Many countries are launching large-scale, digitally enabled change programmes as part of efforts to improve the quality, safety and efficiency of care. We have been commissioned to conduct an independent evaluation of a major national change programme, the Global Digital Exemplar (GDE) Programme, which aims to develop exemplary digital health solutions and encourage their wider adoption by creating a learning ecosystem across English National Health Service (NHS) provider organisations.
This theoretically informed, qualitative, longitudinal formative evaluation comprises five inter-related work packages. We will conduct a combination of 12 in-depth and 24 broader qualitative case studies in GDE sites exploring digital transformation, local learning and mechanisms of spread of knowledge within the Programme and across the wider NHS. Data will be collected through a combination of semistructured interviews with managers, implementation staff (clinical and non-clinical), vendors and policymakers, plus non-participant observations of meetings, site visits, workshops and documentary analysis of strategic local and national plans. Data will be analysed through inductive and deductive methods, beginning with in-depth case study sites and testing the findings against data from the wider sample and national stakeholders.
This work is commissioned as part of a national change programme and is therefore a service evaluation. We have ethical approval from the University of Edinburgh. Results will be disseminated at six monthly intervals to national policymakers, and made available via our publicly accessible website. We will also identify lessons for the management and evaluation of large-scale evolving digital health change programmes that are of international relevance.
To investigate psychological and behavioural responses to COVID-19 among the Chinese general population.
We conducted a population-based mobile phone survey between 1 February and 10 February 2020 via random digit dialling. A total of 1011 adult residents in Wuhan (n=510), the epicentre and quarantined city, and Shanghai (n=501) were interviewed. Proportional quota sampling and poststratification weighting were used. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate perception factors associated with the public responses.
We measured anxiety levels using the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and asked respondents to report their precautionary behaviours before and during the outbreak.
The prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was significantly higher (p
Prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety and strict personal precautionary behaviours was generally high, regardless of the quarantine status. Our results support efforts for handwashing education programmes with a focus on hygiene procedures in China and timely dissemination of reliable information.
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is an immunological reaction, involving many organs, leading to a wide range of clinical manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are the most common sign of GVHD, as well as pain, vulnerability to infection and impaired quality of life.
Despite the burdens that cutaneous GVHD presents for patients, their carers and the healthcare system, limited evidence is available to guide day to day supportive skin care and wound management. Our objective is to conduct a scoping review to map the evidence for skin and wound management and identify evidence-practice gaps for individuals with acute or chronic cutaneous GVHD.
Our review will follow the scoping review methodological framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley and further refined by the Joanna Briggs Institute Scoping Review Methods Manual. Databases to be searched include; PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science and MEDLINE from 1970 to February 2020. Database searches will be supplemented with searches from relevant reference lists and grey literature. Descriptive statistical analyses will be performed.
This scoping review does not require ethical approval. Findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.
To study the performance of the ‘van Loendersloot’ prognostic model for our clinic’s in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in its original version, the refitted version and in an adapted version replacing previous by current cycle IVF laboratory variables.
This retrospective cohort study in our academic tertiary fertility clinic analysed 1281 IVF cycles of 591 couples, who completed at least one 2nd–6th IVF cycle with own fresh gametes after a previous IVF cycle with the same partner in our clinic between 2010 and 2018. The outcome of interest was the chance on a live birth after one complete IVF cycle (including all fresh and frozen embryo transfers from the same episode of ovarian stimulation). Model performance was expressed in terms of discrimination (c-statistics) and calibration (calibration model, comparison of prognosis to observed ratios of five disjoint groups formed by the quintiles of the IVF prognoses and a calibration plot).
A total of 344 live births were obtained (26.9%). External validation of the original van Loendersloot model showed a poor c-statistic of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.61 to 0.68) and an underestimation of IVF success. The refitted and the adapted models showed c-statistics of respectively 0.68 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.71) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.77). Similar c-statistics were found with cross-validation. Both models showed a good calibration model; refitted model: intercept=0.00 (95% CI: –0.23 to 0.23) and slope=1.00 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.21); adapted model: intercept=0.00 (95% CI: –0.18 to 0.18) and slope=1.00 (95% CI: 0.83 to 1.17). Prognoses and observed success rates of the disjoint groups matched well for the refitted model and even better for the adapted model.
