by Giovana Vesentini, Angélica M. P. Barbosa, Débora C. Damasceno, Gabriela Marini, Fernanda Piculo, Selma M. M. Matheus, Raghavendra L. S. Hallur, Sthefanie K. Nunes, Bruna B. Catinelli, Claudia G. Magalhães, Roberto Costa, Joelcio F. Abbade, José E. Corrente, Iracema M. P. Calderon, Marilza V. C. Rudge, The DIAMATER Study GroupBackground and objective
In the present study, we compared the effect of diabetic pregnancy on the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) in humans and rats. We hypothesized that our animal model could provide valuable information about alterations in the RAM of women with Gestational Diabetes (GDM).Method
Newborns female rats (n = 10/group) were administered streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously and were mated on reaching adulthood, to develop the mild hyperglycemic pregnant (MHP) rat model. At the end of pregnancy, the mothers were sacrificed, and the RAM tissue was collected. Pregnant women without GDM (non-GDM group; n = 10) and those diagnosed with GDM (GDM group; n = 8) and undergoing treatment were recruited, and RAM samples were obtained at C-section. The RAM architecture and the distribution of the fast and slow fibers and collagen were studied by immunohistochemistry.Results
No statistically significant differences in the maternal and fetal characters were observed between the groups in both rats and women. However, significant changes in RAM architecture were observed. Diabetes in pregnancy increased the abundance of slow fibers and decreased fast fiber number and area in both rats and women. A decrease in collagen distribution was observed in GDM women; however, a similar change was not observed in the MHP rats.Conclusion
Our results indicated that pregnancy- associated diabetes- induced similar structural adaptations in the RAM of women and rats with slight alterations in fiber type number and area. These findings suggest that the MHP rat model can be used for studying the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the fiber structure of RAM.
by Liwen Shen, Lanfeng XingObjective
This study investigated the medical coping styles of female patients treated with in vitro fertilization and embryonic transfer (IVF-ET), and analyzed the effects of alexithymia and social support on their choice of coping style.Methods
A survey was conducted with 285 female patients undergoing IVF-ET in a reproductive medical center of a third-grade class-A hospital in China using the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, and the Toronto Alexithymia scale.Results
Patients who underwent IVF-ET treatment had a higher score for avoidance as a coping mode than did normal controls. Utilization of social support predicted the use of confrontation as a coping style. Difficulty identifying feelings, objective support, and utilization of social support were factors in the choice of avoidance as a coping style, and length of infertility treatment, difficulty identifying feelings, and subjective support predicted patients’ use of the acceptance-resignation as a coping style.Conclusion
Patients who undergo IVF-ET generally select the coping style of avoidance, which is not conducive to treatment. Targeted intervention strategies should be developed based on the factors influencing patients’ choice of coping style(s) to guide them in choosing positive coping methods, improve compliance, and achieve successful pregnancy outcomes.
