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Alterations in the structural characteristics of rectus abdominis muscles caused by diabetes and pregnancy: A comparative study of the rat model and women

by Giovana Vesentini, Angélica M. P. Barbosa, Débora C. Damasceno, Gabriela Marini, Fernanda Piculo, Selma M. M. Matheus, Raghavendra L. S. Hallur, Sthefanie K. Nunes, Bruna B. Catinelli, Claudia G. Magalhães, Roberto Costa, Joelcio F. Abbade, José E. Corrente, Iracema M. P. Calderon, Marilza V. C. Rudge, The DIAMATER Study Group

Background and objective

In the present study, we compared the effect of diabetic pregnancy on the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) in humans and rats. We hypothesized that our animal model could provide valuable information about alterations in the RAM of women with Gestational Diabetes (GDM).

Method

Newborns female rats (n = 10/group) were administered streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously and were mated on reaching adulthood, to develop the mild hyperglycemic pregnant (MHP) rat model. At the end of pregnancy, the mothers were sacrificed, and the RAM tissue was collected. Pregnant women without GDM (non-GDM group; n = 10) and those diagnosed with GDM (GDM group; n = 8) and undergoing treatment were recruited, and RAM samples were obtained at C-section. The RAM architecture and the distribution of the fast and slow fibers and collagen were studied by immunohistochemistry.

Results

No statistically significant differences in the maternal and fetal characters were observed between the groups in both rats and women. However, significant changes in RAM architecture were observed. Diabetes in pregnancy increased the abundance of slow fibers and decreased fast fiber number and area in both rats and women. A decrease in collagen distribution was observed in GDM women; however, a similar change was not observed in the MHP rats.

Conclusion

Our results indicated that pregnancy- associated diabetes- induced similar structural adaptations in the RAM of women and rats with slight alterations in fiber type number and area. These findings suggest that the MHP rat model can be used for studying the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the fiber structure of RAM.

Analyses of medical coping styles and related factors among female patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryonic transfer

by Liwen Shen, Lanfeng Xing

Objective

This study investigated the medical coping styles of female patients treated with in vitro fertilization and embryonic transfer (IVF-ET), and analyzed the effects of alexithymia and social support on their choice of coping style.

Methods

A survey was conducted with 285 female patients undergoing IVF-ET in a reproductive medical center of a third-grade class-A hospital in China using the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, and the Toronto Alexithymia scale.

Results

Patients who underwent IVF-ET treatment had a higher score for avoidance as a coping mode than did normal controls. Utilization of social support predicted the use of confrontation as a coping style. Difficulty identifying feelings, objective support, and utilization of social support were factors in the choice of avoidance as a coping style, and length of infertility treatment, difficulty identifying feelings, and subjective support predicted patients’ use of the acceptance-resignation as a coping style.

Conclusion

Patients who undergo IVF-ET generally select the coping style of avoidance, which is not conducive to treatment. Targeted intervention strategies should be developed based on the factors influencing patients’ choice of coping style(s) to guide them in choosing positive coping methods, improve compliance, and achieve successful pregnancy outcomes.

Innate signalling molecules as genetic adjuvants do not alter the efficacy of a DNA-based influenza A vaccine

by Dennis Lapuente, Viktoria Stab, Michael Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Andre Maaske, Mario Köster, Han Xiao, Christina Ehrhardt, Matthias Tenbusch

In respect to the heterogeneity among influenza A virus strains and the shortcomings of current vaccination programs, there is a huge interest in the development of alternative vaccines that provide a broader and more long-lasting protection. Gene-based approaches are considered as promising candidates for such flu vaccines. In our study, innate signalling molecules from the RIG-I and the NALP3 pathways were evaluated as genetic adjuvants in intramuscular DNA immunizations. Plasmids encoding a constitutive active form of RIG-I (cRIG-I), IPS-1, IL-1β, or IL-18 were co-administered with plasmids encoding the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein derived from H1N1/Puerto Rico/8/1934 via electroporation in BALB/c mice. Immunogenicity was analysed in detail and efficacy was demonstrated in homologous and heterologous influenza challenge experiments. Although the biological activities of the adjuvants have been confirmed by in vitro reporter assays, their single or combined inclusion in the vaccine did not result in superior vaccine efficacy. With the exception of significantly increased levels of antigen-specific IgG1 after the co-administration of IL-1β, there were only minor alterations concerning the immunogenicity. Since DNA electroporation alone induced substantial inflammation at the injection site, as demonstrated in this study using Mx2-Luc reporter mice, it might override the adjuvants´ contribution to the inflammatory microenvironment and thereby minimizes the influence on the immunogenicity. Taken together, the DNA immunization was protective against subsequent challenge infections but could not be further improved by the genetic adjuvants analysed in this study.