External validation of the original van Loendersloot model indicated that model updating was recommended. The good performance of the refitted and adapted models allows informing couples about their IVF prognosis prior to an IVF cycle and at the time of embryo transfer. Whether this has an impact on couple’s expected success rates, distress and IVF discontinuation can now be studied.
The motivation and retention of community health workers (CHWs) is a challenge and inadequately addressed in research and policy. We sought to identify factors influencing the retention of CHWs in Ethiopia and ways to avert their exit.
A qualitative study was undertaken using in-depth interviews with the study participants. Interviews were audio-recorded, and then simultaneously translated into English and transcribed for analysis. Data were analysed in NVivo 12 using an iterative inductive-deductive approach.
The study was conducted in two districts each in the Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Republic (SNNPR) regions in Ethiopia. Respondents were located in a mix of rural and urban settings.
Leavers of health extension worker (HEW) positions (n=20), active HEWs (n=16) and key informants (n=11) in the form of policymakers were interviewed.
We identified several extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors affecting the retention and labour market choices of HEWs. While financial incentives in the form of salaries and material incentives in the form of improvements to health facility infrastructure, provision of childcare were reported to be important, non-material factors like HEWs’ self-image, acceptance and validation by the community and their supervisors were found to be critical. A reduction or loss of these non-material factors proved to be the catalyst for many HEWs to leave their jobs.
Our study contributes new empirical evidence to the global debate on factors influencing the motivation and retention of CHWs, by being the first to include job leavers in the analysis. Our findings suggest that policy interventions that appeal to the social needs of CHWs can prove to be more acceptable and potentially cost-effective in improving their retention in the long run. This is important for government policymakers in resource constrained settings like Ethiopia that rely heavily on lay workers for primary healthcare delivery.
To explore how the self-management of comorbid long-term conditions is experienced and negotiated by people with dementia and their carers.
Secondary thematic analysis of 82 semi-structured interviews.
Community settings across the United Kingdom.
11 people with dementia, 22 family carers, 19 health professionals and 30 homecare staff.
We identified three overarching themes: (1) The process of substituting self-management: stakeholders balanced the wishes of people with dementia to retain autonomy with the risks of lower adherence to medical treatments. The task of helping a person with dementia to take medication was perceived as intermediate between a personal care and a medical activity; rules about which professionals could perform this activity sometimes caused conflict. (2) Communication in the care network: family carers often communicated with services and made decisions about how to implement medical advice. In situations where family carers or homecare workers were not substituting self-management, it could be challenging for general practitioners to identify changes in self-management and decide when to intervene. (3) Impact of physical health on and from dementia: healthcare professionals acknowledged the inter-relatedness of physical health and cognition to adapt care accordingly. Some treatments prescribed for long-term conditions were perceived as unhelpful when not adapted to the context of dementia. Healthcare professionals and homecare workers sometimes felt that family carers were unable to accept that available treatments may not be helpful to people with dementia and that this sometimes led to the continuation of treatments of questionable benefit.
The process of substituting self-management evolves with advancement of dementia symptoms and relies on communication in the care network, while considering the impact on and from dementia to achieve holistic physical health management. Care decisions must consider people with dementia as a whole, and be based on realistic outcomes and best interests.
Large disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) management and survival have been observed across Europe. Despite recent increases, the survival deficit of Estonian patients with CRC persists, particularly for rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine diagnostic, staging and treatment patterns of CRC in Estonia, comparing clinical data from 1997 and 2011.
Nationwide population-based retrospective study.
All incident cases of colon and rectal cancer diagnosed in 1997 and 2011 identified from the Estonian Cancer Registry. Clinical data gathered from medical records.
Differences in diagnostic, staging and treatment patterns; 5-year relative survival ratios.
The number of colon cancer cases was 337 in 1997 and 498 in 2011; for rectal cancer, the respective numbers were 209 and 349. From 1997 to 2011, large increases were seen in the use of colonoscopy and lung and liver imaging. Radical resection rate increased from 48% to 59%, but emergency surgeries showed a rise from 18% to 26% in colon and from 7% to 14% in rectal cancer. The proportion of radically operated patients with ≥12 lymph nodes examined pathologically increased from 2% to 58% in colon cancer and from 2% to 50% in rectal cancer. The use of neoadjuvant radiotherapy increased from 6% to 39% among stage II and from 20% to 50% among patients with stage III rectal cancer. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer increased from 42% to 63%. The 5-year RSR increased from 50% to 58% in colon cancer and from 37% to 64% in patients with rectal cancer.
