by Felix Girrbach, Tobias Landeck, Dominic Schneider, Stefan U. Reske, Gunther Hempel, Sören Hammermüller, Udo Gottschaldt, Peter Salz, Katharina Noreikat, Sebastian N. Stehr, Hermann Wrigge, Andreas W. ReskeIntroduction
Posttraumatic pneumothorax (PTX) is often overseen in anteroposterior chest X-ray. Chest sonography and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) can both be used at the bedside and may provide complementary information. We evaluated the performance of EIT for diagnosing posttraumatic PTX in a pig model.Methods
This study used images from an existing database of images acquired from 17 mechanically ventilated pigs, which had sustained standardized blunt chest trauma and had undergone repeated thoracic CT and EIT. 100 corresponding EIT/CT datasets were randomly chosen from the database and anonymized. Two independent and blinded observers analyzed the EIT data for presence and location of PTX. Analysis of the corresponding CTs by a radiologist served as reference.Results
87/100 cases had at least one PTX detected by CT. Fourty-two cases showed a PTX > 20% of the sternovertebral diameter (PTXtrans20), whereas 52/100 PTX showed a PTX>3 cm in the craniocaudal diameter (PTXcc3), with 20 cases showing both a PTXtranscc and a PTXcc3. We found a very low agreement between both EIT observers considering the classification overall PTX/noPTX (κ = 0.09, p = 0.183). For PTXtrans20, sensitivity was 59% for observer 1 and 17% for observer 2, with a specificity of 48% and 50%, respectively. For PTXcc3, observer 1 showed a sensitivity of 60% with a specificity of 51% while the sensitivity of observer 2 was 17%, with a specificity of 89%. By programming a semi-automatized detection algorithm, we significantly improved the detection rate of PTXcc3, with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 70%. However, detection of PTXtranscc was not improved.Conclusion
In our analysis, visual interpretation of EIT without specific image processing or comparison with baseline data did not allow clinically useful diagnosis of posttraumatic PTX. Multimodal imaging approaches, technical improvements and image postprocessing algorithms might improve the performance of EIT for diagnosing PTX in the future.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the indirect effects of emotional dissonance and workload on presenteeism and emotional exhaustion through sleep quality and relaxation.
Numerous investigations have found that job demands are related to employees' health and behaviours, but additional studies are needed among nurse samples. Specifically, little is known about the relationships between nurses' emotional dissonance and workload on one hand, and presenteeism and emotional exhaustion on the other hand. Moreover, research is needed to further explore the psychological mechanisms underlying these relationships.
We used a cross‐sectional design. Our study was carried out between October 2015–February 2016. Precisely, we asked nurses from various French healthcare centres to fill out a questionnaire survey. We ensured to meticulously follow the STROBE guidelines for cross‐sectional research in designing and reporting this study.
An empirical study with a sample of 378 nurses was conducted.
In line with our hypotheses, our findings revealed that emotional dissonance and workload were negatively linked to sleep quality and relaxation, which were, in turn, related to lower levels of presenteeism and emotional exhaustion. Workload and emotional dissonance were also directly and positively related to emotional exhaustion, while emotional dissonance was associated with higher levels of presenteeism. Finally, the indirect effects of emotional dissonance and workload on emotional exhaustion through sleep quality as well as the indirect effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion through relaxation were significant and positive.
Overall, our results provide insight into the effects of emotional dissonance and workload on presenteeism and emotional exhaustion through recovery processes.
The present findings have some practical implications for reducing nurses' emotional exhaustion and presenteeism. Specifically, managers and organisations should try to design and craft jobs to decrease the presence of negative work characteristics (i.e., workload and emotional dissonance). Our results also suggest that recovery processes may be important factors to focus on.
The PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA‐A) was developed to guide authors to present a structured abstract. However, the adherence of abstracts to these guidelines in some areas was of concern.
To determine whether the publication of PRISMA‐A resulted in an improvement in the abstracts reported with nursing systematic reviews (SRs).
