To investigate the relationship between gay app use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM).
Serial cross-sectional study.
A newly well-developed city in China.
4935 MSM were recruited through offline sampling methods from 2015 to 2017.
The primary outcome is the difference in HIV testing between app and non-app users.
2872 (58.2%) and 2159 (43.7%) participated MSM had been tested for HIV within lifetime and the past year, respectively. Compared with non-app-using MSM, app-using MSM had a significantly higher prevalence of HIV testing within lifetime (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.48, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and the past year (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57). App-using MSM were more likely to take an HIV test at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (AOR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.76) and community-based organisations (AOR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.03), but less often at gay venues (AOR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63). Meanwhile, app-using MSM were more likely to take self-testing (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.14). Predictors of HIV testing in the past year were: having an education level of college or higher (AOR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.65), being self-identified as a homosexual (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46), being recruited through clinic-based sampling (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60), using gay app (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.83), engaging in group sex (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.19), having received HIV-related service (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI 4.57 to 6.60), having a high level of HIV-related knowledge (AOR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.61) and high-risk perception (AOR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.40 to 6.23).
Gay app use was significantly associated with increased HIV testing among MSM hard to reach by traditional outreach. Therefore, it is imperative to expand HIV testing among non-app-using MSM. Continued efforts, innovative strategies and increased resource are highly needed to realise the first ‘90’ target.
Pneumoconiosis is characterised by diffuse fibrosis in lung tissue, and its incidence is on the rise. At present, there are limited therapeutic options for pneumoconiosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been widely used to treat pneumoconiosis，however, there is limited evidence concerning its efficacy. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of PR for pneumoconiosis.
The following databases will be searched from their inception to 1 April 2019: PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP and Wanfang Data. Randomised controlled trials of PR for pneumoconiosis will be included. Primary outcomes will include 6 min walk distance and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Study selection, extraction of data and assessment of study quality each will be independently undertaken. Statistical analysis will be conducted using Review Manager software.
This systematic review will provide up-to-date information on PR for pneumoconiosis. The review does not require ethical approval and will be disseminated electronically through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations.
To document the factors, and their pathways, that influence healthcare and antibiotics use following reported gastrointestinal illnesses in Anhui province, China.
This study uses cross-sectional design, descriptive statistical analysis, pathway mapping and multivariate logistic regression modelling.
Households in 12 villages in Anhui province, China.
A total of 3659 residents who: (1) held a registered rural residence and were actually living in the sampled villages when this study was conducted; (2) were aged 18 years and older and (3) were willing to participate and able to answer the survey questions.
Planned and measured variables included the occurrence of gastrointestinal illness, professional care seeking and antibiotic use due to the illness and factors influencing these measures.
Of the 3659 informants, 29.0% reported gastrointestinal illness episodes in the past year. Of these episodes, 50.2% led to professional care seeking and 65.4% of antibiotic use. Multivariate logistic modelling identifies that: (1) reported gastrointestinal illnesses were more frequent in north compared with middle (OR 0.569, 95% CI 0.472 to 0.686) and south (OR 0.588, 95% CI 0.492 to 0.702) Anhui, and were positively associated with age (B=0.123, p
Reported gastrointestinal illnesses are quite prevalent in the sample population and a large proportion of these have resulted in professional care and antibiotics use. The factors associated with the reported illnesses and pathways of healthcare and antibiotic use, as identified in this study, should inform future research and intervention efforts.
Colonoscopy is the reference method in screening and diagnosis of colorectal neoplasm, but its efficacy is closely related to the quality of bowel preparation. Poor patient compliance is a major risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation likely due to poor patient education. Such an education is usually provided via either oral or written instructions by clinicians. However, multiple education methods, such as smartphone applications, have been proved useful in aiding patients through bowel preparation. Also, it was reported that a large proportion of patients feel anxious before colonoscopy. Virtual reality (VR) is a novel method to educate patients and provides them with an immersive experience. Theoretically, it can make patients better prepared for bowel preparation and colonoscopy. However, no prospective studies have assessed the role of this novel technology in patient education before colonoscopy. We hypothesise that VR videos can improve bowel preparation quality and reduce pre-procedure anxiety.
