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Actuación de enfermería ante el síndrome de resección transuretral en una histeroscopia quirúrgica

La histeroscopia es un procedimiento con finalidad terapéutica y de diagnóstico, permitiendo una visión directa de la cavidad uterina. Es relativamente sencillo pero no exento de complicaciones. La solución más comúnmente utilizada para la distensión es glicina 1.5% debi-do a su baja viscosidad, bajo costo, transparencia y compatibilidad con electrocirugía. Una de las complicaciones más temidas durante la cirugía histeroscópica es hemodilución por absorción de medios de distensión. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 64 años, con ab-sorción excesiva de glicina durante una histeroscopia. Destacamos la importancia de una vigilancia continua y una comunicación efectiva entre el equipo quirúrgico: ginecólogo, anestesiólogo y equipo de enfermería. Sin duda, esto nos permite identificar los factores de riesgo que pueden prevenir la absorción intraoperatoria de estos fluidos, así como establecer un diagnóstico temprano y aplicar un tratamiento oportuno y eficaz para minimizar complicaciones.

The association between thrombotic and inflammatory biomarkers and lower‐extremity peripheral artery disease

Abstract

Lower‐extremity peripheral artery disease (LEAD) is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among inflammatory and thrombotic markers and lower‐extremity peripheral disease. A total of 280 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 152 patients had LEAD on peripheral angiography that was performed because of suspected lower‐extremity peripheral disease based on history, physical examination, and non‐invasive tests. The control group consisted of 128 patients without LEAD on peripheral angiography. Patients with LEAD were classified according to trans‐atlantic inter‐society consensus (TASC) II classification. Subsequently, patients in TASC A to B were defined as having mild to moderate peripheral artery disease, and those in TASC C to D were defined as having advanced peripheral artery disease. Thrombotic and inflammatory markers, such as the neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the high‐sensitivity C (hs‐C) reactive protein level, the monocyte‐to‐high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol ratio, the fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR), and whole‐blood viscosity at high shear rate (HSR) and low shear rate (LSR), were evaluated in this population. The NLR, the monocyte‐to‐high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol ratio, the FAR, and whole‐blood viscosity, both at a LSR and a HSR, were significantly higher in patients with lower‐extremity peripheral disease compared with patients without lower‐extremity peripheral disease. We determined that lower‐extremity peripheral disease severity was correlated with the NLR, monocyte‐to‐high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol ratio, FAR, whole‐blood viscosity at LSR, and whole‐blood viscosity at HSR (r = 0.719, P = .004; r = 0.25, P = .008; r = 0.691, P = .002; r = 0.546, P  < .001; and r = 0.448, P = .001, respectively). However hs‐C reactive protein levels were similar between patients with or without LEAD (2.47 ± 1.32 1.61 ± 0.91 P = .685). In addition, there was no correlation between the severity of LEAD and hs‐C reactive levels. In this study, we determined that the levels of inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers are elevated in peripheral artery disease, and these levels predict disease severity.

Abdominal infectious complications associated with the dislocation of intraperitoneal part of drainage tube and poor drainage after major surgeries