by Dieunel Derilus, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Hebe Rosado, Edgardo Agosto, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Humberto CavallinBacteria found in operating rooms (ORs) might be clinically relevant since they could pose a threat to patients. In addition, C-sections operations are performed in ORs that provide the first environment and bacterial exposure to the sterile newborns that are extracted directly from the uterus to the OR air. Considering that at least one third of neonates in the US are born via C-section delivery (and more than 50% of all deliveries in some countries), understanding the distribution of bacterial diversity in ORs is critical to better understanding the contribution of the OR microbiota to C-section- associated inflammatory diseases. Here, we mapped the bacteria contained in an OR after a procedure was performed; we sampled grids of 60x60 cm across walls and wall-adjacent floors and sequenced the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene from 260 samples. The results indicate that bacterial communities changed significantly (ANOSIM, p-value
by Pauline Geuijen, Marlies de Rond, Joanneke Kuppens, Femke Atsma, Aart Schene, Hein de Haan, Cornelis de Jong, Arnt SchellekensIntroduction
Substance use disorders (SUD) in physicians often remain concealed for a long time. Peer monitoring and open discussions with colleagues are essential for identifying SUD. However, physicians often feel uncomfortable discussing substance use with a colleague. We explored physicians’ attitudes and norms about substance use (disorders) and their (intended) approach upon a presumption of substance use in a colleague.Materials and methods
An online cross-sectional survey concerning “Addiction in physicians” was administered by the Royal Dutch Medical Association physician panel. Overall, 1685 physicians (47%) responded. Data were analyzed by logistic regression to explore factors associated with taking action upon a substance use presumption.Results
Most physicians agreed that SUD can happen to anyone (67%), is not a sign of weakness (78%) and that it is a disease that can be treated (83%). Substance use in a working context was perceived as unacceptable (alcohol at work: 99%, alcohol during a standby duty: 91%, alcohol in the eight hours before work: 77%, and illicit drugs in the eight hours before work: 97%). Almost all respondents (97%) intend to act upon a substance use presumption in a colleague. Of the 29% who ever had this presumption, 65% took actual action. Actual action was associated with male gender and older age (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.20–2.74 and OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, respectively).Conclusions
About one-third of physicians reported experience with a presumption of substance use in a colleague. Whilst most physicians intend to take action upon such a presumption, two-thirds actually do act upon a presumption. To bridge this intention-behavior gap continued medical education on signs and symptoms of SUD and instructions on how to enter a supportive dialogue with a colleague about personal issues, may enhance physicians’ knowledge, confidence, and ethical responsibility to act upon a presumption of substance use or other concerns in a colleague.
by Tzu-Chun Chung, Tzu-Shan Chen, Yao-Chun Hsu, Feng-Chen Kao, Yuan-Kun Tu, Pao-Hsin LiuBackground/objective
Osteoarthritis typically develops after surgery for traumatic fractures of the acetabulum and may result in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We conducted a population-based retrospective study to investigate the incidence of THA after treatment of acetabular, pelvic, and combined acetabular and pelvic fractures with open reduction-internal fixation surgery compared with that in the control group.Design
A retrospective population-based cohort study.Setting
Data were gathered from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.Participants
We enrolled 3041 patients with acetabular fractures, 5618 with pelvic fractures, and 733 with combined pelvic and acetabular fractures between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, totaling 9392 individuals. The control group comprised 664,349 individuals. Study participants were followed up for the occurrence of THA until death or the end of the study period.Results
The THA rates after surgical intervention were 17.82%, 7.28%, and 18.01% in patients with acetabular, pelvic, and combined acetabular and pelvic fractures, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly higher for the acetabular fracture, pelvic fracture, and combined-fracture groups (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs] = 58.42, 21.68, and 62.04, respectively) than for the control group (p p Conclusion
The incidence rates of THA after surgical intervention in the pelvic fracture, acetabular fracture, and combined-fracture groups were significantly higher than that of the control group.
by Christophe Béné, Jessica Fanzo, Steven D. Prager, Harold A. Achicanoy, Brendan R. Mapes, Patricia Alvarez Toro, Camila Bonilla CedrezAt present, our ability to comprehend the dynamics of food systems and the consequences of their rapid ‘transformations’ is limited. In this paper, we propose to address this gap by exploring the interactions between the sustainability of food systems and a set of key drivers at the global scale. For this we compile a metric of 12 key drivers of food system from a globally-representative set of low, middle, and high-income countries and analyze the relationships between these drivers and a composite index that integrates the four key dimensions of food system sustainability, namely: food security & nutrition, environment, social, and economic dimensions. The two metrics highlight the important data gap that characterizes national systems’ statistics—in particular in relation to transformation, transport, retail and distribution. Spearman correlations and Principal Component Analysis are then used to explore associations between levels of sustainability and drivers. With the exception of one economic driver (trade flows in merchandise and services), the majority of the statistically significant correlations found between food system sustainability and drivers appear to be negative. The fact that most of these negative drivers are closely related to the global demographic transition that is currently affecting the world population highlights the magnitude of the challenges ahead. This analysis is the first one that provides quantitative evidence at the global scale about correlations between the four dimensions of sustainability of our food systems and specific drivers.