Counseling on injectable contraception and HIV risk: Evaluation of a pilot intervention in Tanzania

by Janine Barden-O’Fallon, Jennifer Mason, Emmanuel Tluway, Gideon Kwesigabo, Egidius Kamanyi

In a context of high rates of HIV prevalence, concerns over hormonal contraceptive use and the potential for increased risk of HIV acquisition have led to increased attention to counseling messages, particularly for users of the injectable. However, the consequence of adding additional HIV risk messages to family planning counseling sessions was not well understood. This evaluation assessed the effect of providing revised injectable and HIV risk counseling messages on contraceptive knowledge and behavior during a three month pilot intervention. The pilot intervention was conducted September-November 2018 with all eligible family planning clients in ten healthcare facilities located in the Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Data collection for the evaluation occurred November-December 2018 and included 471 client exit interviews, 26 healthcare provider interviews, and the extraction of service statistics for 12 months prior to the intervention and three months of the intervention. Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to assess quantitative interview data. Thematic qualitative assessment was used to assess qualitative interview data from healthcare providers. Interrupted time series analysis was used to assess changes in the trend of contraceptive uptake. Results indicate that the counseling messages did not cause a decrease in the uptake of injectables (Depo-Provera): 97 percent of interviewed clients received Depo-Provera at their visit; sixty percent reported an intention to use condoms for dual protection. The analysis of service statistics showed no statistical difference in the trend of Depo-Provera uptake between the pre-intervention and intervention periods (p = 0.116). Overall knowledge of counseling messages by clients was good; however only 64.8% of women correctly responded that women at risk of getting HIV can use any method of family planning. Providers’ knowledge of the messages was high, though it appears that not all messages were consistently provided during the counseling sessions. The findings from this evaluation provide evidence that complex HIV counseling messages can be implemented in family planning programs in Tanzania, and potentially in other countries that are considering how to better integrate HIV risk messages into family planning counseling.

Effect of specimen processing, growth supplement, and different metabolic population on <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> laboratory diagnosis

by Shashikant Srivastava, Moti Chapagain, Tawanda Gumbo

Introduction

Sputum specimen decontamination steps are essential due to the presence of other saprophytic and infectious organisms. However, they negatively affect the mycobacterial recovery. In addition, little is known about the Mycobacterium tuberculosis killing efficacy of the PANTA (polymyxin-B, amphotericin-B, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, azilocillin) antibiotics. Moreover, M. tuberculosis can be present in more than one metabolic population, but the effect of different growth characteristics on the mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) based time-to-positive (TTP) is not well studied.

Methods

We performed—(1) experiments using the solid agar and MGIT method to determine the effect of the NALC-NaOH decontamination method, (2) concentration-response studies with each individual antibiotic in the PANTA, and (3) the effect of the M. tuberculosis metabolic population on the TTP. TTP was recorded using the Epicenter software and exponential growth equation was used to calculate the doubling time of the bacteria, whereas, CFU/mL was analyzed using the Inhibitory Sigmoid Emax model for each antibiotic.

Results

Decontamination resulted in 4.36+0.13 log10 CFU/mL difference in cultures treated with NALC-NaOH versus no decontamination process and the limit of detection decreased from 1.47 log10 CFU/mL to the 0.42 log10 CFU/mL following NALC-NaOH treatment. PANTA at currently used antibiotic concentrations, did not had negative effect on mycobacterial recovery. Exponential growth model estimated doubling time for the log-phase growth M. tuberculosis as 2.04 days, for the semi-dormant bacilli as 2.80 days, and 6.37 days for the anaerobic cultures.

