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Diagnosis and treatment for hyperuricemia and gout: a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements

Por: Li · Q. · Li · X. · Wang · J. · Liu · H. · Kwong · J. S.-W. · Chen · H. · Li · L. · Chung · S.-C. · Shah · A. · Chen · Y. · An · Z. · Sun · X. · Hemingway · H. · Tian · H. · Li · S.
Objectives

Despite the publication of hundreds of trials on gout and hyperuricemia, management of these conditions remains suboptimal. We aimed to assess the quality and consistency of guidance documents for gout and hyperuricemia.

Design

Systematic review and quality assessment using the appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) II methodology.

Data sources

PubMed and EMBASE (27 October 2016), two Chinese academic databases, eight guideline databases, and Google and Google scholar (July 2017).

Eligibility criteria

We included the latest version of international and national/regional clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements for diagnosis and/or treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, published in English or Chinese.

Data extraction and synthesis

Two reviewers independently screened searched items and extracted data. Four reviewers independently scored documents using AGREE II. Recommendations from all documents were tabulated and visualised in a coloured grid.

Results

Twenty-four guidance documents (16 clinical practice guidelines and 8 consensus statements) published between 2003 and 2017 were included. Included documents performed well in the domains of scope and purpose (median 85.4%, range 66.7%–100.0%) and clarity of presentation (median 79.2%, range 48.6%–98.6%), but unsatisfactory in applicability (median 10.9%, range 0.0%–66.7%) and editorial independence (median 28.1%, range 0.0%–83.3%). The 2017 British Society of Rheumatology guideline received the highest scores. Recommendations were concordant on the target serum uric acid level for long-term control, on some indications for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and on the first-line drugs for ULT and for acute attack. Substantially inconsistent recommendations were provided for many items, especially for the timing of initiation of ULT and for treatment for asymptomatic hyperuricemia.

Conclusions

Methodological quality needs improvement in guidance documents on gout and hyperuricemia. Evidence for certain clinical questions is lacking, despite numerous trials in this field. Promoting standard guidance development methods and synthesising high-quality clinical evidence are potential approaches to reduce recommendation inconsistencies.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42016046104.

Studying the effect of structured ostomy care training on quality of life and anxiety of patients with permanent ostomy

Abstract

Patients with ostomy are faced with several physical, psychological, and social challenges and need to be prepared to overcome these challenges. Studies have shown that training plays an important role in helping patients to adapt with ostomy, live with it, and improve their psychological well‐being and quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of structured ostomy care training on QOL and anxiety of the patients with permanent ostomy. In this randomised clinical trial study, 60 eligible participants were recruited from the only ostomy clinic in Kerman, Iran. They were selected using a purposive sampling method and randomly assigned to either a control group that received routine ostomy care or an intervention group that attended oral and practical training and a question and answer session by a trained ostomy nurse and received an ostomy information booklet besides their routine care. Outcome variables were anxiety and QOL in general and its physical, mental, social, and spiritual dimensions in detail. By using the anxiety subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and City of Hope‐quality of life [COH‐QOL], data were collected before and 2 months after intervention in both groups. Data were analysed by SPSS version 19 using χ², analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent t, and paired t test and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the intervention group had significantly lower mean scores in anxiety (P = .001) and a higher mean score in overall QOL (P = .009) compared with the control group. The most significant increase was observed for psychological, social, and physical aspects, and the least was in the spiritual aspect, all of which improved after intervention. After controlling the effects of confounding variables such as age, ostomy period, and number of children, the structured training programme still had a positive effect on QOL. Structured ostomy care training, including face‐to‐face education and personal practice of using ostomy equipment, along with written material provided by the ostomy nurse specialist, may lead to an increase in the overall QOL and a decrease in the perceived anxiety level in patients. This type of training is not routinely delivered to ostomy patients in our health care setting, so it is feasible to prepare surgical wards and to educate nurses to work with their patients before and after ostomy creation. Furthermore, to ease patients' religious concerns, we recommend counselling, and the support of religious leaders in the Muslim community may play a key role to adaptation regarding religious matters after ostomy surgeries and alleviate patients' concerns.

Evaluating the effects of social networking sites addiction, task distraction, and self‐management on nurses' performance

Abstract

Aims

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of social networking sites (SNSs) addiction on nurses’ performance and how this relationship was mediated by task distraction and moderated by self‐management.