The trial is a prospective, randomised, single-blinded, single-centre trial. Outpatients who are scheduled to undergo colonoscopy for screening or diagnostic purposes for the first time will be randomised to receive either the conventional patient education or the conventional methods plus VR videos, and 322 patients will be enrolled from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The primary endpoint is the quality of bowel preparation, measured by the Boston bowel preparation score. Secondary endpoints include polyp detection rate, adenoma detection rate, cecal intubation rate, patient compliance to complete bowel cleansing, withdrawal time, pre-procedure anxiety, overall satisfaction and willingness for the next colonoscopy.
The study has been approved by the institutional review board of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (No. ZS-1647). The results of this trial will be published in an open-access way and disseminated among gastrointestinal physicians and endoscopists.
Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China, as well as in the world. Late diagnosis is the main obstacle to improving survival. Currently, early detection methods for lung cancer have many limitations, for example, low specificity, risk of radiation exposure and overdiagnosis. Exhaled breath analysis is one of the most promising non-invasive techniques for early detection of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) biomarkers in lung cancer and to construct a predictive model for lung cancer based on exhaled breath analysis.
The study will recruit 389 lung cancer patients in one cancer centre and 389 healthy subjects in two lung cancer screening centres. Bio-VOC breath sampler and Tedlar bag will be used to collect breath samples. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase microextraction technique will be used to analyse VOCs in exhaled breath. VOC biomarkers with statistical significance and showing abilities to discriminate lung cancer patients from healthy subjects will be selected for the construction of predictive model for lung cancer.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sichuan Cancer Hospital on 6 April 2017 (No. SCCHEC-02-2017-011). The results of this study will be disseminated in presentations at academic conferences, publications in peer-reviewed journals and the news media.
To evaluate the effect of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) versus conventional oxygen therapy (COT) on the reintubation rate, rate of escalation of respiratory support and clinical outcomes in postextubation adult surgical patients.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature.
PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Index and Wan fang databases were searched up to August 2018.
Studies in postoperative adult surgical patients (≥18 years), receiving HFNC or COT applied immediately after extubation that reported reintubation, escalation of respiratory support, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and mortality were eligible for inclusion.
The following data were extracted from the included studies: first author’s name, year of publication, study population, country of origin, study design, number of patients, patients’ baseline characteristics and outcomes. Associations were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) and 95% CIs.
This meta-analysis included 10 studies (1327 patients). HFNC significantly reduced the reintubation rate (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.61, p
HFNC is associated with a significantly lower reintubation rate and rate of escalation of respiratory support compared with COT in postextubation adult surgical patients, but there is no difference in the incidence of PPCs or mortality. More well-designed, large randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the subpopulation of patients who are most likely to benefit from HFNC therapy.
Healthy behaviour changes, such as reducing salt intake, are important to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Social environment is a major challenge to achieve such behaviours, but the explicit mechanisms remain largely unknown. We investigated whether social networks of children were associated with their behaviours to reduce salt intake.
An ancillary study of a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce salt intake in children and their families (School-EduSalt), in which salt intake of children was significantly reduced by 25%.
14 primary schools in urban Changzhi, northern China.
603 children aged 10–12 years in the intervention arm.
We developed a score assessing salt-reduction behaviours (SRB score) of children based on self-administered questionnaires. The SRB score was validated by the changes in salt intake measured by 24-hour urine collection in a random sample of 135 children. A 1-unit increase in SRB score was associated with a 0.31 g/day greater reduction in salt intake during the trial (95% CI 0.06 to 0.57, p=0.016).
Children from families with more family members not supporting salt reduction had significantly lower SRB scores (p
Social networks were associated with the behaviours to reduce salt intake in children. Future salt-reduction programmes may benefit from strategies that actively engage families and teachers, and strategies that enhance interconnectivity among peers.
To quantitate the 2016 global and national burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) attributable to ambient fine particulate matter air pollution ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5).
We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study data and methodologies to estimate the 2016 burden of CKD attributable to PM2.5 in 194 countries and territories. Population-weighted PM2.5 levels and incident rates of CKD for each country were curated from the GBD study publicly available data sources.
GBD global and national data on PM2.5 and CKD.
194 countries and territories.
We estimated the attributable burden of disease (ABD), years living with disability (YLD), years of life lost (YLL) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).