Abstract

Abdominal drainage, serving as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, has been widely applied to prevent complications after major abdominal surgical procedures. However, dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube and poor drainage after major surgery has never been detailed. In this retrospective study, we determined whether postoperative abdominal infectious complications are attributed to dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube. Patients were recruited from the Department of General Surgery at Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, between June 2015 and June 2018. All of the enrolled patients had undergone different major abdominal surgical procedures with abdominal drainage. According to different fixation methods of the drainage tube, the patients were categorised as follows: group 1 as conventional extra‐abdominal fixation where the tubes were fixed on abdominal wall; group 2 as double fixation where the tubes were fixed by both extra‐abdominal and intra‐abdominal fixation. Among 60 patients (40 in group 1 and 20 in group 2) with suspected postoperative abdominal infection, abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed to determine the presence of abnormality. Dislocation of drainage tubes, morbidity, treatment, and prognosis were compared between the two groups. None of the patients showed slip knot or drainage tube slipping from the abdomen based on physical examination and CT imaging. Drainage tube was fixed firmly on the abdominal wall. In group 1, 18 (45%) patients developed postoperative complications resulting from abdominal infection where severe dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tubes was confirmed by CT. Drainage tubes of six cases were significantly dislocated to the anterior abdominal wall from the target area; 7 upper abdominal drainage tubes dislocated to the lower abdomen; and 5 lower abdominal drainage tubes dislocated to the upper abdomen. Common complications included localised peritonitis (n = 4), abdominal abscess (n = 8), and anastomotic leakage (n = 6). Among them, 8 patients were cured by abdominal puncture catheter drainage; 5 underwent secondary operation and 5 were cured by conservative treatment. In group 2, no tube dislocation was identified by CT. Five patients (25%) developed complications, including localised peritonitis (n = 1), abdominal abscess (n = 1), and anastomotic leakage (n = 3). All the five patients were cured by conservative treatment. Postoperative abdominal infection complications can stem from dislocation of intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube and poor drainage after major abdominal surgery. Maintaining the intraperitoneal portion of drainage tube at the proper location, for example, by applying intraabdominal fixation, is paramount to decrease the incidence and severity of postoperative complications.

Life expectancy and survival analysis of patients with diabetes compared to the non diabetic population in Bulgaria

by Konstantin Tachkov, Konstantin Mitov, Yordanka Koleva, Zornitsa Mitkova, Maria Kamusheva, Maria Dimitrova, Valentina Petkova, Alexandra Savova, Miglena Doneva, Dimitar Tcarukciev, Vasil Valov, Galia Angelova, Manoela Manova, Guenka Petrova

Aims

To evaluate the expected life expectancy in patients with diabetes in Bulgaria and to compare it to the expected life expectancy of the non-diabetic population in the country.

Methods

It is a retrospective observational population study on individuals diagnosed with diabetes, compared to the non-diabetic population in Bulgaria for the period 2012–2015. Data from the national diabetes register and national statistical institute were used to construct life-tables with probability of survival with t-test and Chi Square test. Confounder analysis was done by age, sex, and type of diabetes. All-cause mortality and deaths in diabetic patients were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for each age group and a log-rank analysis was conducted.

Results

Average life expectancy in the non-diabetic population, patients with Type 1 DM and with Type 2 DM is 74.8; 70.96 and 75.19 years, respectively. For 2012–2015 the mortality in the non-diabetic population remained constant and lower (average—1.48%) compared to type-1 DM (5.25%) and Type-2 (4.27%). Relative risk of death in diabetics was higher overall (12%), after the age of 70 before which the relative risk was higher for the non-diabetic population. This was observed as a trend in all analyzed years.

Conclusion

Patients with type 2 DM have a longer life-expectancy than patients with type-1 DM and overall Diabetics life expectancy equals that of the non-diabetic population, which could suggest improved disease control and its associated complications in Bulgaria. Male diabetics show slightly longer life expectancy than their counterparts in the non-diabetic population, by a marginal gain of 0.6 years for the entire observed period. Life expectancy in diabetic women increased by 1.3 years, which was not observed in the non-diabetic population. Prevalence of diabetes was higher for women. Improved diabetes control may explain this gain in life; however other studies are needed to confirm this.

The 2015-2016 El Niño increased infection parameters of copepods on Eastern Tropical Pacific dolphinfish populations

by Ana María Santana-Piñeros, Yanis Cruz-Quintana, Ana Luisa May-Tec, Geormery Mera-Loor, María Leopoldina Aguirre-Macedo, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, David González-Solís