This was a cross‐sectional study. We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials–based SRs published in top‐tier nursing journals. A PRISMA‐A checklist was used to assess abstracts in the SR included. Total score on checklists, comparison of total scores between two periods, and effect factors were analyzed.
Overall, abstract reporting compliance with PRISMA‐A has not improved significantly with the time span. Of the 81 SRs, 74.1% were structured. About half reported eligibility criteria, information sources, and description of the effect as recommended. Registration status was reported only in 4.9%. The reporting quality was significantly higher for journals with higher impact factors (p < .001).
Although not inclusive of all SRs in the nursing field, our sample reflects the general trend that there was no significant improvement in the compliance of SR abstracts reported in nursing with the release of PRISMA‐A. There is room for improvement, as most items have not been fully reported.
by Ifeoma D. Ozodiegwu, Mary Ann Littleton, Christian Nwabueze, Oluwaseun Famojuro, Megan Quinn, Richard Wallace, Hadii M. MamuduObjective
Adult women are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Existing evidence on the sociocultural context remains unconsolidated. In this qualitative research synthesis, we aggregate research literature on contextual factors that potentially predispose adult women and adolescent girls to overweight and obesity to inform research, policies and programs over the life course.Methods
PubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, ProQuest Central, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to locate qualitative research articles conducted in SSA countries beginning in the year 2000. After assessment for eligibility and critical appraisal, 17 studies were included in the synthesis. Textual data and quotes were synthesized using meta-aggregation methods proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute.Results
The synthesized studies were conducted in South Africa, Ghana, Kenya and Botswana. The three overarching themes across these studies were body size and shape ideals, barriers to healthy eating, and barriers to physical activity, with cultural and social factors as cross-cutting influences within the major themes. Culturally, the supposedly ideal African woman was expected to be overweight or obese, and voluptuous, and this was associated with their identity. Although being overweight or obese was not acceptable to adolescent girls, they desired to be voluptuous. Healthy food choices among women and adolescent girls were hampered by several factors including affordability of nutritious foods and peer victimization. Both adult women and adolescent girls experienced ageism as a barrier to physical activity.Significance
This is the first qualitative research synthesis to amplify the voices of women and girls in SSA countries highlighting the challenges they face in maintaining a healthy body weight. Sociocultural, institutional and peer-related factors were powerful forces shaping body size preferences, food choices and participation in physical activity. Our study findings provide insights for the design of contextually appropriate obesity prevention interventions and lay the foundation for further research studies.
by Karin U. Sorenmo, Amy C. Durham, Enrico Radaelli, Veronica Kristiansen, Laura Peña, Michael H. Goldschmidt, Darko StefanovskiThe purpose of this study was to investigate the associations and explore the relationships between hormonal factors (serum estrogen, estrogen receptors and ovariohysterectomy) and other clinical/histological prognostic factors and their impact on outcome in dogs with mammary carcinomas. Data from two separate prospective studies on dogs with spontaneous mammary carcinomas were used for this research. All dogs underwent standardized diagnostic testing, staging, surgery and follow-up examinations. Serum estrogen was analyzed by competitive enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay, and tumor estrogen receptor (ER) expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A total of 159 dogs were included; 130 were spayed and 29 remained. High serum estrogen was associated with an overall longer time to metastasis (p = 0.021). When stratifying based on spay group, the effect was only significant in spayed dogs, (p = 0.019). Positive tumor ER expression was also associated with a longer time to metastasis (p = 0.025), but similar to above, only in dogs that were spayed (p = 0.049). Further subgroup analysis revealed that high serum estrogen was significantly associated with improved survival in dogs with ER positive tumors, but only in spayed dogs (p = 0.0052). Interestingly, the effect of spaying was the opposite in dogs with ER negative tumors; here, intact dogs with high serum estrogen but ER negative tumors had a significantly longer time to metastasis (p = 0.036). Low serum estrogen was associated with increased risk for the development of non-mammary tumors in the post-operative period (p = 0.012). These results highlight the dual effect of estrogen in cancer: Estrogen acts as a pro-carcinogen in ER positive mammary tumors, but a may have a protective effect in ER negative tumors, potentially via non-receptor mechanisms. The latter is supported by the decreased risk for non-mammary tumors in dogs with high serum estrogen, and explains the increased incidence of certain non-mammary tumors in in dogs spayed at an early age.