by Christian Kirchnawy, Fiona Hager, Veronica Osorio Piniella, Mathias Jeschko, Michael Washüttl, Johannes Mertl, Aurelie Mathieu-Huart, Christophe RoussellePlastic toys mouthed by children may be a source of exposure to endocrine active substances. The purpose of this study was to measure hormonal activity of substances leaching from toys and to identify potential endocrine disruptors causing that activity. For this purpose, migration experiments of toys were conducted in saliva simulants. The CALUX® assays were used to detect (anti-) estrogenic and (anti-) androgenic activity of 18 toys. Chemical trace analysis–namely, GC-MS and HPLC-MS- was used to identify which compounds may be responsible for endocrine activity in the sample migrates. Nine out of 18 tested toys showed significant estrogenic activity. For two samples, the detected estrogenic activity could be well explained by detecting the known endocrine active substance bisphenol A (BPA). For all identified substances, including BPA, a risk assessment for human health was performed by comparing the exposure dose, calculated based on the determined substance concentration, to toxicological reference values. Using worst-case scenarios, the exposure to BPA by mouthing of the two estrogen active, BPA-containing toys could be above the temporary TDI that EFSA has calculated. This demonstrates that some toys could significantly contribute to the total exposure to BPA of babies and infants. For seven out of nine estrogen active samples, the source of the estrogen activity could not be explained by analysis for 41 known or suspected endocrine active substances in plastic, indicating that the estrogen activities were caused by currently unknown endocrine active substances, or by endocrine active substances that would currently not be suspected in toys.
by Ahmed M. Alzahrani, Ahmed Hakami, Ahmad AlHadi, Mohammed A. Batais, Abdullah A. Alrasheed, Turky H. AlmigbalThere is a growing body of research that shows a significant association between mindfulness and mental health. However, studies on Saudi populations are still in their infancy. Mindfulness is a personal tendency to focus on the present time in a non-judgmental manner, including the interior and exterior experience of feelings and events. The first aim of this study is to examine the relationship between mindfulness, stress, depression, and academic performance in a sample of medical students from King Saud University. The second aim is to explore the potential moderation effects of mindfulness on the impact of stress on academic performance and depression in the study population. This cross-sectional study examined 289 medical students who were selected by a stratified random sampling technique and completed validated online questionnaires measuring mindfulness, stress, and depression. The data were analyzed using SAS version 9.2, and R software was used for graphs. Correlation analysis showed that mindfulness is inversely associated with depression and stress, but not with academic performance. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression showed that mindfulness can predict both depression and stress. We also found that two subscales of mindfulness can moderate the relation between stress and depression: non-judging of inner experience and describing. The findings suggest that a higher mindfulness score is associated with lower depression and stress levels and could buffer against depression in a stressful environment. There is a need for further research to investigate the relation of mindfulness with positive psychological outcomes, as well as experimental trials to examine the efficacy of mindfulness training on improving mental wellbeing in our community.
To explore nursing students’ subjective experience of emotions during first‐year clinical placements, strategies used to manage their emotions, and socialisation to emotion management.
Emotion regulation is a key source of stress for early career and student nurses. Clinical placement experiences can elicit strong emotions in nursing students; however, they may be unprepared for the challenge of regulating their emotions in real‐world practice. How nursing students learn to manage their emotions in the clinical setting, whether they receive support for this, and how they are socialised to manage their emotions during placements, are not well known.
An exploratory qualitative study.
Semi‐structured interviews (n=19) were conducted with first year nursing students, exploring their experiences of emotion management during clinical placement. Interview transcripts were analysed using conventional qualitative content analysis. Reporting adheres to the COREQ Checklist.
