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Factors associated with depression and anxiety among caregivers of patients with atrial fibrillation

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among caregivers of patients with atrial fibrillation.

Background

Depression and anxiety are common in caregivers of patients with cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and coronary artery disease. However, studies about depression and anxiety among caregivers of patients with atrial fibrillation are limited.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Methods

We enrolled 465 dyads of patients with atrial fibrillation and their primary family caregivers from Beijing Anzhen Hospital between September 2020 and March 2021. The patient–caregiver dyads were excluded if primary family caregivers had previous mental disorders before the patient diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Depression and anxiety of patients and caregivers were measured by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with depression and anxiety of caregivers. STROBE guidelines were followed to report this study.

Results

The prevalence of caregiver depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥5) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≥5) was 14.0% and 13.5% respectively. Caregiver number of comorbidities ≥2 and patient depression were significantly associated with caregiver depression. Caregiver age ≥65 years, caregiver female sex and patient anxiety were predictors of caregiver anxiety.

Conclusions

Depression and anxiety are common in caregivers of patients with AF. Better management of caregiver mental problems and associated factors may benefit both patients and caregivers.

Relevance to clinical practice

Clinicians and nurses should pay more attention to depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with atrial fibrillation, and provide support to caregivers in most need.

Rethinking “zero tolerance”: A moderated mediation model of mental resilience and coping strategies in workplace violence and nurses’ mental health

Abstract

Aims

This study aimed to investigate whether the impact of workplace violence (WPV) on nurses’ mental health varies with mental resilience and coping strategies.

Background

Workplace violence is a serious threat to nurses’ mental health, and its impact on nurses’ mental health is influenced by many factors.

Method

A cross-sectional study involving 349 participants was conducted over 12 months. The data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and SPSS PROCESS macro.

Results

In total, 82.52% of nurses were exposed to WPV. WPV not only affects mental health directly but also indirectly through mental resilience. Coping strategies had a moderating effect among WPV, mental resilience and mental health. When nurses coped with psychological violence with intolerance, WPV had a stronger negative effect on their mental health. When nurses coped with psychological violence with tolerance but coped with physical violence with intolerance, mental resilience had a stronger positive effect on their mental health.

Conclusions

Good mental resilience and coping with psychological violence with tolerance while coping with physical violence with intolerance can help buffer WPV and promote mental health.

Clinical relevance

Employers who have a “zero tolerance” policy regarding WPV need to re-examine how they currently operate.

Health‐related quality of life and chronic wound characteristics among patients with chronic wounds treated in primary care: A cross‐sectional study in Singapore

Abstract

Chronic wounds commonly decrease patients' quality of life. Understanding how chronic wounds impact a patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important for healthcare service delivery and treatment management. This study explored HRQoL among patients suffering from chronic wounds and investigated associations with patients' socio-demographics and wound characteristics. Two hundred and thirty-three patients across six primary care clinics were assessed and responded to a survey that collected information on socio-demographic, wound characteristics, and HRQoL using the EQ-5D-5L instrument. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and generalised linear models. The mean age of patients was 61.2 (SD: 14.6) years; 68.2% were males; and 61.8% were of Chinese origin. Arterial ulcers had the greatest negative impact on HRQoL related to mobility, self-care, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, and the lowest VAS mean score 62.31 (SD: 28.3; range: 0-100) indicating the worst health. HRQoL related to mobility was significantly associated with age (β = 0.008, P < .001), non-Chinese ethnicity (β = 0.25, P = .001), mixed ulcers (β = −0.41, P = .022), atypical hard-to-heal wounds (β = −0.38, P = .021), wounds with low (β = 0.24, P = .044) to moderate (β = 0.29, P = .018) exudate level, and a wound duration ≥6 months (β = 0.19, P = .033). The findings can be used to improve healthcare delivery for patients with chronic wound to optimise their HRQoL.

Hospital management of major stroke types in Chinese adults: a population-based study of 20 000 hospitalised stroke cases

Por: Qin · H. · Turnbull · I. · Chen · Y. · Wright · N. · Liu · L. · Pei · P. · Tang · W. · Xiang · S. · Guo · Y. · Zhao · X. · Clarke · R. · Li · L. · Wang · Y. · Chen · Z. · On behalf of The China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group
Objectives

To compare hospital treatments for major stroke types in Chinese adults by stroke pathological types, sex, age, calendar year, hospital tier, region and other factors.