by Andreas Leha, Kristian Hellenkamp, Bernhard Unsöld, Sitali Mushemi-Blake, Ajay M. Shah, Gerd Hasenfuß, Tim SeidlerBackground
Machine learning (ML) is a powerful tool for identifying and structuring several informative variables for predictive tasks. Here, we investigated how ML algorithms may assist in echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension (PH) prediction, where current guidelines recommend integrating several echocardiographic parameters.Methods
In our database of 90 patients with invasively determined pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) with corresponding echocardiographic estimations of PAP obtained within 24 hours, we trained and applied five ML algorithms (random forest of classification trees, random forest of regression trees, lasso penalized logistic regression, boosted classification trees, support vector machines) using a 10 times 3-fold cross-validation (CV) scheme.Results
ML algorithms achieved high prediction accuracies: support vector machines (AUC 0.83; 95% CI 0.73–0.93), boosted classification trees (AUC 0.80; 95% CI 0.68–0.92), lasso penalized logistic regression (AUC 0.78; 95% CI 0.67–0.89), random forest of classification trees (AUC 0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.95), random forest of regression trees (AUC 0.87; 95% CI 0.78–0.96). In contrast to the best of several conventional formulae (by Aduen et al.), this ML algorithm is based on several echocardiographic signs and feature selection, with estimated right atrial pressure (RAP) being of minor importance.Conclusions
Using ML, we were able to predict pulmonary hypertension based on a broader set of echocardiographic data with little reliance on estimated RAP compared to an existing formula with non-inferior performance. With the conceptual advantages of a broader and unbiased selection and weighting of data our ML approach is suited for high level assistance in PH prediction.
To identify the facilitators and barriers to implement family doctor contracting services in China by using Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to shed new light on establishing family doctor systems in developing countries.
A qualitative study conducted from June to August 2017 using semistructured interview guides for focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews. CFIR was used to guide data coding, data analysis and reporting of findings.
19 primary health institutions in nine provinces purposively selected from the eastern, middle and western areas of China.
From the nine sampled provinces in China, 62 policy makers from health related departments at the province, city and county/district levels participated in 9 FGDs; 19 leaders of primary health institutions participated in individual interviews; and 48 family doctor team members participated in 15 FGDs.
Based on CFIR constructs, notable facilitators included national reform involving both top-down and bottom-up policy making (Intervention); support from essential public health funds, fiscal subsidies and health insurance (Outer setting); extra performance-based payments for family doctor teams based on evaluation (Inner setting); and positive engagement of health administrators (Process). Notable barriers included a lack of essential matching mechanisms at national level (Intervention); distrust in the quality of primary care, a lack of government subsidies and health insurance reimbursement and performance ceiling policy (Outer setting); the low competency of family doctors and weak influence of evaluations on performance-based salary (Inner setting); and misunderstandings about family doctor contracting services (Process).
The national design with essential features including financing, incentive mechanisms and multidepartment cooperation, was vital for implementing family doctor contracting services in China. More attention should be paid to the quality of primary care and competency of family doctors. All stakeholders must be informed, be involved and participate before and during the process.
Disparities in the global burden of breast cancer have been identified. We aimed to investigate recent patterns and trends in the breast cancer incidence and associated mortality. We also assessed breast cancer-related health inequalities according to socioeconomic development factors.
An observational study based on the Global Burden of Diseases.
Estimates of breast cancer incidence and mortality during 1990–2016 were obtained from the Global Health Data Exchange database. Subsequently, data obtained in 2016 were described using the age-standardised and age-specific incidence, mortality and mortality-to-incidence (MI) ratios according to sociodemographic index (SDI) levels. Trends were assessed by measuring the annual percent change using the joinpoint regression. The Gini coefficients and concentration indices were used to identify between-country inequalities.
