The first German SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was a superspreading event in Gangelt, North Rhine-Westphalia, during indoor carnival festivities called ‘Kappensitzung’ (15 February 2020). We determined SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity rate, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, and analysed the conditions and dynamics of superspreading, including ventilation, setting dimensions, distance from infected persons and behavioural patterns.
In a cross-sectional epidemiological study (51 days postevent), participants were asked to give blood, pharyngeal swabs and complete self-administered questionnaires.
The SARS-CoV-2 superspreading event took place during festivities in the small community of Gangelt in February 2020. This 5-hour event included 450 people (6–79 years of age) in a building of 27 m x 13.20 m x 4.20 m.
Out of 450 event participants, 411 volunteered to participate in this study.
Primary outcome: infection status (determined by IgG ELISA). Secondary outcome: symptoms (determined by questionnaire).
Overall, 46% (n=186/404) of participants had been infected, and their spatial distribution was associated with proximity to the ventilation system (OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.25). Risk of infection was highly associated with age: children (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.267 to 0.414) and young adults (age 18–25 years) had a lower risk of infection than older participants (average risk increase of 28% per 10 years). Behavioural differences were also risk associated including time spent outside (OR 0.55, (95% CI 0.33 to 0.91) or smoking (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.124 to 0.81).
Our findings underline the importance of proper indoor ventilation for future events. Lower susceptibility of children/young adults indicates their limited involvement in superspreading.
While advances in healthcare mean people are living longer, increasing frailty is a potential consequence of this. The relationship between frailty among older surgical patients and hospital acquired adverse events has not been extensively explored. We sought to describe the relationship between increasing frailty among older surgical patients and the risk of hospital acquired adverse events.
We included consecutive surgical admissions among patients aged 70 years or more across the SWSLHD between January 2010 and December 2020. This study used routinely collected ICD-10-AM data, obtained from the government maintained Admitted Patient Data Collection. The relationships between cumulative frailty deficit items and risk of hospital acquired adverse events were assessed using Poisson regression modelling. This study followed the RECORD/STROBE guidelines.
During the study period, 44,721 (57% women) older adults were admitted, and 41% (25,306) were planned surgical admissions. The risk of all adverse events increased with increasing number of frailty deficit items, the highest deficit items group (4–12 deficit items) compared with the lowest deficit items group (0 or 1 deficit item): falls adjusted rate ratio (adj RR) = 15.3, (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.1, 19.42); pressure injury adj RR = 21.3 (95% CI 12.53, 36.16); delirium adj RR = 40.9 (95% CI 31.21, 53.55); pneumonia adj RR = 16.5 (95% CI 12.74, 21.27); thromboembolism adj RR = 17.3 (95% CI 4.4, 11.92); and hospital mortality adj RR = 6.2 (95% CI 5.18, 7.37).
The increase in number of cumulative frailty deficit items among older surgical patients was associated with a higher risk of adverse hospital events. The link offers an opportunity to clinical nursing professionals in the surgical setting, to develop and implement targeted models of care and ensure the best outcomes for frail older adults and their families.
To synthesise the evidence on the role of compositional or contextual characteristics of schools in the association between students' socioeconomic position and their health in primary and secondary education in developed economies.
Scoping review. We included studies examining the role of at least one school or class characteristic on students’ health inequalities and was published since 1 January 2000, in English or German. We searched PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Education Resources Information Center. We provided a narrative synthesis and an overview of findings. School characteristics were grouped into five broad categories: school composition, school climate, school policies and organisation, food environment and facilities.
Of 8520 records identified, 26 studies were included. Twelve studies found a moderating and 3 a mediating effect. The strongest evidence came from studies examining the moderating effect of school composition, that is, the negative impact of a low individual socioeconomic position on mental health and well-being was aggravated by a low average socioeconomic position of schools. Evidence concerning the role of school climate, school stratification (eg, performance base tracking) and sponsorship, food environment and sport facilities and equipment was generally weak or very weak and mostly based on singular findings. Overall, favourable meso-level characteristics mitigated the negative impact of low individual socioeconomic position on health outcomes.