Design

Cross-sectional analysis of medical records retrieved from 20 229 stroke cases in the China Kadoorie Biobank.

Setting

Ten diverse areas (five urban, five rural) in China.

Participants

First-incident stroke cases who were recruited during an 11-year follow-up of 0.5M participants in the China Kadoorie Biobank.

Methods

Electronic copies of medical records of stroke cases were retrieved for clinical adjudication by local neurologists. Stroke cases were classified as ischaemic stroke (IS) (including lacunar infarction (LACI) and non-LACI (non-LACI)), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and unspecified stroke types.

Results

Among 20 299 first-ever stroke cases, 17 306 (85%) had IS, 7123 had non-LACI, 6690 had LACI, 3493 had silent LACI, 2623 (13%) had ICH and 370 (2%) had SAH. Among IS cases, antiplatelet treatment was used by 64% (65% non-LACI, 66% LACI, 56% silent LACI), lipid-lowering by 50% (52% non-LACI, 53% LACI, 43% silent LACI) and blood pressure-lowering by ~42% of all IS types, with positive trends in the use of these treatments by calendar year and hospital tier. Among ICH cases, 53% used blood pressure-lowering and 10% used lipid-lowering treatments, respectively. In contrast, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were used by 59% of IS (50% non-LACI, 62% LACI, 74% silent LACI), 38% of ICH and 30% of SAH cases, with positive trends by calendar year and by hospital tier.

Conclusions

Among IS cases, use of antiplatelet and lipid-lowering medications increased in recent years, but use of TCM still exceeded use of blood pressure-lowering treatment. In contrast, blood pressure-lowering treatment was widely used for ICH, but only half of all ICH cases used blood pressure-lowering treatment.

What influences peoples responses to public health messages for managing risks and preventing infectious diseases? A rapid systematic review of the evidence and recommendations

Por: Ghio · D. · Lawes-Wickwar · S. · Tang · M. Y. · Epton · T. · Howlett · N. · Jenkinson · E. · Stanescu · S. · Westbrook · J. · Kassianos · A. P. · Watson · D. · Sutherland · L. · Stanulewicz · N. · Guest · E. · Scanlan · D. · Carr · N. · Chater · A. · Hotham · S. · Thorneloe · R. · Armitage
Background

Individual behaviour changes, such as hand hygiene and physical distancing, are required on a population scale to reduce transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. However, little is known about effective methods of communicating risk reducing information, and how populations might respond.

Objective

To synthesise evidence relating to what (1) characterises effective public health messages for managing risk and preventing infectious disease and (2) influences people’s responses to messages.

Design

A rapid systematic review was conducted. Protocol is published on Prospero CRD42020188704.

Data sources

Electronic databases were searched: Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycINFO and Healthevidence.org, and grey literature (PsyarXiv, OSF Preprints) up to May 2020.

Study selection

All study designs that (1) evaluated public health messaging interventions targeted at adults and (2) concerned a communicable disease spread via primary route of transmission of respiratory and/or touch were included. Outcomes included preventative behaviours, perceptions/awareness and intentions. Non-English language papers were excluded.

Synthesis

Due to high heterogeneity studies were synthesised narratively focusing on determinants of intentions in the absence of measured adherence/preventative behaviours. Themes were developed independently by two researchers and discussed within team to reach consensus. Recommendations were translated from narrative synthesis to provide evidence-based methods in providing effective messaging.

Results

Sixty-eight eligible papers were identified. Characteristics of effective messaging include delivery by credible sources, community engagement, increasing awareness/knowledge, mapping to stage of epidemic/pandemic. To influence intent effectively, public health messages need to be acceptable, increase understanding/perceptions of health threat and perceived susceptibility.

Discussion

There are four key recommendations: (1) engage communities in development of messaging, (2) address uncertainty immediately and with transparency, (3) focus on unifying messages from sources and (4) frame messages aimed at increasing understanding, social responsibility and personal control. Embedding principles of behavioural science into public health messaging is an important step towards more effective health-risk communication during epidemics/pandemics.

The effectiveness of a medical clowning program on improving emotional status among hospitalized children undergoing cancer treatment: A quasi‐experimental study

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the effectiveness of one-time medical clowning on improving short-term positive emotions among hospitalized children undergoing cancer treatment, and to analyze whether age moderates this effect.

