adherence and PA in older adults at risk of dementia. Diet and PA will be monitored prior to, during and following the intervention. Feasibility, acceptability and hypothesised mediators will be assessed in addition to measures of cognitive function, brain structure/perfusion (MRI), vascular function and metabolic markers (blood, urine and faecal) prior to, and following, the intervention.
This trial will provide insights into the feasibility, acceptability and mechanism of effect of a multi-domain intervention focussed on the MedDiet alone and PA for dementia risk reduction in an ‘at risk’ UK cohort.
The study has received NHS REC and HRA approval (18/NI/0191). Findings will be disseminated via conference presentations, public lectures, and peer-reviewed publications.
To mitigate the burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system, information on the prognosis of the disease is needed. The recently developed Risk Stratification in the Emergency Department in Acutely ill Older Patients (RISE UP) score has very good discriminatory value for short-term mortality in older patients in the emergency department (ED). It consists of six readily available items. We hypothesised that the RISE UP score could have discriminatory value for 30-day mortality in ED patients with COVID-19.
Two EDs of the Zuyderland Medical Centre, secondary care hospital in the Netherlands.
The study sample consisted of 642 adult ED patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 3 March and until 25 May 2020. Inclusion criteria were (1) admission to the hospital with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and (2) positive result of the PCR or (very) high suspicion of COVID-19 according to the chest CT scan.
Primary outcome was 30-day mortality, secondary outcome was a composite of 30-day mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU).
Within 30 days after presentation, 167 patients (26.0%) died and 102 patients (15.9%) were admitted to ICU. The RISE UP score showed good discriminatory value for 30-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.77, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.81) and for the composite outcome (AUC 0.72, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.76). Patients with RISE UP scores below 10% (n=121) had favourable outcome (zero deaths and six ICU admissions), while those with scores above 30% (n=221) were at high risk of adverse outcome (46.6% mortality and 19.0% ICU admissions).
The RISE UP score is an accurate prognostic model for adverse outcome in ED patients with COVID-19. It can be used to identify patients at risk of short-term adverse outcome and may help guide decision-making and allocating healthcare resources.
This study examined the mediating effects of anger expression in the relationship between work stress and burnout among nurses with more than or less than 3 years of career experience.
A cross‐sectional study was conducted with 454 nurses working at three university hospitals in South Korea. Nurses completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Work Stress Scale, and the Korean version of the Anger Expression Inventory. A multiple‐group mediation analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. Results: In total (N = 454), work stress directly affected burnout, and all anger expressions indirectly affected the relationship of work stress with burnout. Different mediating effects of anger expression style according to career experience were shown; anger‐out and anger‐in in nurses with less experience (n = 184) and only anger‐in in those with more experience (n = 270) partially mediated the relationship of work stress with burnout.
The indirect effect of anger‐in style was higher than other anger expression styles in all nurses; suppression of anger caused by work stress can increase burnout. Anger‐out played a functional role in the relationship of work stress with burnout among nurses who had less career experience. Therefore, to reduce burnout, creating a work environment with collaborative culture including authentic leadership and providing anger management programs will help to manage nurses’ anger properly. For new nurses, promoting work and life balance, and creating a culturally empowering work environment to help them use anger‐out expression constructively, are important to reduce burnout.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen causing hospital‐acquired infections in human beings. Samples from suspected patients of K pneumoniae associated with respiratory and urinary tract infections were collected at Bolan Medical Complex, Quetta, Balochistan. Clinical samples (n = 107) of urine and sputum were collected and processed for K pneumoniae isolation using selective culture media. Initially, 30 of 107 isolates resembling Klebsiella spp. were processed for biochemical profiling and molecular detection using gyrase A (gyrA) gene for conformation. The K pneumoniae isolates were analysed for the presence of drug resistance and virulence genes in their genomes. The 21 of 107 (19.6%) isolates were finally confirmed as K pneumoniae pathogens. An antibiogram study conducted against 17 different antibiotics showed that a majority of the isolates are multidrug resistant. All the isolates (100%) were resistant to amoxicillin, cefixime, amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone followed by tetracycline (95.2%), ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (76.2%), sulphamethoxazol (66.7%), nalidixic acid (61.9%), norfloxacine (42.9%), piperacillin‐tazobactam (23.8%), cefoperazone‐sulbactam (19%), and cefotaxime‐clavulanic acid (33.3%), whereas all the isolates showed sensitivity to amikacin, chloramphenicol, and imipenem. The presence of tetracycline, sulphamethoxazol‐resistant genes, and extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase was reconfirmed using different specific genes. The presence of virulence genes fimH1 and EntB responsible for adherence and enterobactin production was confirmed in the isolates. The high virulence and drug resistance potential of these Klebsiella isolates are of high public health concern. Multidrug resistance and virulence potential in K. pneumoniae are converting these nosocomial pathogens into superbugs and making its management harder.