Conclusion

Specimen decontamination method negatively affect the laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis, polymyxin-B and nalidixic acid have anti-tuberculosis efficacy at high concentrations, and the doubling time of different metabolic population should be considered when deciding the time-in-protocol for the MGIT system.

Physicians' norms and attitudes towards substance use in colleague physicians: A cross-sectional survey in the Netherlands

by Pauline Geuijen, Marlies de Rond, Joanneke Kuppens, Femke Atsma, Aart Schene, Hein de Haan, Cornelis de Jong, Arnt Schellekens

Introduction

Substance use disorders (SUD) in physicians often remain concealed for a long time. Peer monitoring and open discussions with colleagues are essential for identifying SUD. However, physicians often feel uncomfortable discussing substance use with a colleague. We explored physicians’ attitudes and norms about substance use (disorders) and their (intended) approach upon a presumption of substance use in a colleague.

Materials and methods

An online cross-sectional survey concerning “Addiction in physicians” was administered by the Royal Dutch Medical Association physician panel. Overall, 1685 physicians (47%) responded. Data were analyzed by logistic regression to explore factors associated with taking action upon a substance use presumption.

Results

Most physicians agreed that SUD can happen to anyone (67%), is not a sign of weakness (78%) and that it is a disease that can be treated (83%). Substance use in a working context was perceived as unacceptable (alcohol at work: 99%, alcohol during a standby duty: 91%, alcohol in the eight hours before work: 77%, and illicit drugs in the eight hours before work: 97%). Almost all respondents (97%) intend to act upon a substance use presumption in a colleague. Of the 29% who ever had this presumption, 65% took actual action. Actual action was associated with male gender and older age (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.20–2.74 and OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, respectively).

Conclusions

About one-third of physicians reported experience with a presumption of substance use in a colleague. Whilst most physicians intend to take action upon such a presumption, two-thirds actually do act upon a presumption. To bridge this intention-behavior gap continued medical education on signs and symptoms of SUD and instructions on how to enter a supportive dialogue with a colleague about personal issues, may enhance physicians’ knowledge, confidence, and ethical responsibility to act upon a presumption of substance use or other concerns in a colleague.

Long-term total hip arthroplasty rates in patients with acetabular and pelvic fractures after surgery: A population-based cohort study

by Tzu-Chun Chung, Tzu-Shan Chen, Yao-Chun Hsu, Feng-Chen Kao, Yuan-Kun Tu, Pao-Hsin Liu

Background/objective

Osteoarthritis typically develops after surgery for traumatic fractures of the acetabulum and may result in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We conducted a population-based retrospective study to investigate the incidence of THA after treatment of acetabular, pelvic, and combined acetabular and pelvic fractures with open reduction-internal fixation surgery compared with that in the control group.

Design

A retrospective population-based cohort study.

Setting

Data were gathered from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.

Participants

We enrolled 3041 patients with acetabular fractures, 5618 with pelvic fractures, and 733 with combined pelvic and acetabular fractures between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, totaling 9392 individuals. The control group comprised 664,349 individuals. Study participants were followed up for the occurrence of THA until death or the end of the study period.

Results

The THA rates after surgical intervention were 17.82%, 7.28%, and 18.01% in patients with acetabular, pelvic, and combined acetabular and pelvic fractures, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly higher for the acetabular fracture, pelvic fracture, and combined-fracture groups (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs] = 58.42, 21.68, and 62.04, respectively) than for the control group (p p Conclusion

The incidence rates of THA after surgical intervention in the pelvic fracture, acetabular fracture, and combined-fracture groups were significantly higher than that of the control group.

