Providing a better understanding of the risk factors for amputation in this particular region, Hunan province, in China might help patients with diabetic foot ulcers receive timely and appropriate medical care and help prevent amputation. Diabetic foot ulcer patients referred to the Third Xiangya Hospital during the period between December 2014 and September 2018 were enrolled. Participants who underwent amputations and received conservative treatments were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify the independent predictors of amputation. Those who required amputation presented significantly higher levels of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C‐reactive protein, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. However, levels of haemoglobin, postprandial plasma C‐peptide, triglyceride, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, and uric acid were decreased in patients with amputations. Patients with more advanced Wagner grades had much higher rates of amputation. Multivariable‐adjusted odds ratios in stepwise logistic regression model was 1.317 for HbA1c (95% CI: 1.015‐1.709), 0.255 for triglyceride (95% CI: 0.067‐0.975), and 20.947 for Wagner grades (95% CI: 4.216‐104.080). Independent risk factors for amputation in these Chinese diabetic foot ulcer patients included an elevated HbA1c level, lower triglyceride level, and higher Wagner grades.
To investigate the relationship between gay app use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM).
Serial cross-sectional study.
A newly well-developed city in China.
4935 MSM were recruited through offline sampling methods from 2015 to 2017.
The primary outcome is the difference in HIV testing between app and non-app users.
2872 (58.2%) and 2159 (43.7%) participated MSM had been tested for HIV within lifetime and the past year, respectively. Compared with non-app-using MSM, app-using MSM had a significantly higher prevalence of HIV testing within lifetime (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.48, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and the past year (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57). App-using MSM were more likely to take an HIV test at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (AOR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.76) and community-based organisations (AOR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.03), but less often at gay venues (AOR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63). Meanwhile, app-using MSM were more likely to take self-testing (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.14). Predictors of HIV testing in the past year were: having an education level of college or higher (AOR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.65), being self-identified as a homosexual (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46), being recruited through clinic-based sampling (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60), using gay app (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.83), engaging in group sex (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.19), having received HIV-related service (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI 4.57 to 6.60), having a high level of HIV-related knowledge (AOR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.61) and high-risk perception (AOR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.40 to 6.23).
Gay app use was significantly associated with increased HIV testing among MSM hard to reach by traditional outreach. Therefore, it is imperative to expand HIV testing among non-app-using MSM. Continued efforts, innovative strategies and increased resource are highly needed to realise the first ‘90’ target.
Pneumoconiosis is characterised by diffuse fibrosis in lung tissue, and its incidence is on the rise. At present, there are limited therapeutic options for pneumoconiosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been widely used to treat pneumoconiosis，however, there is limited evidence concerning its efficacy. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of PR for pneumoconiosis.
The following databases will be searched from their inception to 1 April 2019: PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP and Wanfang Data. Randomised controlled trials of PR for pneumoconiosis will be included. Primary outcomes will include 6 min walk distance and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Study selection, extraction of data and assessment of study quality each will be independently undertaken. Statistical analysis will be conducted using Review Manager software.
This systematic review will provide up-to-date information on PR for pneumoconiosis. The review does not require ethical approval and will be disseminated electronically through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations.
Neck pain (NP) is a common condition that can be effectively treated by acupuncture. However, several treatment point prescriptions (ie, local acupoints, distal acupoints, and sensitised acupoints) may be used. The present study aims to identify the types of sensitisation and the distribution of sensitised points in patients with NP, to analyse the cut-off values and sensitisation rate for acupoint sensitisation, and to summarise the dominant forms of optimally sensitised points. This information will be helpful when choosing the optimal points to treat NP.
This multicentre, matched, case–control study will enrol 224 patients with NP, and 224 age-matched and sex-matched healthy participants as controls. Body surface temperature, mechanical pain threshold, pressure pain threshold and skin resistance will be assessed at the 15 acupoints most frequently used to treat NP, and at the five body regions in which pain occurs most frequently. Hypothesis testing will be used to compare the differences in variables between cases and controls. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis will be used to explore the cut-off values of the sensitive states of heat, pain and electrical resistance, which indicate sensitisation of the acupoint. The optimal points will be comprehensively determined by the acupoint sensitisation rate and OR.
Ethical approval of this study has been granted by the Research Ethical Committee of the Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ID: 2018 KL-016). The outcomes of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications.