There is a paucity of quantitative measures of microvascular perfusion values in the skin. Newly developed, handheld hyperspectral imaging devices identify unique spectral fingerprints of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the superficial microvasculature. Establishing value ranges for healthy patients without vascular complications will subsequently help standardise assessments for perfusion defects. In particular, diabetics who are prone to vascular calcifications and lower extremity wounds may benefit. A total of 73 subjects were enrolled in the study and split in two cohorts: 36 ‘non‐diabetic’ non‐vascularly compromised patients and 37 ‘diabetic’ patients with a formal diagnosis of diabetes but without history of pedal ulceration. Values of oxygenated haemoglobin (HT‐Oxy) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (HT‐DeOxy) from both devices are analysed.
Ischaemic diabetic heel ulcers are difficult to treat and prognosis is often guarded. The aim was to document our outcome of treating heel ulcers following revascularization in a predominantly diabetic Asian cohort presenting with chronic limb threatening ischaemia from Singapore. Retrospective cohort study (n = 66, 66 limbs) over a 5‐year period. Data were collected from hospital electronic health records. Outcomes included time to healing, amputation free survival (AFS), and mortality. Minimum follow‐up period was 6 months. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to look for factors associated with poor outcome. Mean age was 67.4 ± 8.8 years. 62/66 (93.9%) were diabetics. Mean wound size at presentation was 3.6 ± 2.3 cm. Mean Wound, Ischaemia, Foot Infection (WIFI) score was 5 ± 1.6. 12/66 (18%) patients had a patent posterior tibial artery pre‐operatively. Straight line flow was restored in only 31/66 (46.9) patients but 47/66 (71.2%) had successful limb salvage. Median time to wound healing was 90.0 (IQR 60‐180) days. A median of 1 (IQR 0‐2) wound debridement was required. Patients who underwent negative pressure dressing (23/66; 34.8%) required a median of 26 (IQR 13‐33) cycles to achieve healing. Amputation free survival (AFS) was 72% and 68% at 6‐ and 12‐months, respectively. Mortality rate was 16.7% and 19.7% at 6‐ and 12‐months, respectively. Low albumin level and initial Rutherford class were independent predictors of worse 6‐month AFS. Outcomes of heel ulcers post revascularisation may not be as poor as previously described. Persistent attention to wound care with multidisciplinary effort is needed for optimal healing.
We compared cellular viability between cryopreserved and lyopreserved amniotic membranes and clinical outcomes of the lyopreserved construct in a prospective cohort study of 40 patients with neuropathic foot ulcers. Patients received weekly application of lyopreserved membrane for 12 weeks with standard weekly debridement and offloading. We evaluated the proportion of foot ulcers that closed, time to closure, closure trajectories, and infection during therapy. We used chi‐square tests for dichotomous variables and independent t‐tests for continuous variables with an alpha of α = .10. Cellular viability was equivalent between cryo‐ and lyopreserved amniotic tissues. Clinically, 48% of subjects' wounds closed in an average of 40.0 days. Those that did not close were older (63 vs 59 years, P = .011) and larger ulcers at baseline (7.8 vs 1.6 cm2, P = .012). Significantly more patients who achieved closure reached a 50% wound area reduction in 4 weeks compared with non‐closed wounds (73.7% vs 47.6%, P = .093). There was no difference in the slope of the wound closure trajectories between closed and non‐closed wounds (0.124 and 0.159, P = .85), indicating the rate of closure was similar. The rate of closure was 0.60 mm/day (SD = 0.47) for wounds that closed and 0.50 mm/day (SD = 0.58) for wounds that did not close (P = .89).