The 2016 global burden of incident CKD attributable to PM2.5 was 6 950 514 (95% uncertainty interval: 5 061 533–8 914 745). Global YLD, YLL and DALYs of CKD attributable to PM2.5 were 2 849 311 (1 875 219–3 983 941), 8 587 735 (6 355 784–10 772 239) and 11 445 397 (8 380 246–14 554 091), respectively. Age-standardised ABD, YLL, YLD and DALY rates varied substantially among geographies. Populations in Mesoamerica, Northern Africa, several countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and several countries in Southeast Asia were among those with highest age-standardised DALY rates. For example, age-standardised DALYs per 100 000 were 543.35 (391.16–707.96) in El Salvador, 455.29 (332.51–577.97) in Mexico, 408.41 (283.82–551.84) in Guatemala, 238.25 (173.90–303.98) in India and 178.26 (125.31–238.47) in Sri Lanka, compared with 5.52 (0.82–11.48) in Sweden, 6.46 (0.00–14.49) in Australia and 12.13 (4.95–21.82) in Canada. Frontier analyses showed that Mesoamerican countries had significantly higher CKD DALY rates relative to other countries with comparable sociodemographic development.
Our results demonstrate that the global toll of CKD attributable to ambient air pollution is significant and identify several endemic geographies where air pollution may be a significant driver of CKD burden. Air pollution may need to be considered in the discussion of the global epidemiology of CKD.
In this era of rising healthcare costs, there is a growing interest in understanding how funding policies can be used to improve health and healthcare efficiency. Financial incentives (eg, vouchers or access to health insurance) or disincentives (eg, fines or out-of-pocket costs) affect behaviours. To date, reviews have explored the effects of financial (dis)incentives on patient health and behaviour by focusing on specific behaviours or geographical areas. The objective of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the use of financial (dis)incentives as a means of influencing health-related behaviour and costs in randomised trials.
We will search electronic databases, clinical trial registries and websites of health economic organisations for randomised controlled trials. The initial searches, which were conducted on 13 January 2018, will be updated every 12 months until the completion of data analysis. The reference lists of included studies will be manually screened to identify additional eligible studies. Two researchers will independently review titles, abstracts and full texts to determine eligibility according to a set of predetermined inclusion criteria. Data will be extracted from included studies using a form developed and piloted by the research team. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool.
Ethics approval is not required since this is a review of published data. Results will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at relevant conferences.
Our aim was to assess the release level of heparin-binding protein (HBP) in sepsis and septic shock under the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3).
Prospective cohort study.
A general teaching hospital in China.
Adult infected patients with suspected sepsis and people who underwent physical examination were included. According to the health status and severity of illness, the research subjects were divided into healthy, local infection, sepsis non-shock and septic shock under Sepsis-3 definitions.
Plasma levels of HBP, procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP) and complete blood count were detected in all subjects. Single-factor analysis of variance was used to compare the biomarker levels of multiple groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic capacity of each marker.
HBP levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis non-shock than in those with local infections (median 49.7ng/mL vs 11.8 ng/mL, p
A high level of HBP in plasma is associated with sepsis, which might be a useful diagnostic marker in patients with suspected sepsis.
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) to relieve pain and promote functional rehabilitation after total knee surgery.
We propose a single-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of EA. Patients with osteoarthritis (aged 55–80 years) undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be included in the trial. They will be randomised to receive either EA or sham-EA. A total of 110 patients will receive EA and sham-EA for 3 days after TKA. Postoperative pain will be measured using visual analogue score, and the need for an additional dose of opioid and analgesics will be recorded as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include knee function and swelling, postoperative anxiety, postoperative nausea and vomiting among other complications.
This study has been approved by the ethics committee, and subsequent modifications of the protocol will be reported and approved by it. Written informed consent will be obtained from all of the participants or their authorised agents.
To explore medical students’ views on and experiences of responding to out-of-hospital medical emergencies.
University College London (UCL).
11 UCL Medical School students.
We carried out 11 one-to-one semistructured interviews, with participant validation and reflective work. The data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Three core themes were identified. (1) ‘We Did Debate a Bit: Should We Go? Should We Not?’—Students’ decisions to respond were based on the appearance of the casualty; the presence and actions of bystanders; witnessing the incident; self-perceived competence, confidence and knowledge; and personal experiences and feelings associated with medical emergencies. (2) ‘It Would Represent the Medical Profession Well if We Did Step In and Help’—Students felt that they had an ethical and/or professional duty to help. (3) ‘No One Should Die Because of a Lack of... Basic Life-Saving Techniques’—Students felt that medical school training alone had not sufficiently prepared them to respond to out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Improvements to training were suggested: integrating first aid/response training into the horizontal (systems-based) modules; teaching both common and less common medical emergencies and presentations; training that is led by experienced first responders and that increases students’ exposure to out-of-hospital medical emergencies; and providing more revision training sessions.