The oceanographic conditions of the Pacific Ocean are largely modified by El Niño (EN), affecting several ecological processes. Parasites and other marine organisms respond to environmental variation, but the influence of the EN cycle on the seasonal variation of parasitic copepods has not been yet evaluated. We analysed the relation between infection parameters (prevalence and mean intensity) of the widespread parasitic copepods Caligus bonito and Charopinopsis quaternia in the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and oceanography during the strong 2015–16 EN. Fish were collected from capture fisheries on the Ecuadorian coast (Tropical Eastern Pacific) over a 2-year period. Variations of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), total host length (TL) and monthly infection parameters of both copepod species were analysed using time series and cross-correlations. We used the generalised additive models for determine the relationship between environmental variables and infection parameters. The total body length of the ovigerous females and the length of the eggs of C. bonito were measured in both periods. Infection parameters of both C. bonito and Ch. quaternia showed seasonal and annual patterns associated with the variation of environmental variables examined (SST, salinity, Chl-a and ONI 1+2). Infection parameters of both copepod species were significantly correlated with ONI 1+2, SST, TL and Chl-a throughout the GAMLSS model, and the explained deviance contribution ranged from 16%-36%. Our results suggest than an anomaly higher than +0.5°C triggers a risen in infection parameters of both parasitic copepods. This risen could be related to increases in egg length, female numbers and the total length of the ovigerous females in EN period. This study provides the first evidence showing that tropical parasitic copepods are sensitive to the influence of EN event, especially from SST variations. The observed behaviour of parasitic copepods likely affects the host populations and structure of the marine ecosystem at different scales.

Application of co-culture technology of epithelial type cells and mesenchymal type cells using nanopatterned structures

by Taek-Hee Jung, Eun-Bin Chung, Hyung Woo Kim, Seong Woo Choi, Soon-Jung Park, Anthony Safaa Mukhtar, Hyung-Min Chung, Eunmi Kim, Kang Moo Huh, Dong Sung Kim, Sun-Woong Kang, Sung-Hwan Moon

Various nanopatterning techniques have been developed to improve cell proliferation and differentiation efficiency. As we previously reported, nanopillars and pores are able to sustain human pluripotent stem cells and differentiate pancreatic cells. From this, the nanoscale patterns would be effective environment for the co-culturing of epithelial and mesenchymal cell types. Interestingly, the nanopatterning selectively reduced the proliferative rate of mesenchymal cells while increasing the expression of adhesion protein in epithelial type cells. Additionally, co-cultured cells on the nanopatterning were not negatively affected in terms of cell function metabolic ability or cell survival. This is in contrast to conventional co-culturing methods such as ultraviolet or chemical treatments. The nanopatterning appears to be an effective environment for mesenchymal co-cultures with typically low proliferative rates cells such as astrocytes, neurons, melanocytes, and fibroblasts without using potentially damaging treatments.

Association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction

by Ingela Sjölin, Maria Bäck, Lennart Nilsson, Alexandru Schiopu, Margret Leosdottir

Background

Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.

Methods

In this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.

Results

Attenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p Conclusions

In an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event.

Emotional facial perception development in 7, 9 and 11 year-old children: The emergence of a silent eye-tracked emotional other-race effect

by Jennifer Malsert, Amaya Palama, Edouard Gentaz

The present study examined emotional facial perception (happy and angry) in 7, 9 and 11-year-old children from Caucasian and multicultural environments with an offset task for two ethnic groups of faces (Asian and Caucasian). In this task, participants were required to respond to a dynamic facial expression video when they believed that the first emotion presented had disappeared. Moreover, using an eye-tracker, we evaluated the ocular behavior pattern used to process these different faces. The analyses of reaction times do not show an emotional other-race effect (i.e., a facility in discriminating own-race faces over to other-race ones) in Caucasian children for Caucasian vs. Asian faces through offset times, but an effect of emotional face appeared in the oldest children. Furthermore, an eye-tracked ocular emotion and race-effect relative to processing strategies is observed and evolves between age 7 and 11. This study strengthens the interest in advancing an eye-tracking study in developmental and emotional processing studies, showing that even a “silent” effect should be detected and shrewdly analyzed through an objective means.