Design

This cross‐sectional study is designed to empirically test the relationship of SNSs addiction, task distraction, and self‐management with the nurses’ performance.

Methods

Data were collected by conducting an online survey on nurses across the world using a web‐based questionnaire developed through ‘Google Docs’ and distributed through Facebook from 13 August 2018 – 17 November 2018. The Facebook groups were searched using the selected key terms. In total, 45 groups were found to have relevance to this research; therefore, request was made to the admins of these groups to participate in this research and to post a link in their groups. Only 19 group admins responded positively by uploading a link of the research instrument on their respective group pages and 461 members of these groups participated in the research.

Results

Results of the data collected from 53 different countries indicated that SNSs addiction results in lowering the nurses’ performance. This relationship is further strengthened by task distraction introduced as a mediating variable. The results show that self‐management mediates the relationship between SNSs addiction and employees’ performance. Moreover, the results of the study confirm that self‐management reduces the negative impact of SNSs addiction on nurses’ performance.

Conclusion

Social networking sites (SNSs) addiction and task distraction reduce the nurses’ performance, whereas self‐management enhances nurses’ performance.

Impact

This study addresses the problem of using SNSs at the workplace and its potential effect on nurses’ performance. Results demonstrate that SNSs addiction reduces the performance which is further decreased by task distraction; however, self‐management of nurses can enhance the nurses’ performance. The research has numerous theoretical and practical implications for hospital administration, doctors, and nurses.

A Protocol to Assess Feasibility, Acceptability, and Usability of Mobile Technology for Symptom Management in Pediatric Transplant Patients

imageBackground Pediatric blood and marrow transplant (PBMT) patients experience significant symptom distress, and the use of mobile health (mHealth) technologies may enhance symptom management by providing patient-generated health data to foster personalized health strategies. Objectives The aim of this study was to present a study protocol to explore feasibility, acceptability, and usability of integrating mHealth technologies to collect and monitor symptom data for PBMT patients. Methods An exploratory mixed-methods design is employed for 20 PBMT patients to monitor symptoms using real-time data from two mHealth devices: (a) a self-developed mHealth application and (b) a wearable tracking device. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System surveys for fatigue, pain, and sleep disturbance are obtained monthly. Interviews are conducted to obtain further feasibility and usability data. Results The study began in October 2017; data collection should be completed in 2018. Feasibility and usability results to monitor and record symptom-related data daily via mobile devices will be reported. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System surveys and interviews will further explore patients’ symptoms and experiences with the mobile devices. Discussion This study will be among the first to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of integrating multiple mHealth technologies to obtain patient-generated symptom data for the PBMT population. Results will enhance our understanding of how these data present, interact, and cluster together throughout the posttransplant period for these children and lead to symptom management strategies. Results will focus on a high-risk population that potentially stands to benefit from the use of mobile technologies.

Implementation strategies for interventions to improve the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by primary care clinicians: protocol for a systematic review

Por: Kamath · C. C. · Dobler · C. C. · Lampman · M. A. · Erwin · P. J. · Matulis · J. · Elrashidi · M. · McCoy · R. G. · Alsawaz · M. · Pajouhi · A. · Vasdev · A. · Shah · N. D. · Murad · M. H. · Thorsteinsdottir · B.
Introduction

There is a considerable implementation gap in managing early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care despite the high prevalence and risk for increased morbidity and mortality associated with CKD. This systematic review aims to synthesise the evidence of efficacy of implementation interventions aimed at primary care practitioners (PCPs) to improve CKD identification and management. We further aim to describe the interventions’ behavioural change components.

Methods and analysis

We will conduct a systematic review of studies from 2000 to October 2017 that evaluate implementation interventions targeting PCPs and which include at least one clinically meaningful CKD outcome. We will search several electronic data bases and conduct reference mining of related systematic reviews and publications. An interdisciplinary team will independently and in duplicate, screen publications, extract data and assess the risk of bias. Clinical outcomes will include all clinically meaningful medical management outcomes relevant to CKD management in primary care such as blood pressure, chronic heart disease and diabetes target achievements. Quantitative evidence synthesis will be performed, where possible. Planned subgroup analyses include by (1) study design, (2) length of follow-up, (3) type of intervention, (4) type of implementation strategy, (5) whether a behavioural or implementation theory was used to guide study, (6) baseline CKD severity, (7) patient minority status, (8) study location and (9) academic setting or not.