Students felt that medical school training could be improved to better prepare them for responding to out-of-hospital medical emergencies, and wanted clarification on whether or not they have an ethical and/or professional duty to help. Further mixed-methods research using a larger sample needs to be carried out to confirm whether findings are transferable to other UK medical schools.
Oesophageal cancer (OC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and about 50% of all new cases occurred in China. Population-based screening has been conducted in high-risk areas in China since 1970s, however, a few factors have limited the integration of the results from previous studies and the sharing of existing resources, such as the difference in screening methods and protocols, inconsistencies in questionnaires for risk factors investigation, lack of standards for sample collection and incomplete follow-up information.
The National Cohort of Esophageal Cancer-Prospective Cohort Study of Esophageal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions based on High-Risk Population (NCEC-HRP) is a prospective cohort study of OC screening based on high-risk population in China supported by the National Key R&D Programme. Eight areas located at eastern, central and western China are selected as screening centres to represent three economical-geographical regions. All local residents aged 40–69 years in the selected areas are invited to take endoscopic examination and risk factors investigation unless they meet the exclusion criteria. The recruitment began on June 2017 and a total of 100 000 participants will be enrolled by December 2020 and all subjects will be followed for a long time. This study is designed as open-ended and has broad research aims. Summary statistics for baseline information will be reported after the completion of recruitment. We will develop a series of standards and guidelines for OC screening during the study. An open and shared research platform linked with epidemiological databases and biobank will be built up for further research.
The study is approved by the Ethics Committee of Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College (approval number 16-171/1250). The findings of the study will be disseminated through scientific peer-reviewed journals as well as the public via the study website (http://www.ncec-china.cn).
To compare persistence and outcomes of non‐vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus warfarin in Chinese patients with non‐valvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
Given the unpredictable warfarin response and the costliness of NOACs, more research is needed to clarify which drug enjoys better persistence and outcomes, helping to provide personalised care for patients.
A prospective cohort study.
Chinese patients taking NOACs or warfarin from March 2016–April 2018 were followed up by telephone or outpatient visit at 3, 6 months and half a year thereafter. Anticoagulant persistence and outcomes including stroke and bleeding were collected. We used Cox regression to analyse data. This study was reported according to the STROBE guideline.
A total of 344 patients were enrolled; 146 patients received NOACs including dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and 198 patients received warfarin. Persistence with anticoagulants was low and dropped sharply at the third month. Patients on NOACs had worse persistence at 3, 6 and 12 months than those on warfarin. There was no difference in the incidence of ischaemic stroke and bleeding between groups, although ischaemic stroke and major bleeding occurred less frequently in the NOACs group. Paroxysmal AF, no heart failure and no stroke were predictors of NOACs non‐persistence. Prior catheter ablation and no diabetes were associated with poor persistence of warfarin. The main reason for anticoagulant cessation was patient preference.
Chinese patients taking NOACs had lower persistence, similar rate of ischaemic stroke and bleeding compared with those on warfarin. Further inventions are needed to improve persistence in Chinese patients on NOACs.
Anticoagulation should highlight both persistence and outcomes emphasising personalised care of different drugs. Further interventions to improve persistence should be developed based on causes and risk factors and carried out in the third month of therapy.
Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent neurological disease, with an estimated 1.5 billion cases worldwide. Pharmacotherapy should be considered by patients with TTH who have a limited response to non-pharmacological treatment. However, recommendations for the vast array of therapeutic drugs for TTH partially overlap, with conflicting recommendations for strength in different guidelines; these may confuse the decision-making process of clinicians. Hence, the aims of this study are to analyse the available direct and indirect evidence on different drug monotherapies for TTH in adults, and to generate a treatment ranking according to their efficacy and safety outcomes by using a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA).
We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China Biomedical Literature Database, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and other resources for eligible studies. Randomised controlled trials on different drug monotherapies for TTH will be included. Two review authors (RX and YW) will independently search and select the studies, extract the data and assess the risk of bias. A Bayesian NMA will afterwards be conducted to pool the effect measures across all types of monotherapy drugs. The ranking probabilities of the efficacy and safety of different drug monotherapies will be estimated. Heterogeneity will be quantified using the Q statistic and the I² index. Inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence will be assessed by the node-splitting model. In addition, the overall quality of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.