Design

In this quasi-experimental research study, we recruited a pooled sample of 96 children who were undergoing cancer treatment in pediatric oncology/hematology wards at three university-affiliated medical centers in Taiwan from June 2018 through April 2020.

Methods

Children’s demographic characteristics, symptom distress, quality of life, and pretest emotional status were collected at T1. At T2, we collected only posttest emotional status. We adapted generalized estimating equation models to evaluate the effectiveness of medical clowning on enhancing positive emotions.

Findings

Changes in the probabilities of positive emotion were significantly different across groups (51.84% for the experimental group, 15.76% for the control group; Δ = 36.08, p = 0.001), and the change was more than two times larger for the experimental group (effect ratio = 3.28, p < 0.05) than for the control group. When evaluating the moderating effect of age on the intervention, none of the coefficients reached the significant (p < 0.05) levels, suggesting that age may not moderate the intervention effect.

Conclusion

This study demonstrates the core value of medical clowning in child-friendly health care. Our findings clearly support the benefit of the one-time medical clowning program on enhancing short-term emotional well-being across age groups of children. Medical clowning programs should be strongly encouraged and supported in pediatric oncology wards.

Clinical relevance

Medical clowning programs should be widely and continuously implemented in pediatric oncology wards as a routine clinical practice for enhancing emotional well-being among children receiving cancer treatment. Nurses need to be aware of medical clowning’s equal effectiveness across age groups, not only or better for younger children.

Joint international consensus statement on crowdsourcing challenge contests in health and medicine: results of a modified Delphi process

Por: Han · L. · Tang · W. · Ritchwood · T. · Day · S. · Wei · S. · Bao · H. · John · R. · Kpokiri · E. · Mathanga · D. · Awor · P. · Juban · N. · Castro-Arroyave · D. · Ambil · V. · Xiong · Y. · Oppong · E. · Tucker · J.
Objectives

To develop a consensus statement to provide advice on designing, implementing and evaluating crowdsourcing challenge contests in public health and medical contexts.

Design

Modified Delphi using three rounds of survey questionnaires and one consensus workshop.

Setting

Uganda for face-to-face consensus activities, global for online survey questionnaires.

Participants

A multidisciplinary expert panel was convened at a consensus-development conference in Uganda and included 21 researchers with experience leading challenge contests, five public health sector workers, and nine Ugandan end users. An online survey was sent to 140 corresponding authors of previously published articles that had used crowdsourcing methods.

Results

A subgroup of expert panel members developed the initial statement and survey. We received responses from 120 (85.7%) survey participants, which were presented at an in-person workshop of all 21 panel members. Panelists discussed each of the sections, revised the statement, and participated in a second round of the survey questionnaire. Based on this second survey round, we held detailed discussions of each subsection with workshop participants and further revised the consensus statement. We then conducted the third round of the questionnaire among the 21 expert panelists and used the results to finalize the statement. This iterative process resulted in 23 final statement items, all with greater than 80% consensus. Statement items are organised into the seven stages of a challenge contest, including the following: considering the appropriateness, organising a community steering committee, promoting the contest, assessing contributions, recognising contributors, sharing ideas and evaluating the contest (COPARSE).

Conclusions

There is high agreement among crowdsourcing experts and stakeholders on the design and implementation of crowdsourcing challenge contests. The COPARSE consensus statement can be used to organise crowdsourcing challenge contests, improve the rigour and reproducibility of crowdsourcing research and enable large-scale collaboration.

Measured and perceived impacts of evidence-based leadership in nursing: a mixed-methods systematic review protocol

Por: Välimäki · M. A. · Lantta · T. · Hipp · K. · Varpula · J. · Liu · G. · Tang · Y. · Chen · W. · Hu · S. · Li · X.
Introduction

Despite the abundance of existing literature on evidence-based nursing practice, knowledge regarding evidence-based leadership, that is, leadership supported by an evidence-based approach, is lacking. Our aim is to conduct a mixed-methods systematic review with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine how evidence is used to solve leadership problems and to describe the measured and perceived effects of evidence-based leadership on nurses and nurse leaders and their performance as well as on organisational and clinical outcomes.