Ethics and dissemination

Approval by research ethics board is not required since the review will only include published and publicly accessible data. Review findings will inform a future trial of an intervention to promote uptake of CKD diagnosis and treatment guidelines in our primary care setting and the development of complementary tools to support its successful adoption and implementation. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal and develop accessible summaries of the results.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018102441.

Integrating tobacco cessation into routine dental practice: protocol for a qualitative study

Por: Shah · R. · Shah · R. · Shah · S. · Bhojani · U.
Introduction

Combined efforts to encompass different aspects of tobacco control have been in place for some time. Despite the recognition of the need to offer support to tobacco users to quit tobacco use, such support remains highly inadequate in India. However, little is known about the practice of oral health professionals (OHP) and the experiences and expectations of dental patients in the context of tobacco cessation (TC) services. In this article, we describe the protocol of a doctoral research project that explores OHPs and their patients in an Indian city. The aims are (A) to understand the functioning of the oral healthcare system towards TC and what changes to it will be needed to benefit TC and (B) to capture the views of dental patients on TC services provided by OHPs.

Methods and analysis

A cross-sectional qualitative study based on individual interviews with OHPs and dental patients will be carried out in the city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. The OHP will be purposively selected from two major organisation types: (1) single-doctor dental clinics and (2) dental hospital attached to teaching institutions. The sample population will be divided into two subgroups: general OHP (dentists practising general dentistry irrespective of their qualification) and prosthodontists (dentists with a specialisation in prosthodontics). We will sample dental patients through convenient sampling from a public teaching hospital and select private dental care facilities. The sampling of OHPs and dental patients will continue until we reach data saturation. Interviews will be audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded by hand. The interview transcript will subsequently be analysed using thematic content analysis.

Ethics and dissemination

The study received ethical approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee of the Government Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad. The findings will be disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and to the study participants.

Risk of infection associated with intravenous iron preparations: protocol for updating a systematic review

Por: Shah · A. · Sugavanam · A. · Reid · J. · Palmer · A. J. · Dickson · E. · Brunskill · S. · Doree · C. · Oliver · C. M. · Acheson · A. · Baikady · R. R. · Bampoe · S. · Litton · E. · Stanworth · S.
Introduction

The benefits and risk of intravenous iron have been documented in previous systematic reviews and continue to be the subject of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). An ongoing issue that continues to be raised is the relationship between administering iron and developing infection. This is supported by biological plausibility from animal models. We propose an update of a previously published systematic review and meta-analysis with the primary focus being infection.

Methods and analysis

We will include RCTs and non-randomised studies (NRS) in this review update. We will search the relevant electronic databases. Two reviewers will independently extract data. Risk of bias for RCTs and NRS will be assessed using the relevant tools recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. Data extracted from RCTs and NRS will be analysed and reported separately. Pooled data from RCTs will be analysed using a random effects model. We will also conduct subgroup analyses to identify any patient populations that may be at increased risk of developing infection. We will provide a narrative synthesis on the definitions, sources and responsible pathogens for infection in the included studies. Overall quality of evidence on the safety outcomes of mortality and infection will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

Ethics and dissemination

This systematic review will only investigate published studies and therefore ethical approval is not required. The results will be broadly distributed through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications.

Trial registration number

PROSPERO (CRD42018096023).

Development, integration and use of an ultra-high-strength gradient system on a human-size 3 T magnet for small animal MRI

by Kuan-Hung Cho, Sheng-Min Huang, Chang-Hoon Choi, Ming-Jye Chen, Hsuan-Han Chiang, Richard P. Buschbeck, Ezequiel Farrher, N. Jon Shah, Ruslan Garipov, Ching-Ping Chang, Hsu Chang, Li-Wei Kuo

This study aims to integrate an ultra-high-strength gradient coil system on a clinical 3 T magnet and demonstrate its preclinical imaging capabilities. Dedicated phantoms were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the performance of the gradient system. Advanced MR imaging sequences, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), were implemented and executed on an ex vivo specimen as well as in vivo rats. The DTI and QSM results on the phantom agreed well with those in the literature. Furthermore, studies on ex vivo specimens have demonstrated the applicability of DTI and QSM on our system to probe microstructural changes in a mild traumatic brain injury rat model. The feasibility of in vivo rat DTI was also demonstrated. We showed that the inserted ultra-high-strength gradient coil was successfully integrated on a clinically used magnet. After careful tuning and calibration, we verified the accuracy and quantitative preclinical imaging capability of the integrated system in phantom and in vivo rat brain experiments. This study can be essential to establish dedicated animal MRI platform on clinical MRI scanners and facilitate translational studies at clinical settings.