Major improvements were seen in the diagnostics, staging and treatment of CRC in Estonia contributing to better outcomes. Increase in emergency surgeries highlights possible shortcomings in timely diagnosis and treatment.
Continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV plasma viral load (pVL) to very low levels, which allows for some immune recovery. Discontinuation of ART leads to pVL rebound from reservoirs of persistence and latency, and progressive immunodeficiency. One promising but controversial strategy targeting CD4+ T lymphocytes with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against α4β7 integrin has shown promise through sustained virological remission of pVL (SVR) in SIV239-infected rhesus macaques. We propose to assess the safety and tolerability of vedolizumab, a licensed humanised mAb against human α4β7 integrin, in healthy HIV-infected adults on ART. This study will also assess, by analytical treatment interruption (ATI), whether vedolizumab treatment can induce SVR beyond ART and vedolizumab treatment.
The HIV-ART-vedolizumab-ATI (HAVARTI) trial is a single-arm, dose-ranging pilot trial in healthy HIV-positive adult volunteers receiving ART. Twelve consenting persons will be enrolled in sequential groups of 4 to each serial dosing vedolizumab regimen (300 mg, 150 mg, 75 mg). The primary outcomes are: (1) to assess the safety and tolerability of seven serial infusions of vedolizumab at each of three doses; (2) to identify the immunovirological measures, including pVL and T-cell kinetics, that characterise HIV/ART cases before, during, after vedolizumab treatment and ATI; and (3) to seek SVR of pVL after ATI. Secondary outcomes will include immune reconstitution and pVL suppression as well as immune reconstitution and long-term safety following re-initiation of ART in the absence of SVR.
The study protocol was approved by the Ottawa Health Science Network-REB and by the Health Canada Therapeutic Products Directorate. A Data Safety Monitor will review safety information at regular intervals. The final manuscript will be submitted to an open access journal within a year of study completion.
The study aimed to understand through qualitative research what patients considered material in their decision to consent to an acute surgical intervention.
The patients selected aged between 18 and 90, having been admitted to a major trauma centre to undergo an acute surgical intervention within 14 days of injury, where English was their first language. Data saturation point was reached after 21 patients had been recruited. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously, through interviews undertaken immediately prior to surgery. The data were coded using NVIVO V.12 software.
The key theme that originated from the data analysis was patients were unable to identify any individual risk that would modify their decision-making process around giving consent. The patient’s previous experience and the experience of others around them were a further theme. Patients sensed that there were no non-operative options for their injuries.
This is the first study investigating what patient considered a material risk in the consent process. Patients in this study did attribute significance to past experiences of friends and family as material, prompting us to suggest that the surgeon asks about these experiences as part of the consent process. Concern about functional recovery was important to patients but insufficient to stop them from consenting to surgery, thus could not be classified as material risk.
Low back pain (LBP) is recognised globally as a prevalent, costly and disabling condition. Recurrences are common and contribute to much of the burden of LBP. Current evidence favours exercise and education for prevention of LBP recurrence, but an optimal intervention has not yet been established. Walking is a simple, widely accessible, low-cost intervention that has yet to be evaluated. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a progressive and individualised walking and education programme (intervention) for the prevention of LBP recurrences in adults compared with no treatment (control).
A pragmatic, two-armed RCT comparing walking and education (n=349) with a no treatment control group (n=349). Inclusion criteria are adults recovered from an episode of non-specific LBP within the last 6 months. Those allocated to the intervention group will receive six sessions (three face to face and three telephone delivered) with a trained physiotherapist to facilitate a progressive walking programme and education over a 6-month period. The primary outcome will be days to first recurrence of an episode of activity-limiting LBP. The secondary outcomes include days to recurrence of an episode of LBP, days to recurrence of an episode of LBP leading to care seeking, disability and quality of life measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and costs associated with LBP recurrence. All participants will be followed up monthly for a minimum of 12 months. The primary intention-to-treat analysis will assess difference in survival curves (days to recurrence) using the log-rank statistic. The cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from the societal perspective.
Approved by Macquarie University Human Research Ethics Committee (Reference: 5201949218164, May 2019). Findings will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.