Millions of patients are currently suffering from pain and dysfunction caused by osteoarthritis (OA), and billions of dollars have been invested into treatment. Because there is no effective treatment that can reverse the progression of knee OA, it is important to determine the risk factors that may influence the progression. However, although there are many studies that examine risk factors for progression, there are only a few that specifically focus on the impact of each risk factor for predicting progression of knee OA. This study aimed to develop a cohort of patients with primary knee OA in the Beijing area to establish models that identify the influence of each risk factor on the prediction of knee OA progression.
This is a prospective, multicentre, hospital-based cohort study. The study population comprises 2000 patients with primary knee OA from the Beijing area. The recruitment and baseline visits started in December 2017 and will finish in November 2018. After baseline visits, the patients will be followed for 3 years or until the occurrence of primary outcomes. Demographic variables will be collected during the baseline visit. Influencing factors including occupational exposures, family history and treatment will be collected at baseline and each follow-up visit. The primary outcome measure is a comprehensive index which will be combined with clinical WOMAC score, imaging K-L grade and clinical outcomes. These data will also be collected at baseline and each follow-up visit.
This study protocol has been approved by Peking University Third Hospital Medical Science Research Ethics Committee. All the eligible participants will give written informed consent. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. Besides, the results will be disseminated to all participants via the social software ‘WeChat’.
Colonoscopy is the reference method in screening and diagnosis of colorectal neoplasm, but its efficacy is closely related to the quality of bowel preparation. Poor patient compliance is a major risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation likely due to poor patient education. Such an education is usually provided via either oral or written instructions by clinicians. However, multiple education methods, such as smartphone applications, have been proved useful in aiding patients through bowel preparation. Also, it was reported that a large proportion of patients feel anxious before colonoscopy. Virtual reality (VR) is a novel method to educate patients and provides them with an immersive experience. Theoretically, it can make patients better prepared for bowel preparation and colonoscopy. However, no prospective studies have assessed the role of this novel technology in patient education before colonoscopy. We hypothesise that VR videos can improve bowel preparation quality and reduce pre-procedure anxiety.
The trial is a prospective, randomised, single-blinded, single-centre trial. Outpatients who are scheduled to undergo colonoscopy for screening or diagnostic purposes for the first time will be randomised to receive either the conventional patient education or the conventional methods plus VR videos, and 322 patients will be enrolled from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The primary endpoint is the quality of bowel preparation, measured by the Boston bowel preparation score. Secondary endpoints include polyp detection rate, adenoma detection rate, cecal intubation rate, patient compliance to complete bowel cleansing, withdrawal time, pre-procedure anxiety, overall satisfaction and willingness for the next colonoscopy.
The study has been approved by the institutional review board of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (No. ZS-1647). The results of this trial will be published in an open-access way and disseminated among gastrointestinal physicians and endoscopists.
Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by recurring episodes of complete or partial upper airway collapse during sleep. Persistent OSAHS is associated with long-term consequences, such as growth failure, cardiovascular and neurocognitive problems in children. Different from the aetiology of OSAHS in adults, the most common cause of paediatric OSAHS is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Adenotonsillectomy (AT) has been recommended as the first-line treatment of paediatric OSAHS. Several studies have suggested that retarded growth caused by OSAHS can improve after AT during the prepubertal period. This review will systematically search and summarise the available evidence on the effects of AT on children’s growth.
We will conduct electronic searches in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies that included a control group. Additional records will be searched by checking the references included in the selected studies and relevant reviews. At least two authors will undertake selection of studies and data extraction independently and in duplicate. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies—of Interventions will be used to assess the risk of bias of RCT and cohort studies, respectively. A random-effects model will be used for meta-analyses. Data synthesis and other analyses will be carried out using the RevMan V.5.3 software. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation will be used to assess the quality of the supporting evidence behind each main comparison.
There is no ethical issue in this systematic review given that we will only include published studies. The results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and social networks.
To administer a cross-cultural adaptation of the Team Interaction Scale (TIS), test its psychometric properties and investigate influencing factors of team interactions in a physician population in Chinese tertiary hospitals.
Two rounds of surveys, a pilot and a large sampling survey, were conducted in two and nine tertiary hospitals, respectively, in Liaoning Province, China.