Global drivers of food system (un)sustainability: A multi-country correlation analysis

by Christophe Béné, Jessica Fanzo, Steven D. Prager, Harold A. Achicanoy, Brendan R. Mapes, Patricia Alvarez Toro, Camila Bonilla Cedrez

At present, our ability to comprehend the dynamics of food systems and the consequences of their rapid ‘transformations’ is limited. In this paper, we propose to address this gap by exploring the interactions between the sustainability of food systems and a set of key drivers at the global scale. For this we compile a metric of 12 key drivers of food system from a globally-representative set of low, middle, and high-income countries and analyze the relationships between these drivers and a composite index that integrates the four key dimensions of food system sustainability, namely: food security & nutrition, environment, social, and economic dimensions. The two metrics highlight the important data gap that characterizes national systems’ statistics—in particular in relation to transformation, transport, retail and distribution. Spearman correlations and Principal Component Analysis are then used to explore associations between levels of sustainability and drivers. With the exception of one economic driver (trade flows in merchandise and services), the majority of the statistically significant correlations found between food system sustainability and drivers appear to be negative. The fact that most of these negative drivers are closely related to the global demographic transition that is currently affecting the world population highlights the magnitude of the challenges ahead. This analysis is the first one that provides quantitative evidence at the global scale about correlations between the four dimensions of sustainability of our food systems and specific drivers.

Potential endocrine disrupting properties of toys for babies and infants

by Christian Kirchnawy, Fiona Hager, Veronica Osorio Piniella, Mathias Jeschko, Michael Washüttl, Johannes Mertl, Aurelie Mathieu-Huart, Christophe Rousselle

Plastic toys mouthed by children may be a source of exposure to endocrine active substances. The purpose of this study was to measure hormonal activity of substances leaching from toys and to identify potential endocrine disruptors causing that activity. For this purpose, migration experiments of toys were conducted in saliva simulants. The CALUX® assays were used to detect (anti-) estrogenic and (anti-) androgenic activity of 18 toys. Chemical trace analysis–namely, GC-MS and HPLC-MS- was used to identify which compounds may be responsible for endocrine activity in the sample migrates. Nine out of 18 tested toys showed significant estrogenic activity. For two samples, the detected estrogenic activity could be well explained by detecting the known endocrine active substance bisphenol A (BPA). For all identified substances, including BPA, a risk assessment for human health was performed by comparing the exposure dose, calculated based on the determined substance concentration, to toxicological reference values. Using worst-case scenarios, the exposure to BPA by mouthing of the two estrogen active, BPA-containing toys could be above the temporary TDI that EFSA has calculated. This demonstrates that some toys could significantly contribute to the total exposure to BPA of babies and infants. For seven out of nine estrogen active samples, the source of the estrogen activity could not be explained by analysis for 41 known or suspected endocrine active substances in plastic, indicating that the estrogen activities were caused by currently unknown endocrine active substances, or by endocrine active substances that would currently not be suspected in toys.

The interplay between mindfulness, depression, stress and academic performance in medical students: A Saudi perspective

by Ahmed M. Alzahrani, Ahmed Hakami, Ahmad AlHadi, Mohammed A. Batais, Abdullah A. Alrasheed, Turky H. Almigbal

There is a growing body of research that shows a significant association between mindfulness and mental health. However, studies on Saudi populations are still in their infancy. Mindfulness is a personal tendency to focus on the present time in a non-judgmental manner, including the interior and exterior experience of feelings and events. The first aim of this study is to examine the relationship between mindfulness, stress, depression, and academic performance in a sample of medical students from King Saud University. The second aim is to explore the potential moderation effects of mindfulness on the impact of stress on academic performance and depression in the study population. This cross-sectional study examined 289 medical students who were selected by a stratified random sampling technique and completed validated online questionnaires measuring mindfulness, stress, and depression. The data were analyzed using SAS version 9.2, and R software was used for graphs. Correlation analysis showed that mindfulness is inversely associated with depression and stress, but not with academic performance. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression showed that mindfulness can predict both depression and stress. We also found that two subscales of mindfulness can moderate the relation between stress and depression: non-judging of inner experience and describing. The findings suggest that a higher mindfulness score is associated with lower depression and stress levels and could buffer against depression in a stressful environment. There is a need for further research to investigate the relation of mindfulness with positive psychological outcomes, as well as experimental trials to examine the efficacy of mindfulness training on improving mental wellbeing in our community.