Methods and analysis

We will search the following databases with no year limit or language restrictions: CINAHL (EBSCO), Cochrane Library, Embase (Elsevier), PsycINFO (EBSCO), PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus (Elsevier) and Web of Science. In addition, the databases for prospectively registered trials and other systematic reviews will be screened. We will include articles using any type of research design as long as the study includes a component of an evidence-based leadership approach. Three reviewers will independently screen all titles, abstracts and full-text articles and two reviewers will extract the data according to the appropriate checklists. The quality of each study will be appraised using specific appraisal tool fitting in study design used in each study. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) grid, PRISMA Protocols, Synthesis Without Meta-analysis and ENTREQ will guide the study process and reporting. Outcomes related to individual or group performance of nurses or nurse managers regarding leadership skills (e.g., communication skills), organisational outcomes (e.g., work environment, costs) and clinical outcomes (e.g., patient quality of life, treatment satisfaction) will be extracted and synthesised.

Ethics and dissemination

This systematic review will not include empirical data, and therefore, ethics approval will not be sought. The results of the review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and in a conference presentation.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42021259624.

Evaluating the utility of digital phenotyping to predict health outcomes in schizophrenia: protocol for the HOPE-S observational study

Por: Abdul Rashid · N. A. · Martanto · W. · Yang · Z. · Wang · X. · Heaukulani · C. · Vouk · N. · Buddhika · T. · Wei · Y. · Verma · S. · Tang · C. · Morris · R. J. T. · Lee · J.
Introduction

The course of schizophrenia illness is characterised by recurrent relapses which are associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as treatment-resistance, functional and cognitive decline. Early identification is essential and relapse prevention remains a primary treatment goal for long-term management of schizophrenia. With the ubiquity of devices such as smartphones, objective digital biomarkers can be harnessed and may offer alternative means for symptom monitoring and relapse prediction. The acceptability of digital sensors (smartphone and wrist-wearable device) and the association between the captured digital data with clinical and health outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia will be examined.

Methods and analysis

In this study, we aim to recruit 100 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who are recently discharged from the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), Singapore. Participants are followed up for 6 months, where digital, clinical, cognitive and functioning data are collected while health utilisation data are obtained at the 6 month and 1 year timepoint from study enrolment. Associations between digital, clinical and health outcomes data will be examined. A data-driven machine learning approach will be used to develop prediction algorithms to detect clinically significant outcomes. Study findings will inform the design, data collection procedures and protocol of future interventional randomised controlled trial, testing the effectiveness of digital phenotyping in clinical management of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics approval has been granted by the National Healthcare Group (NHG) Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB Reference no.: 2019/00720). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences.

Trial registration number

NCT04230590.

Efficacy of a Low-threshold, Culturally-Sensitive Group Psychoeducation Programme for Asylum Seekers (LoPe): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

Por: Weise · C. · Grupp · F. · Reese · J.-P. · Schade-Brittinger · C. · Ehring · T. · Morina · N. · Stangier · U. · Steil · R. · Johow · J. · Mewes · R.
Introduction

Despite high levels of mental distress, accessing psychological treatment is difficult for asylum seekers in Western host countries due to a lack of knowledge about mental disorders, and the health system, as well as due to cultural and language barriers. This study aims to investigate whether brief culturally sensitive and transdiagnostic psychoeducation is effective in increasing mental health literacy.

Methods and analysis

The study is a parallel two-group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to either culturally sensitive, low-threshold psychoeducation (‘Tea Garden’ (TG)) or a waitlist (WL) control group. It takes place at four study sites in Germany. A total of 166 adult asylum seekers who report at least mild mental distress will be randomly assigned. The TG consists of two 90 min group sessions and provides information about mental distress, resources and mental health services in a culturally sensitive manner. The primary outcome is the percentage of participants in the TG, as compared with the WL, achieving an increase in knowledge concerning symptoms of mental disorders, individual resources and mental healthcare from preintervention to postintervention. The further trajectory will be assessed 2 and 6 months after the end of the intervention. Secondary outcomes include changes in mental distress, openness towards psychotherapy and resilience. Furthermore, healthcare utilisation and economics will be assessed at all assessment points.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has been approved by the Ethics Commission of the German Psychological Society (ref: WeiseCornelia2019-10-18VA). Results will be disseminated via presentations, publication in international journals and national outlets for clinicians. Furthermore, intervention materials will be available, and the existing network will be used to disseminate and implement the interventions into routine healthcare.

Trial registration number

DRKS00020564; Pre-results.

Protocol version

2020-10-06, version number: VO2F.