Effect of experimental, morphological and mechanical factors on the murine spinal cord subjected to transverse contusion: A finite element study

by Marion Fournely, Yvan Petit, Eric Wagnac, Morgane Evin, Pierre-Jean Arnoux

Finite element models combined with animal experimental models of spinal cord injury provides the opportunity for investigating the effects of the injury mechanism on the neural tissue deformation and the resulting tissue damage. Thus, we developed a finite element model of the mouse cervical spinal cord in order to investigate the effect of morphological, experimental and mechanical factors on the spinal cord mechanical behavior subjected to transverse contusion. The overall mechanical behavior of the model was validated with experimental data of unilateral cervical contusion in mice. The effects of the spinal cord material properties, diameter and curvature, and of the impactor position and inclination on the strain distribution were investigated in 8 spinal cord anatomical regions of interest for 98 configurations of the model. Pareto analysis revealed that the material properties had a significant effect (p

Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

by Jaber S. Alqahtani, Tope Oyelade, Abdulelah M. Aldhahir, Saeed M. Alghamdi, Mater Almehmadi, Abdullah S. Alqahtani, Shumonta Quaderi, Swapna Mandal, John R. Hurst

Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.

Methods

We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).

Results

In total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.

Conclusion

Although COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.

30-year trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech population, Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA, 1985 – 2016/17

by Renata Cífková, Jan Bruthans, Peter Wohlfahrt, Alena Krajčoviechová, Pavel Šulc, Marie Jozífová, Lenka Eremiášová, Jan Pudil, Aleš Linhart, Jiří Widimský Jr, Jan Filipovský, Otto Mayer Jr, Zdenka Škodová, Rudolf Poledne, Petr Stávek, Věra Lánská

Background

Compared with Western Europe, the decline in cardiovascular (CV) mortality has been delayed in former communist countries in Europe, including the Czech Republic. We have assessed longitudinal trends in major CV risk factors in the Czech Republic from 1985 to 2016/17, covering the transition from the totalitarian regime to democracy.

Methods

There were 7 independent cross-sectional surveys for major CV risk factors conducted in the Czech Republic in the same 6 country districts within the WHO MONICA Project (1985, 1988, 1992) and the Czech post-MONICA study (1997/98, 2000/01, 2007/08 and 2016/2017), including a total of 7,606 males and 8,050 females. The population samples were randomly selected (1%, aged 25–64 years).

Results

Over the period of 31/32 years, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of smoking in males (from 45.0% to 23.9%; p p p Conclusions

The significant improvement in most CV risk factors between 1985 and 2016/17 substantially contributed to the remarkable decrease in CV mortality in the Czech Republic.

Confocal Raman microscopy to identify bacteria in oral subgingival biofilm models

by Lukas Simon Kriem, Kevin Wright, Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez, Steffen Rupp

The study of oral disease progression, in relation to the accumulation of subgingival biofilm in gingivitis and periodontitis is limited, due to either the ability to monitor plaque in vitro. When compared, optical spectroscopic techniques offer advantages over traditional destructive or biofilm staining approaches, making it a suitable alternative for the analysis and continued development of three-dimensional structures. In this work, we have developed a confocal Raman spectroscopy analysis approach towards in vitro subgingival plaque models. The main objective of this study was to develop a method for differentiating multiple oral subgingival bacterial species in planktonic and biofilm conditions, using confocal Raman microscopy. Five common subgingival bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, Veillonella dispar, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella nigrescens) were used and differentiated using a 2-way orthogonal Partial Least Square with Discriminant Analysis (O2PLS-DA) for the collected spectral data. In addition to planktonic growth, mono-species biofilms cultured using the ‘Zürich Model’ were also analyzed. The developed method was successfully used to predict planktonic and mono-species biofilm species in a cross validation setup. The results show differences in the presence and absence of chemical bands within the Raman spectra. The O2PLS-DA model was able to successfully predict 100% of all tested planktonic samples and 90% of all mono-species biofilm samples. Using this approach we have shown that Confocal Raman microscopy can analyse and predict the identity of planktonic and mono-species biofilm species, thus enabling its potential as a technique to map oral multi-species biofilm models.