School characteristics affect health inequalities in children and adolescents to some degree, but future research is necessary to strengthen the existing evidence and address under-represented aspects in school characteristics and health outcomes.
Strengthening first-line mental healthcare services for youth remains a priority for the Swedish government. The government is currently investigating how different sectors involved can be strengthened, but evidence is scarce. Youth clinics play a key role in these discussions, being one of the most trusted services for youth. However, analysis of organisational functions and coordination with other services is important to strengthen youth clinics’ role in first-line mental healthcare. This study investigates these challenges and aims to analyse the integration of mental healthcare within youth clinics to identify strategies to strengthen first-line mental healthcare for youth in Sweden.
This study adopts a health policy and systems approach. In the first phase, a formative realist evaluation is conducted to ascertain what works in terms of integrating mental healthcare services within youth clinics, for what type of youth subpopulations and under what circumstances. National-level stakeholders will be interviewed to elicit the programme theory that explains how the intervention is supposed to work. The programme theory will then be tested in three–five cases. The cases will be comprised of youth clinics and their stakeholders. Quantitative and qualitative information will be gathered, including via visual methodologies and questionnaires. The second phase includes a concept mapping study, engaging stakeholders and young people to build consensus on strategies to strengthen the integration of mental healthcare into youth clinics.
The Swedish Ethical Review Authority has approved the study (2019-02910 and 2020-04720). The results will be published in open-access peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences.
Skin ageing is associated with various structural alterations including a decreased strength of the dermo-epidermal adhesion increasing the risk for shear type injuries (skin tears). Topical applications of basic skin care products seem to reduce skin tear incidence. The suction blister method leads to the artificial and controlled separation of dermis and epidermis. Therefore, time to blister formation may be used as outcome measuring the strength of dermo-epidermal adhesion. We conducted an exploratory, randomised, controlled trial with a split-body design on forearms in healthy female subjects (n = 12; mean age 70.3 [SD 2.1] years). Forearms assigned to the intervention were treated twice daily with petrolatum for 8 weeks. Suction blisters were induced on forearms after 4 and 8 weeks and time to blister formation was measured. Stratum corneum and epidermal hydration were measured and epidermal thickness was assessed via optical coherence tomography. Time to blistering was longer and stratum corneum as well as epidermal hydration was consistently higher in intervention skin areas. We conclude that topical application of basic skin care products may improve mechanical adhesion of the dermo-epidermal junction and that the parameter “time to blistering” is a suitable outcome to measure dermo-epidermal adhesion strength in clinical research.
by Katrin M. Beckmann, Adriano Wang-Leandro, Matthias Dennler, Ines Carrera, Henning Richter, Rima N. Bektas, Aline Steiner, Sven HallerResting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) has become an established technique in humans and reliably determines several resting state networks (RSNs) simultaneously. Limited data exist about RSN in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the RSNs in 10 healthy beagle dogs using a 3 tesla MRI scanner and subsequently perform group-level independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functionally connected brain networks. Rs-fMRI sequences were performed under steady state sevoflurane inhalation anaesthesia. Anaesthetic depth was titrated to the minimum level needed for immobilisation and mechanical ventilation of the patient. This required a sevoflurane MAC between 0.8 to 1.2. Group-level ICA dimensionality of 20 components revealed distributed sensory, motor and higher-order networks in the dogs’ brain. We identified in total 7 RSNs (default mode, primary and higher order visual, auditory, two putative motor-somatosensory and one putative somatosensory), which are common to other mammals including humans. Identified RSN are remarkably similar to those identified in awake dogs. This study proves the feasibility of rs-fMRI in anesthetized dogs and describes several RSNs, which may set the basis for investigating pathophysiological characteristics of various canine brain diseases.