Unmet needs in occupational health: prevention and management of viral hepatitis in healthcare workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a mixed-methods study

Por: Nguyen · T. · Pham · T. · Tang · H. K. · Phan · L. · Mize · G. · Lee · W. M. · Gish · R. · Trang · A. · Le · A. · Phan · H. T. · Nguyen · B. T. · Dao · D. Y.
Objectives

Vietnam is an endemic area for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection (HBV-HCV), yet its largest city, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), has no comprehensive policy to educate, screen, treat and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) from viral hepatitis. We conducted a mixed-methods study to document HBV-HCV infection rates, risk factors, local barriers and opportunities for providing education, screening and medical care for HCWs.

Design

This mixed-methods study involved an HBV and HCV serological evaluation, knowledge, attitude and practice survey about viral hepatitis and many in-depth interviews. Descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis using inductive and deductive approaches were used.

Setting

HCMC, Vietnam.

Participants

HCWs at risk of viral hepatitis exposure at three hospitals in HCMC.

Results

Of the 210 invited HCWs, 203 were enrolled. Of the 203 HCWs enrolled, 20 were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, 1 was anti-hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV Ab)-positive, 57 were anti-hepatitis B core Ab-positive and 152 had adequate anti-hepatitis B surface Ab (anti-HBs Ab) titre (≥10IU/mL). Only 50% of the infected HCWs reported always using gloves during a clinical activity involving handling of blood or bodily fluid. Approximately 50% of HCWs were still not vaccinated against HBV following 1 year of employment. In-depth interviews revealed two major concerns for most interviewees: the need for financial support for HBV-HCV screening and treatment in HCWs and the need for specific HBV-HCV guidelines to be independently developed.

Conclusions

The high HBV infection rate in HCWs coupled with inadequate preventive occupational practices among the population in HCMC highlight the urgent needs to establish formal policy and rigorous education, screening, vaccination and treatment programmes to protect HCWs from HBV acquisition or to manage those living with chronic HBV in Vietnam.

Risk prediction models for intensive care unit-acquired weakness in intensive care unit patients: A systematic review

by Wei Zhang, Yun Tang, Huan Liu, Li ping Yuan, Chu chu Wang, Shu fan Chen, Jin Huang, Xin yuan Xiao

Background and objectives

Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) commonly occurs among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and seriously affects the survival rate and long-term quality of life for patients. In this systematic review, we synthesized the findings of previous studies in order to analyze predictors of ICU-AW and evaluate the discrimination and validity of ICU-AW risk prediction models for ICU patients.

Methods

We searched seven databases published in English and Chinese language to identify studies regarding ICU-AW risk prediction models. Two reviewers independently screened the literature, evaluated the quality of the included literature, extracted data, and performed a systematic review.

Results

Ultimately, 11 studies were considered for this review. For the verification of prediction models, internal verification methods had been used in three studies, and a combination of internal and external verification had been used in one study. The value for the area under the ROC curve for eight models was 0.7–0.923. The predictor most commonly included in the models were age and the administration of corticosteroids. All the models have good applicability, but most of the models are biased due to the lack of blindness, lack of reporting, insufficient sample size, missing data, and lack of performance evaluation and calibration of the models.

Conclusions

The efficacy of most models for the risk prediction of ICU-AW among high-risk groups is good, but there was a certain bias in the development and verification of the models. Thus, ICU medical staff should select existing models based on actual clinical conditions and verify them before applying them in clinical practice. In order to provide a reliable basis for the risk prediction of ICU-AW, it is necessary that large-sample, multi-center studies be conducted in the future, in which ICU-AW risk prediction models are verified.

Prevalence and related factors of hyperuricaemia in Shanghai adult women of different ages: a multicentre and cross-sectional study

Por: Tao · M. · Ma · X. · Pi · X. · Shi · Y. · Tang · L. · Hu · Y. · Chen · H. · Zhou · X. · Du · L. · Chi · Y. · Zhuang · S. · Liu · N.
Objective

Women in different age phases have different metabolism and hormone levels that influence the production and excretion of uric acid. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and related factors of hyperuricaemia among women in various age phases.

Study design

Observational, cross-sectional study.

Setting

Data were obtained from women at three health check-up centres in Shanghai.

Participants

Adult women from three health check-up centres were recruited. Exclusion criteria were individuals with pregnancy, cancer, incomplete information. Finally, 11 601 participants were enrolled.