Becoming a Good Nurse – Socialisation of Newly Employed Nurses into the Oncological Clinic

Abstract

Aim and objectives

To explore newly employed nurses’ socialisation in the process of introduction into an oncological clinic from the perspectives of unit managers and newly employed nurses.

Background

There are managerial challenges in retaining nurses at workplaces. The way in which nurses are socialised into their work is important for their job satisfaction and retainment.

Method

Qualitative, semi‐structured interviews with seven nurses and two unit managers, and written introductory material. Thematic analyses were made, inspired by Goffman’s concepts of social interaction, back stage, front stage and roles. SRQR checklist was used.

Results

Unit managers created the framework for socialising newly employed nurses through written introductory guidelines and assignments of supervisors as mainstream role models. Newly employed nurses were socialised gradually through mirroring their supervisors in their role as nurse. Front stage, patients often functioned as objects for newly employed nurses’ training. Back stage, patients often functioned as communication objects for all professionals. Newly employed nurses, who also demand roles such as transformer, boss, coordinator, prompter and friend, were socialised into the role of assistant to the doctor. Medical rounds functioned as a socialisator in this process.

Conclusion

The allocated supervisors were role models in socialising newly employed nurses into an oncological clinic and its culture. Nurses were socialised into an understanding of care as a biomedical orientation, in which medicine had a higher value than care in the existing knowledge hierarchy at the oncological clinic. This might have implications for who applies for and stays in the job.

Relevance to clinical practice

Increased awareness of the importance of socialisation of nurses into the clinic during the introduction process. Re‐thinking nurses’ independent functions and patient perspectives in introduction of newly employed nurses to maintain and develop nursing as an independent profession.

Nursing students’ socialisation to emotion management during early clinical placement experiences: A qualitative study

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To explore nursing students’ subjective experience of emotions during first‐year clinical placements, strategies used to manage their emotions, and socialisation to emotion management.

Background

Emotion regulation is a key source of stress for early career and student nurses. Clinical placement experiences can elicit strong emotions in nursing students; however, they may be unprepared for the challenge of regulating their emotions in real‐world practice. How nursing students learn to manage their emotions in the clinical setting, whether they receive support for this, and how they are socialised to manage their emotions during placements, are not well known.

Design

An exploratory qualitative study.

Methods

Semi‐structured interviews (n=19) were conducted with first year nursing students, exploring their experiences of emotion management during clinical placement. Interview transcripts were analysed using conventional qualitative content analysis. Reporting adheres to the COREQ Checklist.

Results

Interactions with patients and staff often elicited negative feelings. Structured guidance for emotion management by supervising staff was scarce. Students used informal self‐reflection and interpretation to guide emotion management.

Conclusions

In the absence of strategic socialisation and formal support for effective emotion management, students used emotional labour strategies that can negatively impact on well‐being. A focus on adequately preparing nursing students for emotion work is a necessary component of classroom and clinical learning environments. Structured debriefing during clinical placements may provide a relevant context to discuss emotions arising during clinical work, and to learn emotion management strategies.

Relevance to clinical practice

Emotional competence, a fundamental ability for registered nurses and students, supports personal health maintenance and strengthens professional practice. Students are exposed to clinical environments and interpersonal encounters that evoke strong emotions. They need situated learning strategies and formal support to develop knowledge and strengthen capability for emotion management, as this is essential for promoting professional development and patient care.

Older people and COVID‐19: Isolation, risk and ageism

Abstract

Internationally, health authorities and governments are warning older people that they are at a higher risk of more serious and possible fatal illness associated with COVID‐19. Mortality data from Oxford COVID‐19 Evidence Service (25/3/20) indicates a risk of mortality of 3.6% for people in their 60s, which increases to 8.0% and 14.8% for people in their 70s and over 80s. Therefore, the global recommendation for older populations includes social isolation, which involves staying at home and avoiding contact with other people, possibly for an extended period of time, currently estimated to be between three and four months. Older populations in this current context, refers to people over 70 years, and 50 years in some particularly vulnerable Indigenous populations.