Interactions with patients and staff often elicited negative feelings. Structured guidance for emotion management by supervising staff was scarce. Students used informal self‐reflection and interpretation to guide emotion management.
In the absence of strategic socialisation and formal support for effective emotion management, students used emotional labour strategies that can negatively impact on well‐being. A focus on adequately preparing nursing students for emotion work is a necessary component of classroom and clinical learning environments. Structured debriefing during clinical placements may provide a relevant context to discuss emotions arising during clinical work, and to learn emotion management strategies.
Emotional competence, a fundamental ability for registered nurses and students, supports personal health maintenance and strengthens professional practice. Students are exposed to clinical environments and interpersonal encounters that evoke strong emotions. They need situated learning strategies and formal support to develop knowledge and strengthen capability for emotion management, as this is essential for promoting professional development and patient care.
Personal resilience has been conceptualised in many different ways; however, a common definition is that resilience is the ability to cope successfully despite adverse circumstances (Henshall, 2020). Historically, the term ‘resilience’ encompasses both physiological and psychological aspects and the latter is personal to individuals, with some people having more developed strategies for personal resilience than others. Understandings of resilience vary between populations, contexts and cultures (McDonald et al., 2012), with resilience being viewed in some cases as an inherent personality trait and in others as a dynamic process existing on a continuum between resilience and vulnerability.
Clinicians’ knowledge and skills for evidence‐based practice (EBP) and organizational climate are important for science‐based care. There is scant literature regarding aligning organizational culture with EBP implementation and even less for unit and organizational culture. The Nursing EBP Survey examines individual, unit, and organizational factors to better understand registered nurses’ (RN) self‐reported EBP.
Establish and confirm factor loading, reliability, and discriminant validity for the untested Nursing EBP Survey.
The study employed a descriptive cross‐sectional survey design and was targeted for RNs. The setting included 14 hospitals and 680 medical offices in Southern California. The 1999 instrument consisted of 22 items; 7 items were added in 2005 for 29 items. The questionnaire used a 5 point, Likert‐type scale. The survey website opened in November 2016 and closed after 23 weeks. Psychometric testing and factor determination used parallel analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and ANOVA post hoc comparisons.
One thousand one hundred and eighty‐one RNs completed the survey. All factor loadings in the CFA model were positive and significant (p < .001). All standardized loadings ranged from .70 to .94. The covariance estimate between Factor 1 and Factor 2 was marginally significant (p = .07). All other covariances and error variances were significant (p < .001). Final factor names were Practice Climate (Factor 1), Data Collection (Factor 2), Evidence Appraisal (Factor 3), Implementation (Factor 4), and Access to Evidence (Factor 5). Four of 5 factors showed significant differences between education levels (p < .05 level). All factors showed significant differences (p < .05) between inpatient and ambulatory staff, with higher scores for inpatient settings.
Nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills for EBP vary. The 2019 Nursing EBP survey offers RNs direction to plan and support improvement in evidence‐based outcomes and tailors future EBP initiatives.
Anecdotal reports from across the country highlight the fact that nurses are facing major challenges in moving new evidence‐based practice (EBP) initiatives into the electronic health record (EHR).
The purpose of this study was to: (a) learn current processes for embedding EBP into EHRs, (b) uncover facilitators and barriers associated with rapid movement of new evidence‐based nursing practices into the EHR and (c) identify strategies and processes that have been successfully implemented in healthcare organizations across the nation.
A qualitative study design was utilized. Purposive sampling was used to recruit nurses from across the country (N = 29). Nine focus group sessions were conducted. Semistructured interview questions were developed. Focus groups were conducted by video and audio conferencing. Using an inductive approach, each transcript was read and initial codes were generated resulting in major themes and subthemes.
Five major themes were identified: (a) barriers to advancing EBP secondary to the EHR, (b) organizational structure and governing processes of the EHR, (c) current processes for prioritization of EHR changes, (d) impact on ability of clinicians to implement EBP and (e) wait times and delays.