Protocol for the development of a core indicator set for reporting burn wound infection in trials: ICon-B study

Por: Davies · A. · Teare · L. · Falder · S. · Coy · K. · Dumville · J. C. · Collins · D. · Moore · L. · Dheansa · B. · Jenkins · A. T. A. · Booth · S. · Agha · R. · Shah · M. · Marlow · K. · Young · A.
Introduction

Systematic reviews of high-quality randomised controlled trials are necessary to identify effective interventions to impact burn wound infection (BWI) outcomes. Evidence synthesis requires that BWI is reported in a consistent manner. Cochrane reviews investigating interventions for burns report that the indicators used to diagnose BWI are variable or not described, indicating a need to standardise reporting. BWI is complex and diagnosed by clinician judgement, informed by patient-reported symptoms, clinical signs, serum markers of inflammation and bacteria in the wound. Indicators for reporting BWI should be important for diagnosis, frequently observed in patients with BWI and assessed as part of routine healthcare. A minimum (core) set of indicators of BWI, reported consistently, will facilitate evidence synthesis and support clinical decision-making.

Aims

The Infection Consensus in Burns study aims to identify a core indicator set for reporting the diagnosis of BWI in research studies.

Methods

(1) Evidence review: a systematic review of indicators used in trials and observational studies reporting BWI outcomes to identify a long list of candidate indicators; (2) refinement of the long list into a smaller set of survey questions with an expert steering group; (3) a two-round Delphi survey with 100 multidisciplinary expert stakeholders, to achieve consensus on a short list of indicators; (4) a consensus meeting with expert stakeholders to agree on the BWI core indicator set.

Ethics and dissemination

Participants will be recruited through professional bodies, such that ethical approval from the National Health Service (NHS) Health Research Authority (HRA) is not needed. The core indicator set will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication, co-production with journal editors, research funders and professional bodies, and presentation at national conferences.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018096647.

Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) Network: a protocol for a multi-site prospective cohort study to identify modifiable risk factors for mortality among acutely ill children in Africa and Asia

Introduction

Children admitted to hospitals in resource-poor settings remain at risk of both inpatient and post-discharge mortality. While known risk factors such as young age and nutritional status can identify children at risk, they do not provide clear mechanistic targets for intervention. The Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) cohort study aims to characterise the biomedical and social risk factors for mortality in acutely ill children in hospitals and after discharge to identify targeted interventions to reduce mortality.

Methods and analysis

The CHAIN network is currently undertaking a multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study, enrolling children aged 1 week to 2 years at admission to hospitals at nine sites located in four African and two South Asian countries. The CHAIN Network supports the sites to provide care according to national and international guidelines. Enrolment is stratified by anthropometric status and children are followed throughout hospitalisation and for 6 months after discharge. Detailed clinical, demographic, anthropometric, laboratory and social exposures are assessed. Scheduled visits are conducted at 45, 90 and 180 days after discharge. Blood, stool and rectal swabs are collected at enrolment, hospital discharge and follow-up. The primary outcome is inpatient or post-discharge death. Secondary outcomes include readmission to hospital and nutritional status after discharge. Cohort analysis will identify modifiable risks, children with distinct phenotypes, relationships between factors and mechanisms underlying poor outcomes that may be targets for intervention. A nested case–control study examining infectious, immunological, metabolic, nutritional and other biological factors will be undertaken.

Ethics and dissemination

This study protocol was reviewed and approved primarily by the Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee, and the institutional review boards of all partner sites. The study is being externally monitored. Results will be published in open access peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented to academic and policy stakeholders.

Trial registration number

NCT03208725.