In the pilot survey, 363 of 390 physicians sampled were included in the analysis, resulting in an effective response rate of 93.08%. In the large sampling survey, the effective response rate was 89.10% (3653 of 4100 physicians).
The TIS and a short version of a burn-out scale were administrated to assess the physician’s team interaction and burn-out. Psychometric properties of TIS were tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and internal consistency analysis. Gender, age, discipline, education level, professional title, hospital scale and burn-out were explored as influencing factors with independent sample t-tests, one-way analyses of variance and a correlation analysis.
Based on CFA, a 17-item modified scale was developed following the pilot survey. In the large sampling survey, EFA was conducted with half of the samples, producing six dimensions: ‘Communication’, ‘Coordination’, ‘Mutual help’, ‘Team goals’, ‘Work norms’ and ‘Cohesion and conflict resolution’. Fit of the modified model was confirmed by CFA with the other half of the samples (root mean square error of approximation=0.067, Comparative Fit Index=0.98, Normed Fit Index=0.97, Goodness of Fit Index=0.94, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index=0.92). A high Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.98 demonstrated reliability of the modified scale. The Team Interaction Score was significantly lower in younger physicians, in men, in paediatricians and in physicians from larger-scale tertiary hospitals. Team Interaction Scores were negatively associated with burn-out.
The adapted TIS, containing 17 items and six dimensions, was reliable and valid for Chinese tertiary hospital physicians. To address physician burn-out, team interaction should be highlighted.
To identify the situation of organisational justice, organisational support, work engagement and turnover intention among community nurses and clarify the relationship among them.
Nurse shortage has become a worldwide issue, and the shortage of community nurses is more serious. Nurse turnover is one important factor for this situation. While previous studies about turnover intention mostly focused on hospital nurses, few involved community nurses.
A descriptive, cross‐sectional design was adopted.
Questionnaire investigation was implemented among 410 community nurses to collect data about organisational justice, organisational support, work engagement and turnover intention. Structural equation modelling was applied to test the hypothesised model. The STROBE statement for observational studies was followed.
Results showed the average score of turnover intention was 2.50 ± 0.75. The final model indicated: (a) work engagement had a direct negative effect on turnover intention; (b) organisational support had both direct and indirect effects on turnover intention, and the indirect effect was mediated by work engagement; and (c) organisational justice had an indirect effect on turnover intention mediated by organisational support.
Turnover intention could be reduced directly or indirectly by improving work engagement, organisational support and organisational justice.
This study provides evidence for community health centre managers and policymakers to improve the level of nurses' engagement and to retain more nurses in primary healthcare service.
by Jing Zhao, Chong Wang, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O’ConnorA common feature of preclinical animal experiments is repeated measurement of the outcome, e.g., body weight measured in mice pups weekly for 20 weeks. Separate time point analysis or repeated measures analysis approaches can be used to analyze such data. Each approach requires assumptions about the underlying data and violations of these assumptions have implications for estimation of precision, and type I and type II error rates. Given the ethical responsibilities to maximize valid results obtained from animals used in research, our objective was to evaluate approaches to reporting repeated measures design used by investigators and to assess how assumptions about variation in the outcome over time impact type I and II error rates and precision of estimates. We assessed the reporting of repeated measures designs of 58 studies in preclinical animal experiments. We used simulation modelling to evaluate three approaches to statistical analysis of repeated measurement data. In particular, we assessed the impact of (a) repeated measure analysis assuming that the outcome had non-constant variation at all time points (heterogeneous variance) (b) repeated measure analysis assuming constant variation in the outcome (homogeneous variance), (c) separate ANOVA at individual time point in repeated measures designs. The evaluation of the three model fitting was based on comparing the p-values distributions, the type I and type II error rates and by implication, the shrinkage or inflation of standard error estimates from 1000 simulated dataset. Of 58 studies with repeated measures design, three provided a rationale for repeated measurement and 23 studies reported using a repeated-measures analysis approach. Of the 35 studies that did not use repeated-measures analysis, fourteen studies used only two time points to calculate weight change which potentially means collected data was not fully utilized. Other studies reported only select time points (n = 12) raising the issue of selective reporting. Simulation studies showed that an incorrect assumption about the variance structure resulted in modified error rates and precision estimates. The reporting of the validity of assumptions for repeated measurement data is very poor. The homogeneous variation assumption, which is often invalid for body weight measurements, should be confirmed prior to conducting the repeated-measures analysis using homogeneous covariance structure and adjusting the analysis using corrections or model specifications if this is not met.