Cost‐effectiveness of multi‐layered silicone foam dressings for prevention of sacral and heel pressure ulcers in high‐risk intensive care unit patients: An economic analysis of a randomised controlled trial

Abstract

Pressure ulcer incidence is high in intensive care units. This causes a serious financial burden to healthcare systems. We evaluated the cost‐effectiveness of multi‐layered silicone foam dressings for prevention of sacral and heel pressure ulcers in addition to standard prevention in high‐risk intensive care units patients. A randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of multi‐layered silicone foam dressings to prevent the development of pressure ulcers on heels and sacrum among 422 intensive care unit patients was conducted. Direct costs for preventive dressings in the intervention group and costs for treatment of incident pressure ulcers in both groups were measured using a bottom‐up approach. A cost‐effectiveness analysis by calculating the incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio using different assumptions was performed. Additional dressing and labour costs of €150.81 (€116.45 heels; €34.36 sacrum) per patient occurred in the intervention group. Treatment costs were €569.49 in the control group and €134.88 in the intervention group. The incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio was €1945.30 per PU avoided (€8144.72 on heels; €701.54 sacrum) in the intervention group. We conclude that application of preventive dressings is cost‐effective for the sacral area, but only marginal on heels for critically ill patients.

Validation of a simplified score for predicting latent rheumatic heart disease progression using a prospective cohort of Brazilian schoolchildren

Por: Bechtlufft · B. M. · Nascimento · B. R. · Sable · C. · Fraga · C. L. · Barbosa · M. M. · Reis · S. D. · Diamantino · A. C. · Meira · Z. M. A. · Castilho · S. R. T. · Arantes · N. F. · Oliveira · K. K. · Silva · J. L. P. · Rezende · B. D. F. · Costa · W. A. A. · Mata · M. D. · Pereira
Objectives

Echocardiographic (echo) screening is an important tool to estimate rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence, but the natural history of screen-detected RHD remains unclear. The PROVAR+ (Programa de RastreamentO da VAlvopatia Reumática) study, which uses non-experts, telemedicine and portable echo, pioneered RHD screening in Brazil. We aimed to assess the mid-term evolution of Brazilian schoolchildren (5–18 years) with echocardiography-detected subclinical RHD and to assess the performance of a simplified score consisting of five components of the World Heart Federation criteria, as a predictor of unfavourable echo outcomes.

Setting

Public schools of underserved areas and private schools in Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil.

Participants

A total of 197 patients (170 borderline and 27 definite RHD) with follow-up of 29±9 months were included. Median age was 14 (12–16) years, and 130 (66%) were woman. Only four patients in the definite group were regularly receiving penicillin.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Unfavourable outcome was based on the 2-year follow-up echo, defined as worsening diagnostic category, remaining with mild definite RHD or development/worsening of valve regurgitation/stenosis.

Results

Among patients with borderline RHD, 29 (17.1%) progressed to definite, 49 (28.8%) remained stable, 86 (50.6%) regressed to normal and 6 (3.5%) were reclassified as other heart diseases. Among those with definite RHD, 13 (48.1%) remained in the category, while 5 (18.5%) regressed to borderline, 5 (18.5%) regressed to normal and 4 (14.8%) were reclassified as other heart diseases. The simplified echo score was a significant predictor of RHD unfavourable outcome (HR 1.197, 95% CI 1.098 to 1.305, p

Conclusion

The simple risk score provided an accurate prediction of RHD status at 2-year follow-up, showing a good performance in Brazilian schoolchildren, with a potential value for risk stratification and monitoring of echocardiography-detected RHD.

Biomarkers of exposure and early effect in three contaminated sites of southern Italy: protocols for etiological epidemiological studies

Por: Gorini · F. · Bustaffa · E. · Bolignano · D. · Cori · L. · Faita · F. · Gastaldelli · A. · Interdonato · M. · Minichilli · F. · Quattrone · G. · Squadrito · F. · Tripepi · G. · Vassalle · C. · Bianchi · F.
Introduction

Environmental pollution has been progressively becoming one of the main risk factors to human diseases. In particular, populations living in high-contaminated sites are particularly exposed to environmental toxicants, with consequent increased risks to human health. In Italy, there are currently ongoing three epidemiological etiological studies aimed at evaluating the association between exposure to inorganic and organic chemicals and presence of biological markers of early effects in population living in three National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs). Specifically, the correlations concern preclinical indicators of liver disease in Priolo NPCS, thyroid diseases in Milazzo-Valle del Mela NPCS and cardiovascular risk and kidney damage in Crotone NPCS.