Countries with higher SDI levels had worse disease incidence burdens in 2016, whereas inequalities in the breast cancer incidence had decreased since 1990. Opposite trends were observed in the mortality rates of high and low SDI countries. Moreover, the decreasing concentration indices, some of which became negative, among women aged 15–49 and 50–69 years suggested an increase in the mortality burdens in undeveloped regions. Conversely, inequality related to the MI ratio increased. In 2016, the MI ratios exhibited distinct gradients from high to low SDI regions across all age groups.
The patterns and trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality closely correlated with the SDI levels. Our findings highlighted the primary prevention of breast cancer in high SDI countries with a high disease incidence and the development of cost-effective diagnostic and treatment interventions for low SDI countries with poor MI ratios as the two pressing needs in the next decades.
by Valerie De Meulenaere, Ellen Bonte, Jeroen Verhoeven, Jean-Pierre Kalala Okito, Leen Pieters, Anne Vral, Olivier De Wever, Luc Leybaert, Ingeborg Goethals, Christian Vanhove, Benedicte Descamps, Karel DeblaerePurpose
Even with an optimal treatment protocol, the median survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients is only 12–15 months. Hence, there is need for novel effective therapies that improve survival outcomes. Recent evidence suggests an important role for connexin (Cx) proteins (especially Cx43) in the microenvironment of malignant glioma. Cx43-mediated gap junctional communication has been observed between tumor cells, between astrocytes and between tumor cells and astrocytes. Therefore, gap junction directed therapy using a pharmacological suppressor or modulator, such as tonabersat, could be a promising target in the treatment of GB. In this preclinical study, we evaluated the possible therapeutic potential of tonabersat in the F98 model.Procedures
Female Fischer rats were inoculated with ± 25.000 F98 tumor cells in the right frontal lobe. Eight days post-inoculation contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE-T1w) magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired to confirm tumor growth in the brain. After tumor confirmation, rats were randomized into a Control Group, a Connexin Modulation Group (CM), a Standard Medical Treatment Group (ST), and a Standard Medical Treatment with adjuvant Connexin Modulation Group (STCM). To evaluate therapy response, T2-weighted (T2w) and CE-T1w sequences were acquired at several time points. Tumor volume analysis was performed on CE-T1w images and statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed model.Results
Significant differences in estimated geometric mean tumor volumes were found between the ST Group and the Control Group and also between the STCM Group and the Control Group. In addition, significant differences in estimated geometric mean tumor volumes between the ST Group and the STCM Group were demonstrated. No significant differences in estimated geometric mean tumor volumes were found between the Control Group and the CM Group.Conclusion
Our results demonstrate a therapeutic potential of tonabersat for the treatment of GB when used in combination with radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy.
Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss is often prone to complications. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells, and moreover it plays an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and wound healing. In this retrospective, single‐centred appraisal, complications are examined and correlated with individual SVF numbers in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue. We analysed whether the weight loss method affected complications. Eighty seven massive weight loss patients undergoing body contouring surgery between 2010 and 2017 were included in the study. In total, 57 cases with at least one complication were recorded (65.5%). Maximum lifetime weight was 109.6 kg (range 48‐184 kg). Half of the complications (50.8%) were minor complications without the need for surgical revision. The mean number of SVF found in the resected tissue was 714 997.63 cells/g fat tissue. We found no statistical difference in complication rates dependent on cell numbers. Smoking (P = .049) and a high BMI at the time point of surgery (P = .031) led to significantly more complications. Also, a high resection weight (P = .057) showed a tendency for impaired wound healing. However, there was no difference in complication rates following body contouring procedures attributable to the method of weight loss in this study.
by Kristian Magnus Gundersen, Christoffer Nyborg, Øyvind Heiberg Sundby, Jonny Hisdal
To assess randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of nurse practitioner‐led cardiovascular care.
Systematic review of nurse practitioner–led care in patients with cardiovascular disease has not been completed.
Systematic review and meta‐analysis.