Results

The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia of total subjects were 11.15% (95% CIs 10.57% to 11.72%). The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in 18–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years old was 6.41% (95% CI 4.97% to 7.86%), 5.63% (4.71% to 6.55%), 6.02% (5.01%% to 7.03%), 11.51% (10.19% to 12.82%), 16.49% (15.03% to 17.95%) and 23.98% (21.56% to 26.40%), respectively. Compared with 18–29 years old, the ORs for hyperuricaemia in other age phases were 0.870 (95% CI 0.647 to 1.170, p=0.357), 0.935 (0.693 to 1.261, p=0.659), 1.898 (1.444 to 2.493, p

Conclusion

After 50 years old, the prevalence of hyperuricaemia in Shanghai women has increased significantly and reaches the peak after 70. Obesity and dyslipidaemia are two main related factors for hyperuricaemia during all ages, while diabetes mellitus and nephrolithiasis have no relationship with hyperuricaemia throughout. CKD is an independent impact factor for hyperuricaemia after 30 years old.

Barriers to follow-up after an abnormal cervical cancer screening result and the role of male partners: a qualitative study

Por: Chapola · J. · Lee · F. · Bula · A. · Mapanje · C. · Phiri · B. R. · Kamtuwange · N. · Tsidya · M. · Tang · J. H. · Chinula · L.
Introduction

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Malawi, but preventable through screening. Malawi primarily uses visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for screening, however, a follow-up for positive screening results remains a major barrier, in rural areas. We interviewed women who underwent a community-based screen-and-treat campaign that offered same-day treatment with thermocoagulation, a heat-based ablative procedure for VIA-positive lesions, to understand the barriers in accessing post-treatment follow-up and the role of male partners in contributing to, or overcoming these barriers.

Methods

We conducted in-depths interviews with 17 women recruited in a pilot study that evaluated the safety and acceptability of community-based screen-and-treat programme using VIA and thermocoagulation for cervical cancer prevention in rural Lilongwe, Malawi. Ten of the women interviewed presented for post-treatment follow-up at the healthcare facility and seven did not. The interviews were analysed for thematic content surrounding barriers for attending for follow-up and role of male partners in screening.

Results

Transportation was identified as a major barrier to post-thermocoagulation follow-up appointment, given long distances to the healthcare facility. Male partners were perceived as both a barrier for some, that is, not supportive of 6-week post-thermocoagulation abstinence recommendation, and as an important source of support for others, that is, encouraging follow-up attendance, providing emotional support to maintaining post-treatment abstinence and as a resource in overcoming transportation barriers. Regardless, the majority of women desired more male partner involvement in cervical cancer screening.

Conclusion

Despite access to same-day treatment, long travel distances to health facilities for post-treatment follow-up visits remained a major barrier for women in rural Lilongwe. Male partners were identified both as a barrier to, and an important source of support for accessing and completing the screen-and-treat programme. To successfully eliminate cervical cancer in Malawi, it is imperative to understand the day-to-day barriers women face in accessing preventative care.

Cross-sectional study evaluating burden and depressive symptoms in family carers of persons with age-related macular degeneration in Australia

Por: Jin · I. · Tang · D. · Gengaroli · J. · Nicholson Perry · K. · Burlutsky · G. · Craig · A. · Liew · G. · Mitchell · P. · Gopinath · B.
Objectives

We aimed to analyse the degree of carer burden and depressive symptoms in family carers of persons with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and explore the factors independently associated with carer burden and depressive symptoms.

Methods

Cross-sectional study using self-administered and interviewer-administered surveys, involving 96 family carer–care recipient pairs. Participants were identified from tertiary ophthalmology clinics in Sydney, Australia, as well as the Macular Disease Foundation of Australia database. Logistic regression, Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations of explanatory factors (family caregiving experience, carer fatigue, carer quality of life and care-recipient level of dependency) with study outcomes—carer burden and depressive symptoms.

Results

Over one in two family carers reported experiencing mild or moderate-severe burden. More than one in five and more than one in three family carers experienced depressive symptoms and substantial fatigue, respectively. High level of care-recipient dependency was associated with greater odds of moderate-severe and mild carer burden, multivariable-adjusted OR 8.42 (95% CI 1.88 to 37.60) and OR 4.26 (95% CI 1.35 to 13.43), respectively. High levels of fatigue were associated with threefold greater odds of the carer experiencing depressive symptoms, multivariable-adjusted OR 3.47 (95% CI 1.00 to 12.05).