Delays in moving new EBP practice changes into the EHR are significant. These delays are sources of frustration and job dissatisfaction. Our results underscore the importance of a priori planning for anticipated changes and building expected delays into the timeline for EBP projects. Moreover, nurse executives must advocate for greater representation of nursing within informatics technology governance structures and additional resources to hire nurse informaticians.
To identify training strategies and determine how registered health and social care practitioners change their practice post Mental Capacity Act training.
Narrative literature review
Seventeen databases were searched up to December 2019; CINAHL, Social Care Online, PubMed, Social Policy and Practice, Discover, Medline, Science Direct, Ovid, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Social Services Abstracts, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, Web of Science, British Nursing Index, DH‐Data, King’s Fund Library Catalogue.
Empirical studies of any design investigating Mental Capacity Act training were searched and screened. Data were extracted to a bespoke spreadsheet and quality assessed. Reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses, (PRISMA).
Of 162 papers identified, 16 were included comprising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. Trainees valued interactive training with close alignment to practice. Training did not lead to demonstrable practice change. Barriers in the context and cultures of care environments were identified.
To facilitate application of Mental Capacity Act legislation, identified barriers should be addressed. Future training should be interactive, scenario‐based and relevant to trainees’ practice.
The Mental Capacity Act is widely misunderstood and implementation poor. Training is proposed as a solution, but the nature of training that will positively affect practice remains unknown. This review aims to address this gap in the evidence base. Interactive training, using scenarios that reflect practice complexities, has the most positive impact. Cultural norms in care environments may impede application of this legislation.
The review has international relevance as there is a global imperative to adhere to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The review will inform training design and delivery to ensure that people with impaired capacity to make decisions are given the best opportunity to act autonomously.
To analyze, hierarchically, factors associated with hospital readmissions for acute coronary syndrome.
Hospital readmissions have risen, especially in patients with multiple comorbidities, which are most often chronic. The leading causes of hospital readmission include acute coronary syndrome, which is costly and often preventable. Determining clinical and non‐clinical variables that increase the chances of readmission is important to assess and evaluate patients hospitalized for coronary heart diseases.
A case‐control study whose dependent variable was hospital readmission for acute coronary syndrome.
The study included 277 inpatients, of whom 132 were in their first hospitalization and 145 had already been hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome. The independent variables for this hierarchical model were sociodemographic conditions, life habits, access to health services, and physical health measures. Data were obtained by interviews, anthropometric measurements, and patient records. Logistic regression analysis was performed using the stepwise technique, with Microsoft Excel and R version 3.2.3. The research was reported via the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE).
In the final hierarchical logistic model, the following risk factors were associated with readmission for acute coronary syndrome: inadequate drug therapy adherence, stress, history of smoking for 30 years or more, and the lack of use of primary care health services.
Clinical and non‐clinical variables are related to hospital readmission for acute coronary syndrome and can increase the chance of readmission by up to six times.
The predictive model can be used to avoid readmission for acute coronary syndrome, and it represents an advance in the prediction of the occurrence of the outcome. This implies the need for a reorientation of the network for post‐discharge care in the first hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome.
To investigate the relationship between symptom burden, medication adherence, and spiritual well‐being in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
The relationship between spirituality and medication adherence has been investigated in different chronic conditions. However, the relationship between symptom burden, medication adherence, and spiritual well‐being in patients with COPD has not been explored.
A descriptive correlational study design was adopted.
A total of 112 patients with COPD were included in the study. Data were collected using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale‐7 (ARMS‐7), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy‐Spiritual Well‐Being Scale (FACIT‐Sp). The data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist was used.
The CAT score was significantly higher in patients on long‐term oxygen therapy and those who had more than three comorbid conditions (p < 0.05). The mean score of ARMS‐7 was significantly associated with age (p < 0.05). Current smokers had higher ARMS‐7 and lower FACIT‐Sp scores (p < 0.001). The FACIT‐Sp score was negatively and moderately associated with the CAT and ARMS‐7 scores (p < 0.001).