To explore the effectiveness of a health education programme by telephone follow‐up on the self‐efficacy of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Self‐efficacy is increasingly perceived to be a cornerstone in improving the capacity of self‐management. However, a paucity of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of health education by the use of a telephone follow‐up for RA patients in China.
This study was a randomised control trial.
Recruited patients were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention group accepted health education by telephone follow‐up four times after the patients were discharged. The patients in the control group only accepted telephone follow‐up once after they were discharged. Self‐efficacy was measured by the use of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Self‐Efficacy Questionnaire (RASE), and data were collected at the day before the discharge, the 12th week and the 24th week after patients were discharged. The CONSORT checklist was used to check the procedure.
A total of 92 discharged patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. The sociodemographic indexes of the control and intervention groups had no significant differences at baseline (p > .05). The RASE score of the intervention group was higher than that of the control group (p < .05) at the 12th week and the 24th week.
The HET improved the self‐efficacy of the discharged patients with RA in the 12th week and the 24th week after discharge. This study demonstrated that our HET can improve the short‐term and long‐term effects of self‐efficacy, which implies that the clinical nursing staff should increase the frequency of HET to improve the patients’ knowledge and abilities of self‐management.
Patients with RA will benefit from a health education programme by telephone follow‐up; thus, it is necessary for nursing managers to implement this programme.
This study aims to investigate patterns of antibiotic treatment-seeking, describe current levels of and drivers for antibiotic use for common infections (respiratory tract and urinary tract infections) and test the feasibility of determining the prevalence and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in rural areas of Anhui province, in order to identify potential interventions to promote antibiotic stewardship and reduce the burden of AMR in China.
We will conduct direct observations, structured and semistructured interviews in retail pharmacies, village clinics and township health centres to investigate treatment-seeking and antibiotic use. Clinical isolates from 1550 sputum, throat swab and urine samples taken from consenting patients at village and township health centres will be analysed to identify bacterial pathogens and ascertain antibiotic susceptibilities. Healthcare records will be surveyed for a subsample of those recruited to the study to assess their completeness and accuracy.
The full research protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Biomedical Ethics Committee of Anhui Medical University (reference number: 20170271). Participation of patients and doctors is voluntary and written informed consent is sought from all participants. Findings from the study will be disseminated through academic routes including peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, via tailored research summaries for health professionals, health service managers and policymakers and through an end of project impact workshop with local and regional stakeholders to identify key messages and priorities for action.
As the early stage of coronary heart disease (CHD), borderline coronary lesion (BCL) is defined as a 30%–70% diameter stenosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that BCL may progress to acute coronary syndrome easily. However, routine medications available for the treatments of BCL have some limitations. Xuanbi antong granule (XAG) has been used for the treatment of BCL in China for many years. Previous studies have shown that XAG has effectiveness in improving clinical symptoms and quality of life in patients with CHD. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of XAG in patients with BCL.
This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 300 participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and the placebo group. Based on routine medications, the intervention group will be treated with XAG and the placebo group will be treated with XAG placebo. All participants will receive a 6-month treatment and then be followed-up for another 6 months. The primary outcomes are the changes of target plaque characteristics (including target plaque volume, degree of stenosis, CT value and calcification score) measured by dual source CT angiography. The secondary outcomes include blood lipid indicators, efficacy of angina symptoms, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. All the data will be recorded in electronic case report forms and analysed by SPSS V.20.0.
This study has been approved by Research Ethics Committee of Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in Beijing, China (No. 2017–083-KY-01). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated to the public through academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals.
Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most common pattern of cervical spondylosis, which is a serious and common degenerative disease. Both acupotomy and acupuncture have been widely used clinically to treat CSR in China with satisfied efficacy. However, there is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of these two therapies. The aim of this study is to compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety between acupotomy and acupuncture for patients with CSR to provide evidence for clinical practice.