Methods and analysis

Overall, approximately 1300 subjects of both sexes will be enrolled in the three NPCSs according to specific inclusion criteria. For each subject, serum and urine specimens are collected, on which the determination of biological markers of exposure and early effects for the selected outcomes are performed. Individual information on environmental and occupational exposure, medical history, diet and life habits is obtained through questionnaires provided by web platform. In Milazzo-Valle del Mela and Crotone NPCSs, not invasive instrumental and imaging examinations are performed in order to evaluate further risk factors of thyroid carcinoma and cardiovascular disease, respectively.

Ethics and dissemination

The protocol studies have been approved by the Ethics Committees responsible for the three involved NPCSs: the Ethics Committee ‘Catania 2’ for the NPCS of Priolo (21 July 2017, n. 500/2017/CECT2), the Ethics Committee of the University Hospitals of Messina for the NPCS of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (19 February 2018, n.2/2018); the Ethics Committee of the Region of Calabria for the NPCS of Crotone (20 July 2017, n. 174). Results will be disseminated among policy-makers, citizens, stakeholders and scientific community through the organisation of conferences and events, and the publication on international peer/reviewed journals.

Mixed methods evaluation of workshops for citizen health advocates about financial conflicts of interests in healthcare

Por: Moynihan · R. · Fabbri · A. · Parker · L. · Bero · L.
Objectives

To evaluate workshops delivered to citizen health advocates about financial conflicts of interest in healthcare, transparency databases which disclose industry payments in the USA and Australia and the pros and cons of advocacy groups accepting industry sponsorship.

Design

Thematic analysis of workshop participant recorded discussions, and pre, post and 3-month follow-up questionnaires on confidence and knowledge about financial conflicts of interest, transparency databases and the merits of advocacy organisations accepting industry sponsorship.

Participants and setting

48 citizen health advocates participated in a half-day workshop, held in four Australian cities, which ended with a 1-hour recorded discussion. Participants were recruited with assistance from leading state-based health advocacy organisations.

Results

The thematic analysis of the recorded discussions revealed two major themes, (i) transparency and (ii) relationships with industry; and three minor themes: a lack of awareness about conflicts of interest and transparency, issues relating to trust and next steps in terms of potential reforms. In relation to transparency, participants felt strong support for transparency, strongly favouring the mandatory, extensive and accessible US Open Payments over the self-regulatory Australian model. Participants also noted that transparency had limitations, including the utility of disclosed information. In relation to industry sponsorship of advocacy groups, some participants expressed an openness to and support for accepting sponsorship, while many expressed a caution around potential downsides. Questionnaire results showed increases in both confidence and knowledge after the workshop, though only 23 of 48 participants returned the 3-month follow-up questionnaire.

Conclusions

Following a half-day workshop, citizen health advocates recruited by leading health advocacy organisations expressed strong support for tough transparency rules, and mixed feelings about advocacy groups accepting sponsorship from industry. Study limitations include a non-representative sample and a large drop-out at the 3-month post-workshop follow-up.

Lung cancer survival and mortality in Taiwan following the initial launch of targeted therapies: an interrupted time series study

Por: Hsu · J. C. · Wei · C.-F. · Yang · S.-C. · Lin · P.-C. · Lee · Y.-C. · Lu · C. Y.
Objectives

Two oral targeted therapies, gefitinib and erlotinib, were first approved and then launched into the market for treatment of late-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Taiwan in 2003 and 2006, respectively. The aim of this study were to determine the trends in lung cancer burden and examine changes in lung cancer-related survival rates and mortality following the launch of these new drugs.