This study concluded that individuals with higher spiritual well‐being had lower symptom burden and higher medication adherence. The need for long‐term oxygen therapy and a high number of comorbid conditions were associated with increased symptom burden. Current smokers had lower spiritual well‐being and medication adherence.
Spiritual well‐being should be evaluated when assessing symptom burden and medication adherence in clinical practice. In addition, further studies examining the causal relationship between symptom burden, spiritual well‐being, and medication adherence in different populations are warranted.
To investigate the effects on the quality of care of the Patient Report Informing Self‐Management Support (PRISMS) form compared with usual care among patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) consulting a COPD nurse in primary health care.
Patients with COPD experience symptoms affecting their everyday lives and there is a need for interventions in self‐management support. The delivery of chronic care in an organized, structured, and planned manner can lead to more productive relationships between professionals and patients.
A multicentre randomised controlled trial with a post‐test design, according to the CONSORT checklist, in one intervention group (n=94) and one control group (n=108).
In addition to usual care, the intervention group (n=94) completed the PRISMS form to indicate areas where they wanted self‐management support before the consultation with the COPD nurse. This form comprises 17 items that patients with COPD commonly experience as problems. The control group received usual care (n=108). The primary outcome was patients’ satisfaction with quality of care, assessed using the Quality from the Patient’s Perspective (QPP) questionnaire. Means and (SD) are presented where applicable. Differences between the intervention and control group were analysed with Student’s t‐test for independent groups for interval data, and the Mann‐Whitney U‐test for ordinal data.
Participants in the intervention group were more satisfied with the QPP domains “personal attention”, regarding both “Perceived reality” (p=0.021) and “Subjective Importance” (p=0.012). The PRISMS form revealed “Shortness of breath” as the most commonly experienced problem and the issue most desired to discuss.
The PRISMS form improved patient satisfaction with quality of care regarding personal attention, which is an important factor in patient participation and improving relationships and communication.
The PRISMS form can be a useful tool in improving person‐centred care when delivering self‐management support.
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a group of various chemical active species, such as ozone and nitric oxide, generated by working gas. CAP was demonstrated to have an effect on tissue regeneration and wound healing. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CAP as a novel therapy for diabetic wounds in vitro and in vivo. The plasma consists of ionised helium gas that is produced by a high‐voltage and high‐frequency power supply. Eight‐week‐old male db/db mice and C57BL mice were treated with helium gas (control group), 90s' CAP (low‐dose group), and 180s' CAP (high‐dose group). Mice were treated and observed for 2 weeks. Skin samples from around the wound and blood samples were collected. Our in vitro analysis included scratch wound‐healing assays by using human HaCaT immortalised human epidermal cells. After 14 days of treatment, CAP could obviously promote diabetic wound healing. Wound closure rates were significantly higher in the low‐dose group and high‐dose groups compared with the control group. Meanwhile, compared with the control group, the protein expression of IL‐6, tumour necrosis factor‐α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and superoxide dismutase in two CAP groups significantly decreased, while the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor‐β in two CAP groups significantly increased (all P < .05); these data show good agreement with the change in mRNA level (all P < .05). In vitro, scratch wound‐healing assays showed that plasma treatment could effectively ensure healing within 3 minutes of exposure (all P < .05). In addition, no difference was found in histological observations of normal skin and the level of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and white blood cells among the CAP groups and control group. CAP treatment for 3 minutes every day improves wound healing in diabetic mice by suppressing inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, and enhancing angiogenesis, involving several proteins signalling, and it is safe for the liver and kidney.