To evaluate continuous diffusion of oxygen therapy (CDO) on cytokines, perfusion, and bacterial load in diabetic foot ulcers we evaluated 23 patients for 3 weeks. Tissues biopsies were obtained at each visit to evaluate cytokines and quantitative bacterial cultures. Perfusion was measured with hyperspectral imaging and transcutaneous oxygen. We used paired T tests to compare continuous variables and independent T tests to compare healers and nonhealers. There was an increase from baseline to week 1 in TGF‐β (P = .008), TNF‐α (P = .014), VEGF (P = .008), PDGF (P = .087), and IGF‐1 (P = .058); baseline to week 2 in TGF‐β (P = .010), VEGF (P = .051), and IL‐6 (P = .031); and baseline to week 3 with TGF‐β (P = .055) and IL‐6 (P = .054). There was a significant increase in transcutaneous oxygen after 1 week of treatment on both medial and lateral foot (P = .086 and .025). Fifty‐three percent of the patients had at least a 50% wound area reduction (healers). At baseline, there were no differences in cytokines between healers and nonhealers. However, there was an increase in CXCL8 after 1 week of treatment (P = .080) and IL‐6 after 3 weeks of treatment in nonhealers (P = .099). There were no differences in quantitative cultures in healers and nonhealers.
The purpose of this study was to describe the level of chronic wound‐care competence among graduating student nurses and student podiatrists in comparison with that of professionals and to develop and test a new instrument (the C/WoundComp) that assesses both theoretical and practical competence in chronic wound care as well as attitudes towards wound care. The data (N = 135) were collected in 2019 from four groups (1): graduating student nurses (n = 44) (2); graduating student podiatrists (n = 28) (3); registered nurses (n = 54); and (4) podiatrists (n = 9). The data were analysed using statistical analysis. According to the results, the students' total mean competence score was 62%. Their mean score for theoretical competence was 67%, and for practical competence, it was 52%. The students' competence level was statistically significantly lower than that of the professionals (P < .0001), but the students showed a positive attitude towards chronic wound care. The instrument demonstrated preliminary validity and reliability, but this warrants further testing. This study provides new knowledge about student nurses' and student podiatrists' competence in chronic wound care, suggesting that their theoretical and practical competence is limited. In addition, it provides information on different methods of assessing competence and how they can be combined.
To examine trends in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and its determinants.
This retrospective correlational study involved 12,260 individuals born between 1996 and 2000 receiving care from one of 22 pediatric practices in the northeastern region of the United States between 2016 and 2017.
We extracted data about HPV vaccination status and date, birth year, race, ethnicity, language, and geographic regions. Mean age at initiation was estimated using descriptive statistics. Multiple linear regression with weighted least squares was used to examine its correlates.
Of 12,260 individuals, about 76% initiated the HPV vaccination series at 9 to 17 years of age. While the initiation age decreased overall for both females and males (e.g., 14.3 vs. 16.2 years and 13.8 vs. 14.4 years in the 1996 vs. 2000 birth cohorts, respectively), a greater reduction was noted for males. Individuals tended to delay initiation if they were non‐Hispanic or Asian and resided in urban areas.
Most adolescents in our sample started HPV vaccination later than the recommended age, with variations in different demographic groups. Rapid improvement in on‐time HPV vaccination is occurring, especially for males.
The findings of this analysis emphasize continuous efforts to increase on‐time HPV vaccination rates for all groups, including non‐Hispanic whites and female adolescents, to eliminate current and possible disparities.
Commentary on: Morin L, Wastesson JW, Laroche ML, et al. How many older adults receive drugs of questionable clinical benefit near the end of life? A cohort study. Palliat Med 2019;33:1080–90. doi: 10.1177/0269216319854013.
Healthcare professionals must review medications for appropriateness, efficacy and benefits to their patients and must communicate effectively with patients and relatives. We need to re-examine and review drug use and prescribing practices to assert clinically and contextually appropriate care. However, qualitative research is needed to evaluate clinician prescribing with patients.
Healthcare professionals must review medications for appropriateness, efficacy and benefits to their patients and must communicate effectively with patients and relatives.
We need to re-examine and review drug use and prescribing practices to assert clinically and contextually appropriate care. However, qualitative research is needed to evaluate clinician prescribing with patients.
Use of a variety of drugs (polypharmacy) is required to manage complex disease processes. At the end of life, the focus of ‘treatment’ changes from extending survival to symptom management—therefore, aims of treatments change, requiring different pharmaceutical approaches.