To explore the experience of parenting for younger stroke survivors (aged 18 to 64 years at the time of the stroke).
Stroke among younger adults increased 43% between 2000 and 2010. The social, emotional, and physical functioning of younger adults affects multiple aspects of their lives including parenting. There is limited research on the experience of parenting after stroke.
This is a qualitative descriptive study.
We conducted individual semi‐structured interviews with 10 younger adults who were actively parenting children under the age of 18 years at the time of the stroke. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. We report the methods and results using the COREQ checklist.
Impairments from stroke disrupted participants’ identity, relationships, and roles as a parent. The degree to which parenting abilities and behaviors were affected by stroke was contingent upon the type and severity of impairments as well as the children's age. Participants also observed emotional and behavioral changes in their children in response to their stroke. Support from family, friends, healthcare providers, and children's school/daycare was crucial to participants throughout their stroke recovery. Two major themes emerged: 1) finding a new normal and 2) support for parenting post‐stroke.
Findings enable a deeper understanding of the distinct parenting challenges younger stroke survivors face and can inform future research on this population.
Study findings highlight the need for continual and tailored follow‐up by nurses and other allied healthcare professionals to decrease the difficulty stroke survivors experience when trying to resume their role as parents.
The aim was to explore how nurses experience compassionate care for patients with cancer and family caregivers in different phases of the palliative pathway.
Compassion is fundamental to palliative care and viewed as a cornerstone of high‐quality care provision. Healthcare authorities emphasize that patients should have the opportunity to stay at home for as long as possible. There are, however, care deficiencies in the palliative pathway.
This study employed a qualitative design using focus groups and a hermeneutic approach.
Four focus groups with three to seven female nurses in each group were conducted in Mid‐Norway in 2018. Nurses’ ages ranged from 28‐60 years (mean age =45 years), and they were recruited through purposive sampling (N = 21). Compassionate care was chosen as the theoretical framework. Reporting followed the COREQ guidelines.
Three themes expressing compassionate care related to different phases of the pathway were identified: (a) information and dialogue, (b) the creation of a space for dying, and (c) family caregivers’ acceptance of death.
This study showed that it was crucial to create a space for dying, characterized by trust, collaboration, good relationships, empathy, attention, silence, caution, slowness, symptom relief, and the absence of noise and conflict.
The quality of compassion possessed by individual practitioners, as well as the overall design of the healthcare system, must be considered when creating compassionate care for patients and their family caregivers. Nursing educators and health authorities should pay attention to the development of compassion in education and practice. Further research should highlight patients’ and family caregivers’ experiences of compassionate care and determine how healthcare systems can support compassionate care.
What does this paper contribute to the wider global clinical community? It provides insight into nurses’ role in compassionate care in different phases of the palliative pathway. It highlights the importance of early engagement with family caregivers, as a key element of compassionate care. Nurses play a crucial role in creating a space for dying, which is important for patients’ and their family members’ preparation for death.
Epidemiological research on the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk has some methodological challenges that give rise to different conclusions and intense debates. This raises the question about the role of selective citation and of citation bias in particular. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of selective citation in this field.
Web of Science Core Collection.
We identified 96 publications in this network, with 4317 potential citations. For each publication, we extracted characteristics such as study conclusion and funding source. Some of these characteristics are related to the study content: study design, sample size, method of diesel exposure assessment, type of diesel technology under investigation, and whether smoking had been adjusted for.
Whether a citation occurs or not, measured and analysed according to the preregistered protocol. Exploratively we analysed the association between funding source and study conclusion.
Methodological content of a study was clearly related to citation, studies using more sophisticated methods were more likely to be cited. There was some evidence for citation bias: supportive publications had a higher chance of being cited than non-supportive ones, but after adjustment for study quality, this effect decreased substantially (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7). Explorative analyses indicated that three quarters of non-profit funded publications had a supportive study conclusion against only one quarter of the industry-funded publications.
There is evidence for selective citation within this field, but the evidence for citation bias was weak. It seems that factors related to the methodology had more impact on citation than the conclusion of a study. Interestingly, publications that were funded by industry were more skeptical about a causal relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer compared to non-profit-funded publications.
Daily physiotherapy is believed to mitigate the progression of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. However, physiotherapy airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are burdensome and the evidence guiding practice remains weak. This paper describes the protocol for Project Fizzyo, which uses innovative technology and analysis methods to remotely capture longitudinal daily data from physiotherapy treatments to measure adherence and prospectively evaluate associations with clinical outcomes.