The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest were systematically searched for studies published between January 2007 ‐ June 2017.
Cochrane methodology was used for risk of bias, data extraction and meta‐analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.
Out of 605 articles, five articles met the inclusion criteria. There was no statistical difference between nurse practitioner‐led care and usual care for 30‐day readmissions, health‐related quality of life and length of stay. A 12% reduction in Framingham risk score was identified.
There are a few randomized control trials assessing nurse practitioner‐led cardiovascular care.
Low to moderate quality evidence was identified with no statistically significant associated outcomes of care. Nurse practitioner roles need to be supported to conduct and publish high‐quality research.
Este artículo explora las percepciones sobre salud- enfermedad y muerte que tiene una madre Emberá Chamí, una indígena colombiana que vivió el proceso de enfermedad de uno de sus hijos. La investigación se realizó mediante un estudio de caso cualitativo tipo interpretativo con abordaje etnográfico, El análisis de los datos se clasificó por categorías y subcategorías estructurando de esta manera la información. La percepción que tiene la madre Embera Chamí sobre el concepto de salud, enfermedad y muerte son constructos formados a través de las experiencias vividas sobre su experiencia con un hijo con cáncer, donde entran a participar las creencias culturales, la medicina occidental y el proceso de aculturación. El presente trabajo como profesionales de salud permitió un acercamiento cultural enriquecedor identificando la diversidad cultural de los pacientes en el contexto colombiano a que se ven enfrentados, las costumbres y la cosmovisión, la necesidad de aplicar los cuidados transculturales y los cuidados paliativos como parte esencial de la atención a pacientes con enfermedades crónicas. El comprender la situación del otro ayuda a ampliar las perspectivas de manejo con respecto al cuidado llegando a acuerdos culturales que beneficien la salud de la población indígena.
Achieving efficacious and safe treatments for unstable angina pectoris (UAP) is still a challenging clinical problem. The availability of different oral Chinese patent medicines frequently poses a practical challenge to clinicians, namely, which one to choose as first-line regimen for treatment. This study aims to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of oral Chinese patent medicines for UAP on the national essential drugs list of China.
We will conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) of all randomised controlled trials to evaluate the use of oral Chinese patent medicines as adjuvant for the treatment of UAP. We will explore eight electronic databases from their inception to June 2018 and search for grey literature. Primary outcomes include mortality and the cardiovascular events. Secondary outcomes include: (1) symptom improvement; (2) ECG improvement; (3) frequency of acute angina attack; (4) duration of angina; (5) adverse effects. Two independent authors will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts, extract data, assess the risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and assess the quality of evidence and strength of the recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). If adequate data are available, NMA will be performed with Bayesian analysis methods.
The NMA will help us to reduce the uncertainty of interventions and help clinicians to make optimal and more accurate therapeutic decisions for adults with UAP. Therefore, we will publish the findings of this study in a peer-reviewed journal. No ethics approval is necessary for this study based on the nature of its design.
Breast cancer is a serious disease in women. We estimated the global technical success rate and complication rates of percutaneous vacuum‐assisted breast biopsy (VABB). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were retrieved up to July 2018 to find studies in which technical success rate and complication rates of VABB were available. Pooled rates were calculated according to location mode (ultrasonography [US] or mammography) and needle type (8‐ or 11‐gauge Mammotome probes). Of the 36 articles with 20 868 cases, we found the pooled technical success rate 0.9999(0.9997, 1.0000) (I 2 = 17.1%, P = .187) and low complication risks including haematoma 0.1092(0.0748, 0.1437) (I 2 = 98.3%, P < .001), pain 0.0738(0.0334, 0.1141) (I 2 = 95.9%, P < .001), vasovagal reflex 0.0281(0.0035, 0.0527) (I 2 = 92.5%, P < .001), and infection 0.0027(−0.0019, 0.0073) (I 2 = 49.8%, P = .113). In this systematic review and meta‐analysis, the pooled data suggested that VABB with US or mammography could be promising for diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Further studies were necessary to identify strategies for these findings.