Conclusions

A substantial degree of morbidity is observed in family carers during the caregiving experience for patients with AMD. Level of dependency on the family carer and fatigue were independently associated with family carer burden and depressive symptoms.

Trial registration number

The trial registration number is ACTRN12616001461482. The results presented in this paper are Pre-results stage.

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the caregiver contribution to self-care of chronic illness inventory in China: a cross-sectional study

Por: Chen · D. D. · Zhang · H. · Cui · N. · Tang · L. · Shao · J. · Wang · X. · Wang · D. · Liu · N. · Ye · Z.
Objective

Caregiver contribution (CC) is important for the self-care behaviors of chronic disease individuals, as it could enhance patient outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to assess this CC by using a good validity and reliability instrument. The Caregiver Contribution to Self-Care Chronic Illness Inventory (CC-SC-CII) was designed to assess CC to self-care behaviors of patients with chronic illness in Italy. However, it was unclear whether this tool had sound psychometrics properties in the context of Chinese culture. Therefore, we performed the cross-cultural adaption of the CC-SC-CII and we tested its psychometric properties among Chinese caregivers of patients with chronic disease.

Design

A cross-sectional observational design.

Settings

Participants were recruited from communities and institutions in Pingdingshan, Henan Province, China.

Participants

301 caregivers of care recipients with chronic disease completed the Chinese version of the CC-SC-CII (C-CC-SC-CII).

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The content validity index of items (I-CVI), the scale content validity index-average (S-CVI/Ave), exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency and item analysis were tested.

Results

The range of I-CVI was between 0.833 and 1.00, and the score of S-CVI was 0.991. In CFA, the C-CC to self-care monitoring scale had satisfactory fit indices. However, the C-CC to self-care maintenance and management scales had unsupported fit indices. The reliability coefficients of C-CC-SC-CII were 0.792, 0.880 and 0.870 for its three scales. Item-total correlations were all over 0.590. Test–retest reliability showed that the range of intraclass correlation coefficients was from 0.728 to 0.783.

Conclusion

The C-CC-SC-CII has sound psychometrics characteristics and is a culturally appropriate and reliable instrument for assessing CC to the self-care behaviours of patients with chronic disease in China.

Effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions on the secondary consequences of surviving a cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Por: Joshi · V. L. · Christensen · J. · Lejsgaard · E. · Taylor · R. S. · Zwisler · A. D. · Tang · L. H.
Aim

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions on the secondary physical, neurological and psychological consequences of cardiac arrest (CA) for adult survivors.

Methods

A literature search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica database, Psychological Information Database, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials) was conducted for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies up to 18 April 2021. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and main secondary outcome was neurological function with additional secondary outcomes being survival, rehospitalisation, safety (serious and non-serious adverse events), psychological well-being, fatigue, exercise capacity and physical capacity. Two authors independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias.

Results

Three RCTs and 11 observational studies were included (total 721 participants). Study duration ranged from 8 weeks to 2 years. Pooled data from two RCTs showed low-quality evidence for no effect on physical HRQoL (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.19, (95% CI: –0.09 to 0.47)) and no effect on mental HRQoL (SMD 0.27 (95% CI: –0.01 to 0.55)).

Regarding secondary outcomes, very low-quality evidence was found for improvement in neurological function associated with inpatient rehabilitation for CA survivors with acquired brain injury (SMD 0.71, (95% CI: 0.45 to 0.96)) from five observational studies. Two small observational studies found exercise-based rehabilitation interventions to be safe for CA survivors, reporting no serious or non-serious events.

Conclusions

Given the overall low quality of evidence, this review cannot determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for CA survivors on HRQoL, neurological function or other included outcomes, and recommend further high-quality studies be conducted. In the interim, existing clinical guidelines on rehabilitation provision after CA should be followed to meet the high burden of secondary consequences suffered by CA survivors.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018110129.

‘From Expert to Novice’, Perceptions of General Ward Nurses on Deployment to Outbreak Intensive Care Units during the COVID‐19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Abstract

Aims and objectives

This study aimed to explore the perceived preparedness and psychosocial well-being of general ward nurses prior to their deployment into the outbreak intensive care units (ICUs) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Background

With the surge in COVID-19 cases requiring ICU care, non-ICU nurses maybe deployed into the ICUs. Having experienced through SARS, hospitals in Singapore instituted upskilling programs to secure general ward nurses’ competency in providing critical care nursing. However, no studies have explored the perceptions of general ward nurses on deployment into the ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design

Qualitative descriptive study.