The following electronic databases will be searched: Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure , China Biology Medicine disc, Wanfang Database and Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP). The randomised controlled trials of acupotomy versus acupuncture with/without additional treatment for CSR will be searched in the databases from their inception to December 2018 by two researchers independently. Visual analogue scale, symptom score and neck disability index will be assessed as the primary outcomes. The total effective rate, curative rate, adverse events and amount of rescue medication used will be assessed as the secondary outcomes. The Review Manager 5.3 will be used for meta-analysis and the evidence level will be assessed by using the method for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Continuous outcomes will be presented as the weighted mean difference or standardised mean difference with 95% CI, whereas dichotomous data will be expressed as relative risk with 95% CI. If the included studies have existing heterogeneity (p
Ethical approval is not required because no primary data are collected. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented at an international academic conference for dissemination.
To report the situation of maternal micronutrient supplementation before and during pregnancy in Northwest China and to examine the rates of and factors related to the adherence to micronutrient supplementation among pregnant women in this region, where dietary micronutrient intake is commonly insufficient.
A large-scale population-based cross-sectional survey.
Twenty counties and ten districts of Shaanxi Province.
A sample of 30 027 women were selected using a stratified multistage random sampling method. A total of 28 678 women were chosen for the final analysis after excluding those who did not provide clear information about nutritional supplementation before and during pregnancy.
Maternal adherence to micronutrient supplementation (high and low) were the outcomes. They were determined by the start time and duration of use according to Chinese guidelines (for folic acid (FA) supplements) and WHO recommendations (for iron, calcium and multiple-micronutrient (MMN) supplements).
In total, 83.9% of women took at least one kind of micronutrient supplement before or during pregnancy. FA (67.6%) and calcium (57.5%) were the primarily used micronutrient supplements; few participants used MMN (14.0%) or iron (5.4%). Adherence to supplementation of all micronutrients was low (7.4% for FA, 0.6% for iron, 11.7% for calcium and 2.7% for MMN). Higher educational levels, higher income levels, urban residence and better antenatal care (including pregnancy consultation and a higher frequency of antenatal visits) were associated with high adherence to micronutrient supplementation.
Maternal micronutrient supplementation before and during pregnancy in Northwest China was way below standards recommended by the Chinese guidelines or WHO. Targeted health education and future nutritional guidelines are suggested to improve this situation, especially in pregnant women with disadvantaged sociodemographic conditions.
To explore the extent of patient engagement in the development of best practice reports related to transitions from hospital to home.
Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Trip Database, DynaMed Plus and Public Health Plus) and multiple provincial regulatory agency and healthcare organisation websites.
We included best practice reports related to the transition from hospital to a long-term care facility, community dwelling or rehabilitation centre. We included documents disseminated in English between 1947 and 2019.
Two independent reviewers screened for eligibility and one extracted and analysed data using a data extraction tool we developed based on established patient engagement frameworks. Only records actively engaging patients were analysed (n=11). The methodological quality of actively engaging patients was assessed using domain 2 (item 5) of stakeholder involvement from the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool.
The search yielded 1921 citations of which 23 met the inclusion criteria and were included for narrative synthesis. These were disseminated between 1995 and 2019, with 18 (78%) published after 2010. Most were conducted in North America (USA 43%, Canada 22%), Europe (UK 30%) and Australia (4%). Eleven (48%) actively involved patients, of which only two involved patients across all stages of development. Most involved patients through direct or indirect consultation. The mean AGREE II domain 2 item 5 score (of those that actively engaged patients) was 5.9 out of 7.
Only half of existing best practice reports related to the transition from hospital to home actively involved patients in report development. However, the extent of patient engagement has been increasing over time. More organisations should strive to engage patients throughout the best practice development process and provide patients with opportunities for shared leadership.
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is considered a tumour suppressor that can control cell growth and metabolism. Whether LKB1 expression levels are related to clinicopathology and prognosis is controversial. This review aimed to quantitatively examine the latest evidence on this question.
An updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between LKB1 expression and prognosis of patients with solid tumours were performed.
Eligible studies were identified through literature searches from database establishment until 15 June 2018 in the following databases: Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wan Fang databases.
The association between LKB1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with solid tumours were reported. Sufficient data were available to calculate the OR or HR and 95% CI.
Relevant data were meta-analysed for OS, DFS, RFS and various clinical parameters.