No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, which will be disseminated electronically and in print.
by Yongli Ku, Guoyi Xu, Xiaohong Tian, Huiqin Xie, Xiangna Yang, Cuiling Cao, Yinglong Chen
by Bryan M. H. Keng, Fei Gao, Ru San Tan, See Hooi Ewe, Louis L. Y. Teo, Bei Qi Xie, George B. B. Goh, Woon-Puay Koh, Angela S. KohAgeing-related alterations in cardiovascular structure and function are commonly associated with chronic inflammation. A potential blood-based biomarker indicative of a chronic inflammatory state is N-Terminal Pro C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NTproCNP). We aim to investigate associations between NTproCNP and ageing-related impairments in cardiovascular function. Community-based participants underwent same-day assessment of cardiovascular function and circulating profiles of plasma NTproCNP. Associations between cardiovascular and biomarker profiles were studied in adjusted models including standard covariates. We studied 93 participants (mean age 73 ± 5.3 years, 36 women), of whom 55 (59%) had impaired myocardial relaxation (ratio of peak velocity flow in early diastole E (m/s) to peak velocity flow in late diastole by atrial contraction A (m/s)
This study aimed to validate the performance of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in a Chinese emergency department and to determine the best cut-off value for in-hospital mortality prediction.
A prospective, single-centred observational cohort study.
This study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in South China.
A total of 383 patients aged 18 years or older who presented to the emergency department from 17 May 2017 through 27 September 2017, triaged as category 1, 2 or 3, were enrolled.
The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and admission to the intensive care unit. The secondary outcome was using MEWS to predict hospitalised and discharged patients.
A total of 383 patients were included in this study. In-hospital mortality was 13.6% (52/383), and transfer to the intensive care unit was 21.7% (83/383). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of MEWS for in-hospital mortality prediction was 0.83 (95% CI 0.786 to 0.881). When predicting in-hospital mortality with the cut-off point defined as 3.5, 158 patients had MEWS >3.5, with a specificity of 66%, a sensitivity of 87%, an accuracy of 69%, a positive predictive value of 28% and a negative predictive value of 97%, respectively.
Our findings support the use of MEWS for in-hospital mortality prediction in patients who were triaged category 1, 2 or 3 in a Chinese emergency department. The cut-off value for in-hospital mortality prediction defined in this study was different from that seen in many other studies.
The objectives of this study were to investigate new nurses’ experiences of workplace incivility; verify the mediating role of work ability in the relationship between workplace incivility and job performance and examine the moderating role of career expectations in the relationship between workplace incivility and job performance.
This cross-sectional survey was conducted in China in May 2016.
The research settings included 54 cities across 29 provinces of China.
Of the 903 participants recruited, 696 new nurses (3 years of nursing experience or not recognised as a registered nurse.
New nurses (60.7%) experienced some level of workplace incivility in the previous year, and it was more frequent among those with higher educational degrees. Work ability mediated the relationship between workplace incivility and job performance, and this relationship was moderated by career expectations.
Incivility towards new nurses was relatively common in the workplace. Workplace incivility impairs job performance by weakening the work ability of new nurses. Higher career expectations may buffer workplace incivility and contribute to the maintenance of job performance by buffering the detrimental effects of workplace incivility.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of the pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy in treating osteoarthritis (OA).
PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched through 13 October 2017.
Randomised controlled trials compared the efficacy of PEMF therapy with sham control in patients with OA.
Pain, function, adverse effects and characteristics of participants were extracted. RevMan V.5.2 was used to perform statistical analyses.
Twelve trials were included, among which ten trials involved knee OA, two involved cervical OA and one involved hand OA. The PEMF group showed more significant pain alleviation than the sham group in knee OA (standardised mean differences (SMD)=–0.54, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.04, p=0.03) and hand OA (SMD=–2.85, 95% CI –3.65 to –2.04, p30 min per session. Three trials reported adverse events, and the combined results showed that there was no significant difference between PEMF and the sham group.
PEMF could alleviate pain and improve physical function for patients with knee and hand OA, but not for patients with cervical OA. Meanwhile, a short PEMF treatment duration (within 30 min) may achieve more favourable efficacy. However, given the limited number of study available in hand and cervical OA, the implication of this conclusion should be cautious for hand and cervical OA.