Testing of the Nursing Evidence‐Based Practice Survey

Abstract

Background

Clinicians’ knowledge and skills for evidence‐based practice (EBP) and organizational climate are important for science‐based care. There is scant literature regarding aligning organizational culture with EBP implementation and even less for unit and organizational culture. The Nursing EBP Survey examines individual, unit, and organizational factors to better understand registered nurses’ (RN) self‐reported EBP.

Aims

Establish and confirm factor loading, reliability, and discriminant validity for the untested Nursing EBP Survey.

Methods

The study employed a descriptive cross‐sectional survey design and was targeted for RNs. The setting included 14 hospitals and 680 medical offices in Southern California. The 1999 instrument consisted of 22 items; 7 items were added in 2005 for 29 items. The questionnaire used a 5 point, Likert‐type scale. The survey website opened in November 2016 and closed after 23 weeks. Psychometric testing and factor determination used parallel analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and ANOVA post hoc comparisons.

Results

One thousand one hundred and eighty‐one RNs completed the survey. All factor loadings in the CFA model were positive and significant (p < .001). All standardized loadings ranged from .70 to .94. The covariance estimate between Factor 1 and Factor 2 was marginally significant (p = .07). All other covariances and error variances were significant (p < .001). Final factor names were Practice Climate (Factor 1), Data Collection (Factor 2), Evidence Appraisal (Factor 3), Implementation (Factor 4), and Access to Evidence (Factor 5). Four of 5 factors showed significant differences between education levels (p < .05 level). All factors showed significant differences (p < .05) between inpatient and ambulatory staff, with higher scores for inpatient settings.

Linking Evidence to Action

Nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills for EBP vary. The 2019 Nursing EBP survey offers RNs direction to plan and support improvement in evidence‐based outcomes and tailors future EBP initiatives.

Exploring the recruitment of men into the nursing profession in the United Kingdom

Abstract

To explore the gendered nature of the nursing working force To consider current initiatives and programmes to encourage men to enter the nursing profession. To understand some of the barriers to recruiting men into the nursing profession.

What is the nature of Mental Capacity Act training and how do health and social care practitioners change their practice post‐training? A narrative review

Abstract

Aim

To identify training strategies and determine how registered health and social care practitioners change their practice post Mental Capacity Act training.

Design

Narrative literature review

Data sources

Seventeen databases were searched up to December 2019; CINAHL, Social Care Online, PubMed, Social Policy and Practice, Discover, Medline, Science Direct, Ovid, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Social Services Abstracts, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, Web of Science, British Nursing Index, DH‐Data, King’s Fund Library Catalogue.

Review Methods

Empirical studies of any design investigating Mental Capacity Act training were searched and screened. Data were extracted to a bespoke spreadsheet and quality assessed. Reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses, (PRISMA).

Results

Of 162 papers identified, 16 were included comprising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. Trainees valued interactive training with close alignment to practice. Training did not lead to demonstrable practice change. Barriers in the context and cultures of care environments were identified.

Conclusion

To facilitate application of Mental Capacity Act legislation, identified barriers should be addressed. Future training should be interactive, scenario‐based and relevant to trainees’ practice.

Relevance to Clinical Practice

The Mental Capacity Act is widely misunderstood and implementation poor. Training is proposed as a solution, but the nature of training that will positively affect practice remains unknown. This review aims to address this gap in the evidence base. Interactive training, using scenarios that reflect practice complexities, has the most positive impact. Cultural norms in care environments may impede application of this legislation.

The review has international relevance as there is a global imperative to adhere to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The review will inform training design and delivery to ensure that people with impaired capacity to make decisions are given the best opportunity to act autonomously.

Nonverbal communication between registered nurses and patients during chronic disease management consultations: observations from general practice

Abstract

Aims and objectives

This study explores nonverbal communication behaviours between general practice nurses and patients during chronic disease consultations.

Background

Nonverbal communication is an important aspect of nurse‐patient lifestyle risk reduction conversations. Despite the growing role of general practice nurses in lifestyle risk modification when managing chronic disease, few studies have investigated how this communication occurs.

Design

Observational study within a concurrent mixed methods project.