The systematic review included 25 studies containing 6012 patients with solid tumours. Compared with patients with high LKB1 expression, patients with low expression showed significantly shorter OS in univariate analysis (HR=1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.97, p
Low LKB1 expression predicts shorter OS, worse tumour differentiation, larger tumours, earlier lymph node metastasis and more advanced TNM stage. Low LKB1 expression may be a useful biomarker of poor clinicopathology and prognosis.
‘National Special Stewardship in the Clinical Use of Antibiotics’ was put forward in July 2011 in China. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) managed by clinical pharmacists on antibiotic utilisation, prophylaxis and antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
This was a retrospective observational study of trends in antibiotic use and AMR in the context of AMS.
Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, a 1400-bed tertiary hospital, in China.
Antibiotic prescriptions from 820 doctors included all outpatients (n=17 766 637) and inpatients (n=376 627) during 2010–2016. Bacterial resistance data were from all inpatients (n=350 699) during 2011–2016.
Multiaspect intervention measures were implemented by clinical pharmacists (13 persons), for example, formulating the activity programme and performance management, advising on antibacterial prescriptions and training.
The proportion of antibiotic prescriptions among outpatients and inpatients, intensity of consumption in defined daily dose (DDD)/100 bed-days, antibiotic prophylaxis in type I incision operations and resistance rates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were retrospectively analysed.
The proportion of antibiotic prescriptions decreased in outpatients (from 19.38% to 13.21%) and in inpatients (from 64.34% to 34.65%), the intensity of consumption dropped from 102.46 to 37.38 DDD/100 bed-days. The proportion of antibiotic prophylaxis decreased from 98.94% to 18.93%. The proportion of rational timing of initial dose increased from 71.11% to 96.74%, the proportion of rational duration rose from 2.84% to 42.63%. Time series analysis demonstrated the resistance rates of E. coli and P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolones decreased, the incidence rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus also decreased, whereas the resistance rates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to carbapenems increased. The antibiotic use was partly positively correlated with AMR.
AMS had an important role in reducing antibiotic use and surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The AMR was positively correlated with antibiotic consumption to some extent.
To test the relationship between work practice environment and turnover intention, considering the mediation of work engagement and the moderation of work pressure among community health nurses.
A cross‐sectional survey design.
A total of 410 nurses were recruited from thirty‐two community health centers between September 2016 ‐ January 2017 with survey on work practice environment, work engagement, work pressure and turnover intention. Structural equation modelling was used to test a mediated moderation model.
Work practice environment was positively associated with higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement partially mediated the relationship between work practice environment and turnover intention. In addition, work pressure moderated the relationship between work practice environment and work engagement.
The improvement of work practice environment including the physical and humanitarian environment could enhance nurse engagement and reduce turnover intention in community, which was more pronounced among high‐pressure nurses.
In front of the nursing shortage, especially in communities, the strategies on how to retain and motivate nurses have become the focus of concern. Based on the job demands‐resources model and the conservation of resources theory, this study examined the effect of work practice environment on turnover intention with the mediation role of work engagement and the moderation role of work pressure among community health nurses. The nurse managers of communities should pay attention to the role of work practice environment in stimulating nurses' engagement and decreasing turnover intention, especially when nurses are under high work pressure.
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To quantify the effect of laughter and humour interventions on depression, anxiety, and sleep quality in adults.
A meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Weipu, and Wanfang Data were searched from their inception up to December 2018.
The reporting of this meta‐analytical review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias (Cochrane Collaboration bias assessment tool) of the included papers independently.
Ten studies comprising 814 participants were included. Meta‐analysis showed that these interventions significantly decreased adults' depression, anxiety, and improved their sleep quality. The results of subgroup analysis showed that depression benefits more from long‐term laughter intervention.
This meta‐analysis revealed that laughter and humour interventions are effective in relieving depression, anxiety, and improve sleep quality in adults. More studies with high quality and follow‐up assessment should be conducted for future research.
This review synthesized current evidence using laughter and humour interventions to reduce negative emotion and promote better results in adults, especially with respect to target the applicability between different populations or intervention methods. In addition, humour and laughter interventions are safe, convenient, interesting and can promote interpersonal relationship in both patients and medical workers, which have great feasibility and potential to be used as an aspect of psychotherapy for clinical and nursing to improve well‐beings in adults.