Rotavirus vaccine impact assessment surveillance in India: protocol and methods

Por: Nair · N. P. · Reddy N · S. · Giri · S. · Mohan · V. R. · Parashar · U. · Tate · J. · Shah · M. P. · Arora · R. · Gupte · M. · Mehendale · S. M. · Investigators of the Rotavirus vaccine Impact Surveillance Network · Kang · G. · Vs · Gs · Babu · Pamu · Manohar · Pradhan · Dash · Mohak
Introduction

Rotavirus infection accounts for 39% of under-five diarrhoeal deaths globally and 22% of these deaths occur in India. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in a national immunisation programme is considered to be the most effective intervention in preventing severe rotavirus disease. In 2016, India introduced an indigenous rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) into the Universal Immunisation Programme in a phased manner. This paper describes the protocol for surveillance to monitor the performance of rotavirus vaccine following its introduction into the routine childhood immunisation programme.

Methods

An active surveillance system was established to identify acute gastroenteritis cases among children less than 5 years of age. For all children enrolled at sentinel sites, case reporting forms are completed and a copy of vaccination record and a stool specimen obtained. The forms and specimens are sent to the referral laboratory for data entry, analysis, testing and storage. Data from sentinel sites in states that have introduced rotavirus vaccine into their routine immunisation schedule will be used to determine rotavirus vaccine impact and effectiveness.

Ethics and dissemination

The Institutional Review Board of Christian Medical College, Vellore, and all the site institutional ethics committees approved the project. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and with stakeholders of the universal immunisation programme in India.

Protocol for a randomised, open-label, parallel group, multicentre controlled study to evaluate the clinical performance and safety of Stay Safe Link compared with Stay Safe in patients with end-stage kidney disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dia

Por: Mak · W. Y. · Ong · L. M. · Goh · B. L. · Bavanandan · S. · Mushahar · L. · Leong · C. T. · Hooi · L. S.
Introduction

Peritonitis is a major complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), the risk of which is significantly influenced by the type of PD transfer system. Although the Y-disconnect and double-bag system is more efficient in preventing peritonitis compared with the spike system, little information is available to differentiate risks between different brands of the Y-disconnect double-bag system. A randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a newly introduced system is needed to provide the necessary clinical evidence to guide policy decision-making.

Methods and analysis

The study is an open-label randomised controlled trial. A total of 434 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing CAPD will be enrolled and randomised to either the intervention group, Stay Safe Link, or the control group, Stay Safe. All study subjects will be followed up and monitored for 1 year. The primary safety outcome is the rate of peritonitis while the primary efficacy outcomes are the delivered dialysis dose and ultrafiltration volume.

Ethics and dissemination

The study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee, National Institute of Health Malaysia. A written informed consent will be obtained from all participating subjects prior to any trial-related procedure and the study conduct will adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial registration number

NCT03177031; Pre-results.

Gonorrhoea and chlamydia diagnosis as an entry point for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: a modelling study

Por: Kasaie · P. · Schumacher · C. M. · Jennings · J. M. · Berry · S. A. · Tuddenham · S. A. · Shah · M. S. · Rosenberg · E. S. · Hoover · K. W. · Gift · T. L. · Chesson · H. · German · D. · Dowdy · D. W.
Objectives

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) increase the risk of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Diagnosis of NG/CT may provide an efficient entry point for prevention of HIV through the delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); however, the additional population-level impact of targeting PrEP to MSM diagnosed with NG/CT is unknown.

Design

An agent-based simulation model of NG/CT and HIV cocirculation among MSM calibrated against census data, disease surveillance reports and the US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study.

Setting

Baltimore City, Maryland, USA.

Interventions

PrEP implementation was modelled under three alternative scenarios: (1) PrEP delivery at NG/CT diagnosis (targeted delivery), (2) PrEP evaluation at NG/CT screening/testing and (3) PrEP evaluation in the general community (untargeted).

Main outcome

The projected incidence of HIV after 20 years of PrEP delivery under two alternatives: when equal numbers of MSM are (1) screened for PrEP or (2) receive PrEP in each year.