Setting

Yearly lung cancer-related data (1994–2013), including incidence, number of newly diagnosed patients, survival rate and mortality, were retrieved from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database.

Design and outcome measures

Using a time series design with autoregressive integrated moving average model, we investigated and projected trends in the incidence and early diagnosis of lung cancer in Taiwan. We also estimated the changes in survival rates and mortality following the launch of targeted therapies using interrupted time series and segmented regression models.

Results

The age-standardised incidence of lung cancer increased from 22.53 per 100 000 people in 1994 to 34.09 in 2013, and it was projected to reach 38.98 by 2020. The rate of early-stage NSCLC at diagnosis increased from 12.63% in 2004 to 23.99% in 2013, and it was projected to reach 32.95% by 2020. The 2-year lung cancer survival increased by 19.81% (95% CI 14.90% to 24.71%) 3 years following the launch of gefitinib. Lung cancer mortality declined by 5.97% (95% CI –8.20% to –3.73%) 3 years following the launch of gefitinib.

Conclusions

Lung cancer survival rate increased and mortality decreased significantly following the launch of gefitinib and erlotinib in Taiwan.

Machine learning health-related applications in low-income and middle-income countries: a scoping review protocol

Por: Carrillo-Larco · R. M. · Tudor Car · L. · Pearson-Stuttard · J. · Panch · T. · Miranda · J. J. · Atun · R.
Introduction

Machine learning (ML) has been used in bio-medical research, and recently in clinical and public health research. However, much of the available evidence comes from high-income countries, where different health profiles challenge the application of this research to low/middle-income countries (LMICs). It is largely unknown what ML applications are available for LMICs that can support and advance clinical medicine and public health. We aim to address this gap by conducting a scoping review of health-related ML applications in LMICs.

Methods and analysis

This scoping review will follow the methodology proposed by Levac et al. The search strategy is informed by recent systematic reviews of ML health-related applications. We will search Embase, Medline and Global Health (through Ovid), Cochrane and Google Scholar; we will present the date of our searches in the final review. Titles and abstracts will be screened by two reviewers independently; selected reports will be studied by two reviewers independently. Reports will be included if they are primary research where data have been analysed, ML techniques have been used on data from LMICs and they aimed to improve health-related outcomes. We will synthesise the information following evidence mapping recommendations.

Ethics and dissemination

The review will provide a comprehensive list of health-related ML applications in LMICs. The results will be disseminated through scientific publications. We also plan to launch a website where ML models can be hosted so that researchers, policymakers and the general public can readily access them.

Facilitators and barriers of using digital technology for the management of diabetic foot ulcers: A qualitative systematic review

Abstract

The use of digital technology has been shown to be effective in managing chronic conditions. Telemedicine and mobile application are two common applications of digital technology in managing diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The facilitators and barriers of using it for DFU management are yet to be explored. This is a qualitative systematic review. Five bibliography databases and grey literature sources were searched (2000‐2019). Two reviewers independently screened the citations, extracted the data, assessed the quality of the included studies, and performed thematic synthesis. Three studies on patients and five studies on healthcare practitioners (HCPs) were included. Two studies focused on the use of mobile applications and six on telemedicine. In studies on patients, four analytical themes were generated: the relationships with HCPs; the attitude towards the usage of digital technology; the role of wound image taking; and impact of digital technology on DFU care, encompassing 15 facilitators (eg, enabling community support, improving wound care knowledge) and 12 barriers (eg, lack of technological savviness, difficulty reading on smartphones). Three analytical themes were generated from studies on HCPs: the impact of digital technology on HCPs; the role of digital technology in DFU care; and organisation of DFU care delivery, encompassing 17 facilitators (eg, adequate wound care training, digital technology enables holistic care) and 16 barriers (eg, lack of multidisciplinary approach in caring for DFU, lack of direct contact in care provision). Patients and HCPs reported various barriers and facilitators relating to different aspects of using digital technology in DFU management. Our findings can help inform future research as well as the adoption of digital technology in DFU management.

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