A cohort of 145 children and young people with CF aged 6–16 years were recruited. Each participant will record their usual physiotherapy sessions daily for 16 months, using remote monitoring sensors: (1) a bespoke ACT sensor, inserted into their usual ACT device and (2) a Fitbit Alta HR activity tracker. Real-time breath pressure during ACTs, and heart rate and daily step counts (Fitbit) are synced using specific software applications. An interrupted time-series design will facilitate evaluation of ACT interventions (feedback and ACT-driven gaming). Baseline, mid and endpoint assessments of spirometry, exercise capacity and quality of life and longitudinal clinical record data will also be collected.
This large dataset will be analysed in R using big data analytics approaches. Distinct ACT and physical activity adherence profiles will be identified, using cluster analysis to define groups of individuals based on measured characteristics and any relationships to clinical profiles assessed. Changes in adherence to physiotherapy over time or in relation to ACT interventions will be quantified and evaluated in relation to clinical outcomes.
Ethical approval for this study (IRAS: 228625) was granted by the London-Brighton and Sussex NREC (18/LO/1038). Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, at conferences and via CF clinical networks. The statistical code will be published in the Fizzyo GitHub repository and the dataset stored in the Great Ormond Street Hospital Digital Research Environment.
To define the epidemiological curve of COVID-19 in Qatar and determine factors associated with severe or critical illness.
Case series of first 5685 COVID-19 cases in Qatar.
All confirmed COVID-19 cases in the State of Qatar between 28 February and 18 April 2020.
Number of total and daily new COVID-19 infections; demographic characteristics and comorbidity burden and severity of infection; factors associated with severe or critical illness.
Between 28 February and 18 April 2020, 5685 cases of COVID-19 were identified. Median age was 34 (IQR 28–43) years, 88.9% were male and 8.7% were Qatari nationals. Overall, 83.6% had no concomitant comorbidity, and 3.0% had three or more comorbidities. The overwhelming majority (90.9%) were asymptomatic or with minimal symptoms, with 2.0% having severe or critical illness. Seven deaths were observed during the time interval studied. Presence of hypertension or diabetes was associated with a higher risk of severe or critical illness, but age was not. The epidemiological curve indicated two distinct patterns of infection, a larger cluster among expatriate craft and manual workers and a smaller one among Qatari nationals returning from abroad during the epidemic.
COVID-19 infections in Qatar started in two distinct clusters, but then became more widespread in the population through community transmission. Infections were mostly asymptomatic or with minimal symptoms and associated with very low mortality. Severe/critical illness was associated with presence of hypertension or diabetes but not with increasing age.
Although China has done a lot in strengthening the primary healthcare system, the high turnover intention is still a social problem to be reckoned with. The objective of this study is to explore the mediating effect of satisfaction between job burnout and turnover intention.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to make sense of the job burnout, satisfaction and turnover intention among primary healthcare workers in central China. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to study the mediating effect of satisfaction between job burnout and turnover intention with maximum likelihood estimation. The mediation effect test was carried out by using the bootstrap method.
SEM showed that job burnout was positively related to the turnover intention with the standard path coefficient of 0.845 (C.R.=34.055, p
The turnover intention is significantly affected by job burnout, satisfaction and demographical characteristics including age, education level, monthly income, hire form and night shift. Satisfaction can be regarded as a mediator between job burnout and turnover intention. Relative measures can be taken to promote enthusiasm and satisfaction thus decreasing the turnover rate.
We investigated whether the relationship between components of height and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk may be explained by body composition. We also examined relationships between parental heights and offspring CVD risk.
A cohort study using cross-sectional data.
A secondary care hospital setting in Pune, India.
We studied 357 young adults and their parents in the Pune Children’s Study. Primary and secondary outcomes: we measured weight, total height, leg length, sitting height, plasma glucose, insulin and lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Total and regional lean and fat mass were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry.
Leg length was inversely related, and sitting height was directly related to BMI. Total height and leg length were directly related to lean mass, while sitting height was directly related to both lean and fat mass. Leg length was inversely related to systolic BP and 120 min glucose, independent of lean and fat mass. Sitting height was directly related to systolic BP and triglycerides; these relationships were attenuated on adjustment for lean and fat mass. When examined simultaneously, greater leg length was protective and greater sitting height was associated with a more detrimental CVD risk profile.