Methods

Thirty‐six consultations by 14 general practice nurses were video recorded between August 2017 and March 2018. Video analysis used the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System. A STROBE checklist was used to guide this paper.

Results

Joint convergence of nurse‐patient behaviours such as laughing, smiling and eye contact were most common (44%; n=157). Patient‐nurse eye contact time decreased significantly across the consultation, while nurse gesturing increased significantly. No significant relationship between consultation length and convergent to divergent behaviour categorisation or nurse‐computer use across the consultation was found.

Conclusions

The high levels of convergent behaviours are promising for person‐centred care. However, scope exists to enhance nonverbal interactions around lifestyle risk reduction. Supporting nurses with skills and improved environments for lifestyle risk communication has potential to improve therapeutic relationships and patient outcomes.

Relevance to clinical practice

These results indicate that nurses support patients through nonverbal interactions during conversations of lifestyle risk reduction. However, there are opportunities to improve this practice for future interventions.

Satisfaction of Slovak Women with Psychosocial Aspects of Care during Childbirth

The objective of the study is to find out and assess satisfaction of Slovak women with psychosocial aspects of perinatal care.

Identified opportunities for gamification in the elective primary fast‐track total hip and knee arthroplasty journey: Secondary analysis of healthcare professionals’ interviews

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To identify opportunities for gamification in the elective primary fast‐track total hip and knee arthroplasty journey in order to support patients’ health‐related behavior.

Background

Gamification provides an opportunity to increase engagement in a given health behavior and, eventually, the possibility of reaching improved outcomes through continued or consistent behavior.

Design

A secondary analysis.

Methods

Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 20 healthcare professionals in a single joint‐replacement center in Finland during autumn 2018. NVivo software was used for deductive and inductive coding. The open codes were also calculated. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research was followed.

Results

Gamification opportunities were identified related to six dimensions: accomplishment, challenge, competition, guided, playfulness, and social experience. Based on the frequencies of the coded content, most opportunities for gamification can be identified in the context of personalized counselling, monitoring, and social support.

Conclusions

Several opportunities for gamification were identified and quantified. While various needs and limitations need to be considered when developing digital gamified solutions and more research into the effectiveness of such solutions will be required, the current study opens possible future avenues for exploring the use of gamification in lower limb joint replacement journey and other specialisms.

Relevance to clinical practice

This study provides an important insight into healthcare professionals’ views of the current state of the total hip and knee arthroplasty journey and the potential for its development. In addition, it pinpoints the biggest opportunities for gamified services in the context of personalized counselling, monitoring, and social support. Despite the focus of this secondary analysis being on the arthroplasty journey, the findings can also be generalized in other surgical journeys.

Health care professionals providing care coordination to people living with multimorbidity: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To explore the health care professional experience of providing care coordination to people living with multimorbidity.

Background

There is increasing interest in improving care of people living with multimorbidity who need care coordination to help manage their health. Little is known about the experiences of health care professionals working with people living with multimorbidity.

Design

Phenomenological approach to understanding the experiences of health care professionals.

Methods

We interviewed 18 health care professionals, including 11 registered nurses, working in care coordination in Melbourne, Australia. We used interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify themes from descriptions of providing care, identifying and responding to a person’s needs, and the barriers and facilitators to providing person‐centred care.

Results

We identified four themes: (1) Challenge of focusing on the person; (2) ‘Hear their story’, listening to and giving time to clients to tell their story; (3) Strategies for engagement in the program; and, (4) ‘See the bigger picture’, looking beyond the disease to the needs of a person. Our results are reported using COREQ.

Conclusions

The health care professionals experienced challenges to a traditional approach to care when focusing on the person. They described providing care that was person‐centred, and acknowledged that optimal, guideline‐oriented care might not be achieved. They took the necessary time to hear the story and see the context of the person’s life, to help the person manage their health.

Relevance to clinical practice

For registered nurses in care coordination programs, focusing on the client may challenge traditional approaches to care. Providing care involves developing a relationship with the client to optimise health outcomes. Experienced registered nurses appear to use skills in reflective practice, and accept the parameters of care to improve the client’s health and wellbeing.

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