Results

Assuming 60% uptake and 60% adherence, targeting PrEP to MSM diagnosed with NG/CT could reduce HIV incidence among MSM in Baltimore City by 12.4% (95% uncertainty range (UR) 10.3% to 14.4%) in 20 years, relative to no PrEP. Expanding the coverage of NG/CT screening (such that individuals experience a 50% annual probability of NG/CT screening and evaluation for PrEP on NG/CT diagnosis) can further increase the impact of targeted PrEP to generate a 22.0% (95% UR 20.1% to 23.9%) reduction in HIV incidence within 20 years. When compared with alternative implementation scenarios, PrEP evaluation at NG/CT diagnosis increased impact of PrEP on HIV incidence by 1.5(95% UR 1.1 to 1.9) times relative to a scenario in which PrEP evaluation happened at the time of NG/CT screening/testing and by 1.6 (95% UR 1.2 to 2.2) times relative to evaluating random MSM from the community.

Conclusions

Targeting MSM infected with NG/CT increases the efficiency and effectiveness of PrEP delivery. If high levels of sexually transmitted infection screening can be achieved at the community level, NG/CT diagnosis may be a highly effective entry point for PrEP initialisation.

Evaluating the predictive capabilities of haematoma expansion scores in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage: protocol for a scoping review

Por: Yogendrakumar · V. · Moores · M. · Sikora · L. · Ramsay · T. · Fergusson · D. A. · Dowlatshahi · D.
Introduction

Patients presenting with acute intracerebral haemorrhage are at a high risk of exhibiting haematoma expansion, a phenomenon that can significantly worsen long-term functioning. Numerous clinical and radiological factors are associated with expansion. In a bid to better select patients at increased risk of expanding, these factors have been collated together into clinical scores. Several clinical scores have been developed, but comparisons of diagnostic potential between these scores are limited and the frequency of use in clinical trial enrolment is unknown.

Objective

To perform a scoping review of haematoma expansion scores and explore numerous factors such as the methodology of development and diagnostic capabilities.

Methods and analysis

MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov will be searched with assistance from an experienced information specialist. Eligible studies will involve adults presenting with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage who received baseline assessments, follow-up imaging and risk stratification through a haematoma expansion score. Reviewers will independently extract data from the included studies and will collect data on patient demographics and medical history, details on score development, diagnostic capabilities and usage proportions. Analysis of extracted data will focus on comparing the predictive capability of each score and similarities/differences in score development. The exact analysis technique will be dictated on the type of data extracted.

Ethics and dissemination

Formal ethics is not required as primary data will not be collected. The findings of this study will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications.

Barriers Associated With Evidence‐Based Practice Among Nurses in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Evidence‐based practice (EBP) is both a goal and an approach that requires a combination of clinical experience with the most credible recent research evidence when making decisions in healthcare practice. The approach has been widely embraced; however, an evidence‐to‐practice gap still exists.

Aim

To assess barriers to EBP among nurses in low‐ and middle‐income countries.

Methods

This review conforms to the PRISMA statement. Databases PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science/Knowledge were searched using a combination of keywords that included “barriers,” “evidence‐based practice,” and “nurses.” The references of the selected articles were also hand‐searched to obtain additional relevant articles. Studies published in peer‐reviewed journals in English between 2000 and 2018 were included in the review.

Results

Sixteen articles were included in the analysis, with a total number of 8,409 participants. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included in the review. Three main themes emerged from eight categories found. The three main themes were institutional‐related barriers, interdisciplinary barriers, and nurse‐related barriers. The theme of institutional‐related barriers emerged from four categories, which included scant resources, limited access to information, inadequate staffing, and lack of institutional support. The theme of interdisciplinary barriers emerged from subcategories that included lack of communication between academic and clinical practice environments, inconsistency between education and practice in the nursing discipline, lack of teamwork, and the public's negative image about the nursing profession. Finally, the theme of nurse‐related barriers emerged from categories including perceived limitations in the scope of nurses’ practice, time, knowledge of EBP, and individual‐related barriers.

Linking Evidence to Action

These findings may guide the design of future interventions aimed at fostering EBP. Implementing EBP in practice should be systematic and requires institutional will and interdisciplinary and individual commitment. It should be a collective goal and a win‐win situation for nurses, clinicians, and healthcare organizations.

Development of a tool to assess beliefs about mythical causes of cancer: the Cancer Awareness Measure Mythical Causes Scale

Por: Smith · S. G. · Beard · E. · McGowan · J. A. · Fox · E. · Cook · C. · Pal · R. · Waller · J. · Shahab · L.
Objectives

We aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure to assess public beliefs in mythical causes of cancer: the Cancer Awareness Measure–MYthical Causes Scale (CAM-MYCS).