Amelanotic melanoma (AM) of the heel is a very rare subtype of malignant melanoma in which the tumour cells, unlike other types of melanoma, are characterised by little or no melanin pigmentation. AM resembles many benign dermatological complications that often lead to late diagnosis of lesions, poor prognosis, and occasionally misdiagnosis at an early stage of the disease. We report a case of a 73‐year‐old man with a heel ulcer who was admitted to Al‐Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). Chronic osteomyelitis was considered the primary diagnosis, and several courses of antibiotics were prescribed for the patient. The ulcer failed to improve after 9 months' of therapy, and because of an increase in the size of the ulcer and the growth of two tumours in the right heel, a biopsy of the lesion was conducted. The pathology report confirmed invasive AM. The present report emphasises the necessity to biopsy all skin lesions, even with low clinical significance, to avoid wrong subsequent treatments, prevent a delay in diagnosis, reduce misdiagnosis, and improve the survival rate of patients.
Workplace violence against nurses is a widespread phenomenon that has been associated with many unfavorable individual and organizational outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between violence and work functioning in a sample of Italian nurses.
Cross‐sectional, with retrospective analysis of exposure.
All nurses from a local hospital were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing violent experiences that occurred in the previous 12 months. The questionnaire also measured job strain (with the Demand‐Control‐Support questionnaire), organizational justice (with Colquitt’s Questionnaire), and work impairment (with the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire). The associations were examined with logistic regression analyses.
Of the 302 nurses who were invited, 275 (91.1%) agreed to participate. The total work impairment score was significantly higher among the nurses exposed to violence compared with the nonexposed nurses (42.2 ± 27.8 vs. 31.9 ± 31.6, respectively; p < .001). Exposed nurses also reported significantly higher levels of job strain (0.96 ± 0.25 vs. 0.8 ± 0.21; p = .003) and lower levels of perceived organizational justice (56.6 ± 12.6 vs. 62.5 ± 14.8; p = .001) than nonexposed nurses. Nurses who had experienced violence had a significantly higher risk for impairment of work functioning than their colleagues (crude odds ratio [OR] = 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%] = 1.42–3.83). The association between violence and impairment remained significant after adjusting for demographic variables, occupational stress, and perceived organizational justice (OR = 1.83; 95% CI 95% = 1.06–3.17).
Workplace violence is associated with impaired work function in nurses. Job strain and perceived organizational injustice are associated with impairment.
Violence prevention programs in healthcare activities should include training for violent behavior identification and de‐escalation techniques, structural and administrative measures for violence control (such as alarms, surveillance, staff increase), and measures to reduce occupational stress, which can include wellness courses, spirituality, organizational improvements, and staffing methodologies.
Benefits of a transtheoretical model‐based exercise program on exercise adherence (primary outcome) and secondary outcomes (self‐efficacy, decisional balance, knee osteoarthritis symptoms and physical function) were assessed among older adults with knee osteoarthritis.
A two‐arm, superiority, assessor‐blinded, cluster randomized trial with randomization at the community level.
Participants were recruited from 14 communities in Beijing between April and October 2018 (N = 189). The intervention was a 24‐week transtheoretical model‐based exercise program and the control group underwent a non‐theory‐based exercise program. Exercise adherence was collected every four weeks and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. An independent t‐test and repeated measures ANOVA were the main statistical tests.
Most participants were women (92.5%), married (81.4%), with high‐school education (36.0%), with both knees affected (50.3%) and did not make use of a walker (93.8%). There were no significant differences between groups in any of the outcome measures at baseline. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the trend of adherence scores between the two groups from 0 to 24 weeks. The independent t‐test showed that scores in the intervention group were significantly better than in the control group at 16 weeks, 20 weeks and 24 weeks. Improvements in the intervention group were also significantly greater in all secondary outcomes than in the control group.
A theory‐based exercise program could improve exercise adherence, self‐efficacy, decisional balance, knee osteoarthritis symptoms and physical functioning in older adults with knee osteoarthritis.
The 24‐week theory‐based exercise program could improve exercise adherence, self‐efficacy, decisional balance, symptoms of knee osteoarthritis and physical functioning in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. The theory‐based exercise program could help older adults with knee osteoarthritis to improve their symptoms and knee function.