Shorter adult leg length and greater sitting height are associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile. The mechanisms need further study, but our findings suggest a role for lean and fat mass.
Obesity is highly prevalent in older adults aged 65 years or older. Different lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, self-management) are available but benefits and harms have not been fully quantified comparing all available health promotion interventions. Special consideration must be given to functional outcomes and possible adverse effects (loss of muscle and bone mass, hypoglycaemia) of weight loss interventions in this age group. The objective of this study is to synthesise the evidence regarding the effects of different types and modalities of lifestyle interventions, or their combinations, on physical function and obesity-related outcomes such as body composition in older adults with obesity.
Six databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychinfo and Web of Science) and two trial registries (Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) will be searched for randomised controlled trials of lifestyle interventions in older adults with obesity. Screening (title/abstract and full-text) and data extraction of references as well as assessment of risk of bias and rating of the certainty of evidence (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation for network meta-analyses) will be performed by two reviewers independently. Frequentist random-effects network meta-analyses will be conducted to determine the pooled effects from each intervention.
We will submit our findings to peer-reviewed journals and present at national and international conferences as well as in scientific medical societies. Patient-targeted dissemination will involve local and national advocate groups.
We aim to describe the social network members of participants of a behavioural intervention, and examine how the effects of the intervention may spillover among network members.
Secondary analysis of a step-wedge randomised controlled trial.
Change agents (CAs) were recruited from waiting rooms of HIV treatment facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and their network members (NMs) were recruited directly by CAs.
We enrolled 662 CAs in an HIV behavioural intervention. They, along with 710 of their NMs, completed baseline and follow-up interviews from 2011 to 2013.
The primary outcome of this study was change in NMs’ HIV knowledge, and the secondary outcome was whether the NM was lost to follow-up.
At baseline, many characteristics were different between NMs and CAs. We found a number of NM characteristics significantly associated with follow-up of NMs, particularly female gender (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.63) and HIV knowledge (OR=20.0, 95% CI: 3.70 to 125); only one CA variable was significantly associated with NM follow-up: having a private source of water (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.33 to 3.57). The 14.2% increase in NMs’ HIV knowledge was largely due to CAs feeling empowered to pass on prior knowledge, rather than transmitting new knowledge to their NMs.
Characteristics of social network members of persons living with HIV persons living with HIV may play a role in study retention. Additionally, the HIV knowledge of these NMs increased largely as a function of CA participation in the intervention, suggesting that intervening among highly-connected individuals may maximise benefits to the potential population for whom spillover can occur.
Clinical Trial: NCT01693458; Post-results
Myocardial protection against ischaemic-reperfusion injury is a key determinant of heart function and outcome following cardiac surgery in children. However, with current strategies, myocardial injury occurs routinely following aortic cross-clamping, as demonstrated by the ubiquitous rise in circulating troponin. Remote ischaemic preconditioning, the application of brief, non-lethal cycles of ischaemia and reperfusion to a distant organ or tissue, is a simple, low-risk and readily available technique which may improve myocardial protection. The Bilateral Remote Ischaemic Conditioning in Children (BRICC) trial will assess whether remote ischaemic preconditioning, applied to both lower limbs immediately prior to surgery, reduces myocardial injury in cyanotic and acyanotic young children.
The BRICC trial is a two-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial recruiting up to 120 young children (age 3 months to 3 years) undergoing primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot or surgical closure of an isolated ventricular septal defect. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either bilateral remote ischaemic preconditioning (3x5 min cycles) or sham immediately prior to surgery, with follow-up until discharge from hospital or 30 days, whichever is sooner. The primary outcome is reduction in area under the time-concentration curve for high-sensitivity (hs) troponin-T release in the first 24 hours after aortic cross-clamp release. Secondary outcome measures include peak hs-troponin-T, vasoactive inotrope score, arterial lactate and central venous oxygen saturations in the first 12 hours, and lengths of stay in the paediatric intensive care unit and the hospital.
The trial was approved by the West Midlands-Solihull National Health Service Research Ethics Committee (16/WM/0309) on 5 August 2016. Findings will be disseminated to the academic community through peer-reviewed publications and presentation at national and international meetings. Parents will be informed of the results through a newsletter in conjunction with a local charity.