Design and setting

Cancer myth items were generated from a literature review, social media and interviews (n=16). The CAM-MYCS was prepared by reducing items using (a) an online sample (n=527) with exploratory factor analysis and (b) cancer experts with Delhpi methodology (n=13). To assess test–retest reliability and sensitivity to change, students (n=91) completed the CAM-MYCS at baseline and 1 week after exposure to information on lifestyle-related cancer causes or control information. Construct validity was tested by comparing CAM-MYCS scores between cancer experts (n=25) and students (n=91). Factor structure and internal reliability were investigated in a national sample (n=1993).

Results

Out of 42 items generated, 12 were retained based on factor loadings, prevalence of endorsement and expert consensus. CAM-MYCS scores improved (fewer myths endorsed) among students exposed to information on cancer causes compared with the control group (p

Conclusions

The CAM-MYCS tool is a reliable and valid tool assessing beliefs in mythical causes of cancer, and it can be used alongside items assessing known causes of cancer.

Identifying patient-important outcomes in medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder patients: a systematic review protocol

Por: Sanger · N. · Shahid · H. · Dennis · B. B. · Hudson · J. · Marsh · D. · Sanger · S. · Worster · A. · Teed · R. · Rieb · L. · Tugwell · P. · Hutton · B. · Shea · B. · Beaton · D. · Corace · K. · Rice · D. · Maxwell · L. · Samaan · M. C. · de Souza · R. J. · Thabane · L. · Samaan · Z.
Introduction

Illicit opioid use has become a national crisis in Canada, with over 65 000 people seeking treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in Ontario and British Columbia alone. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is a common treatment for OUD. There is substantial variability in treatment outcomes used to evaluate effectiveness of MAT, making it difficult to establish clinically and scientifically relevant treatment effect. Furthermore, patients are often excluded from the process of determining these outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to examine outcomes currently used to measure MAT effectiveness and to identify patient-relevant outcomes to enhance effectiveness of treatment options. This review refers to patient-important outcomes as those outcomes patients consider important to or markers of treatment success.

Methods and analysis

MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases will be searched. We will search databases from inception to the date the search is ran. Studies of interest include those evaluating the effectiveness of MAT for patients with OUD, with or without consultation with patients regarding what they consider to be important as an indicator of treatment success. Results will be analysed using thematic analysis and qualitative analysis where possible. This will result in comprehensive synthesis of all outcomes and measures found related to OUD treatment effectiveness.

Ethics and dissemination

We are collaborating with Canadian Addiction Treatment Centres which provide MAT to patients with OUD who will participate in disseminating study results. Dissemination strategies will involve sharing study results through workshops, presentations, peer-reviewed publications, study reports, community presentations and resources in primary care settings.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018095553.

Roll-your-own cigarette use and smoking cessation behaviour: a cross-sectional population study in England

Por: Jackson · S. E. · Shahab · L. · West · R. · Brown · J.
Objectives

Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes have become popular in the UK and reduce the cost of smoking, potentially mitigating the impact of tax increases on quitting. We examined whether RYO cigarette use was associated with reduced motivation to quit smoking, incidence of quit attempts and quit success.

Design

Cross-sectional survey.

Setting

England.

Participants

38 590 adults who reported currently smoking or having stopped within the past 12 months.

Main outcome measures

Motivation to quit smoking, quit attempt in the last year, motives for quitting and quit success were regressed onto RYO cigarette use, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and level of cigarette addiction. Mediation by weekly spending on smoking was tested.

Results

Compared with manufactured cigarette smokers, RYO smokers had lower odds of high motivation to quit (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.81) or having made a quit attempt (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.91). Among those who had attempted to quit smoking, quit success did not differ by cigarette type (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.12), but RYO smokers were less likely to report cost of smoking as a motive to quit (OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.74). Spending on smoking mediated the association between RYO use and quit attempts (β=–0.02, SE=0.003, 95% CI –0.03 to –0.02).

Conclusions

In England, compared with smokers of manufactured cigarettes, RYO cigarette smokers appear to have lower motivation to quit and lower incidence of quit attempts but similar success of quit attempts. The lower cost of RYO smoking appears to mediate the lower incidence of quit attempts among RYO users.

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