Methods

The study was conducted at Singapore’s epicentre of COVID-19 management. Five focus groups were conducted following purposive sampling of 30 general ward nurses identified for outbreak ICU deployment. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and data thematically analysed. This study was conducted and reported in accordance with the COREQ checklist.

Results

Three salient themes arose, exemplifying the transition from clinical experts in the general wards to practising novices in the outbreak ICUs. Firstly, ‘Into the deep end of the pool’ described general ward nurses’ feelings of anxiety and stress associated with higher exposure risk and expanded responsibilities to nurse critically ill patients. Secondly, ‘Preparing for “war”’ illustrated deployed nurses’ need for clear communication and essential critical care nursing training. Lastly, ‘Call of duty’ affirmed the nurses’ personal and professional commitment to embrace this transition into the ICUs, and their desire for greater psychosocial support.

Conclusion

The study findings highlight that though general ward nurses perceived their impending ICU deployment positively, they require ongoing support to facilitate a smoother transition.

Relevance to clinical practice

Findings provided an evidence base to improve the preparedness of general ward nurses deployed into the ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic within key areas of training, information dissemination and psychosocial resilience.

Common factors in serious case reviews of child maltreatment where there is a medical cause of death: qualitative thematic analysis

Por: Garstang · J. · Eatwell · D. · Sidebotham · P. · Taylor · J.
Aim

To identify the common factors in serious case reviews (SCRs) where a child has died of a medical cause.

Design

Qualitative thematic analysis.

Background

SCRs take place when neglect or abuse results in children dying or being seriously harmed. Known key factors within SCRs include parental substance misuse, mental health problems and domestic abuse. To date, there has been no investigation of children who die of a medical cause where there are concerns about child maltreatment.

Data sources

A list of SCRs relating to deaths through medical causes was provided from previous coded studies and accessed from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children National Case Review Repository. Twenty-three SCRs with a medical cause of death from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2017 were sourced.

Results

20 children died of an acute condition and 12 of a chronic condition; 20 of the deaths were unexpected and maltreatment contributed to the deaths of 18 children. Most children were aged either 16 years at the time of death. Many parents were caring for a child with additional vulnerabilities including behavioural issues (6/23), learning difficulties (6/23), mental health issues (5/23) or a chronic medical condition (12/23). Common parental experiences included domestic violence/abuse (13/23), drug/alcohol misuse (10/23), mental ill health or struggling to cope (7/23), criminal history (11/23) and caring for another vulnerable individual (8/23). Most children lived in a chaotic household characterised by missed medical appointments (18/23), poor school attendance (11/23), poor physical home environment (7/23) and disguised compliance (12/23). All 23 SCRs reported elements of abusive or neglectful parenting. In most, there was an evidence of cumulative harm, where multiple factors contributed to their premature death. At the time of death, 11 children were receiving social care support.

Conclusion

Although the underlying medical cause of the child’s death was often incurable, the maltreatment that often exacerbated the medical issue could have been prevented.

Psychological distress among the family members of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients: A scoping review

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To map research-based psychological distress among the family members with patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Background

Having a loved one in the ICU is a stressful experience, which may cause psychological distress for family members. Depression, anxiety and stress are the common forms of psychological distress associated with ICU patient's family members. Directly or indirectly, psychological distress may have behavioural or physiological impacts on the family members and ICU patient's recovery.

Design

The study was based on the five-stage methodological framework by Arksey and O'Malley (International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2005, 8, 19) and were guided by the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.

Methods

A comprehensive and systematic search was performed in five electronic databases, namely the Scopus, Web of Sciences, CINAHL® Complete @EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect and MEDLINE. Reference lists from the screened full-text articles were reviewed.

Results

From a total of 1252 literature screened, 22 studies published between 2010–2019 were included in the review. From those articles, four key themes were identified: (a) Prevalence of psychological distress; (b) Factors affecting family members; (c) Symptoms of psychological distress; and (d) Impact of psychological distress.

Conclusions

Family members with a critically ill patient in ICU show high levels of anxiety, depression and stress. They had moderate to major symptoms of psychological distress that negatively impacted both the patient and family members.

Relevance to clinical practice

The review contributed further insights on psychological distress among ICU patient's family members and proposed psychological interventions that could positively impact the family well-being and improve the patients’ recovery.

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