To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot, free, online photodiagnosis service for genital herpes and warts with postal treatment delivered by a specialist digital sexual health service.
An online sexual health service available free of charge in South East London, UK.
Routinely collected data from 237 users of the pilot service during the study period and qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 15 users.
A pilot, free, online photodiagnosis service for genital herpes and warts with postal treatment delivered by a specialist digital sexual health service.
Proportion of users who successfully uploaded photographs and the proportion diagnosed, treated and referred to face-to-face clinical services. User experience of this service.
The service was accessed by 237 users during the study period with assessment possible for 86% of users based on the photographs provided. A diagnosis of genital herpes or warts was made for 40.5% and 89.6% were subsequently treated through the service. Eighteen per cent were diagnosed as normal/not needing treatment and 42% were signposted to clinic for further clinical assessment.
Qualitative data showed that users felt able and willing to provide genital images for diagnosis. Those who were treated or reassured expressed high satisfaction with the service, valuing the convenience, discreetness and support provided. However, users, particularly those who required referral to other services requested more personal and detailed communication when a clinical diagnosis is given remotely.
Findings suggest that online photodiagnosis was feasible and acceptable. However, effective and acceptable management of those who require referral needs careful remote communication.
Smokers are frequent users of healthcare services. Admissions to hospital can serve as a “teachable moment” for quitting smoking. Clinical guidelines recommend initiating smoking cessation services during hospitalization; however, in Southern European countries less than 5% of inpatients receive a brief intervention for smoking cessation.
The aims of this study were (i) to examine rates of smoking abstinence during and after hospitalization; (ii) to measure changes in smoking patterns among persons who continued smoking after discharge; and (iii) to identify predictors of abstinence during hospitalization and after discharge.
A cohort study of a representative sample of current adult smokers hospitalized in two Spanish and two Portuguese hospitals. We surveyed smokers during hospitalization and recontacted them one month after discharge. We used a 25-item ad hoc questionnaire regarding their smoking pattern, the smoking cessation intervention they have received during hospitalization, and hospital and sociodemographic characteristics. We performed a descriptive analysis using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression to characterize the participant, hospital, and smoking cessation intervention (5As model) characteristics associated with smoking abstinence.
Smoking patients from both countries presented high abstinence rates during hospitalization (Spain: 76.4%; Portugal: 70.2%); however, after discharge, their abstinence rates decreased to 55.3% and 46.8%, respectively. In Spain, smokers who tried to quit before hospital admission showed higher abstinence rates, and those who continued smoking reduced a mean of five cigarettes the number of cigarettes per day (p ≤ 0.001). In Portugal, abstinence rates were higher among women (p = 0.030), those not living with a smoker (p = 0.008), those admitted to medical-surgical wards (p = 0.035), who consumed their first cigarette within 60 min after waking (p = 0.006), and those who were trying to quit before hospitalization (p = 0.043).
Half of the smokers admitted into the Spanish hospitals are abstinent one month after discharge or have reduced their cigarettes per day. Nevertheless, success rates could be increased by implementing evidence-based tobacco cessation programs at the organizational-level, including post-discharge active quitting smoking support.
Three-quarters of the inpatients who smoke remain abstinent during hospitalization and over half achieve to maintain their abstinence or at least reduce their consumption one month after discharge, proving that admission to hospitals is an excellent teachable moment to quit smoking.
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought tremendous changes in healthcare delivery and exacerbated a wide range of inequities. Social workers across a broad range of healthcare settings bring an expertise in social, behavioural and mental healthcare needed to help address these health inequities. In addition, social workers integrate policy-directed interventions and solutions in clinical practice, which is a needed perspective for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It remains unclear, however, what the most pressing policy issues are that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, many social workers in health settings tend to underuse policy in their direct practice. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) systematically scope the literature on social work, COVID-19 pandemic and policy; and (2) describe the competencies required by social workers and the social work profession to address the policy issues emerging during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The scoping review follows Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework. Identification of literature published between 1 December 2019 and the search date, 31 March 2021, will take place in two stages: (1) title and abstract review, and (2) full-text review. In partnership with a health science librarian, the research team listed keywords related to social work and policy to search databases including Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Services Abstract and Social Work Abstracts. Two graduate-level research assistants will conduct screening and full-text review. Data will then be extracted, charted, analysed and summarised to report on our results and implications on practice, policy and future research.
Results will help develop a policy practice competence framework to inform how social workers can influence policy. We will share our findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This study does not require Research Ethics Board approval as it uses publicly available sources of data.
The aim of this study is to examine the pathways by which work–life balance influences safety climate in hospital settings.
A national cross-sectional survey on patient safety culture.
Healthcare workers from 56 hospitals in Taiwan, covering three work settings: intensive care units, operation rooms and emergency departments.
14 345 healthcare workers took part in the survey and were included in the present analysis.
The Safety Attitudes, Maslach’s Burn-out Inventory and Work–life balance questionnaires were used to measure patient safety culture, teamwork, leadership, emotional exhaustion and work–life balance. Path analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between work–life balance and safety climate. We tested for mediating and moderating factors influencing this relationship.
The path between work–life balance and safety climate was found to be significant (b=0.32, p
We found work–life balance to be associated with safety climate through a fully mediated model. The mediation pathways are moderated by self-identified leadership and perceptions of leadership. Understanding the pathways on how work–life balance influences safety climate provides an explanatory model that can be used when designing effective interventions for implementation in system-based approaches to improve patient safety culture in hospital settings.
To use positive deviance to identify actionable processes of care that may improve outcomes and experience from the perspectives of prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay survivors and family members.
Prospective qualitative interview study in two geographically distant settings: Canada (2018/19) and the United Kingdom (2019/20).
Patient and family participant inclusion criteria comprised: aged over 18 years, ICU stay in last 2 years of over 7 days, able to recall ICU stay and provided informed consent. We conducted semi-structured in-person or telephone interviews. Data were analysed using a positive deviance approach.
We recruited 29 participants (15 Canadian; 14 UK). Of these, 11 were survivors of prolonged ICU stay and 18 family members. We identified 22 actionable processes (16 common to Canadian and UK participants, 4 Canadian only and 2 UK only). We grouped processes under three themes: physical and functional recovery (nine processes), patient psychological well-being (seven processes) and family relations (six processes). Most commonly identified physical/functional processes were regular physiotherapy, and fundamental hygiene and elimination care. For patient psychological well-being: normalizing the environment and routines, and alleviating boredom and loneliness. For family relations: proactive communication, flexible family visiting and presence with facilities for family. Our positive deviance analysis approach revealed that incorporation of these actionable processes into clinical practice was the exception as opposed to the norm perceived driven by individual acts of kindness and empathy as opposed to standardized processes.
Actionable processes of care important to prolonged ICU stay survivors and family members differ from those frequently used in ICU quality improvement (QI) tools.
Our study emphasizes the need to develop QI tools that standardize delivery of actionable processes important to patients and families experiencing a prolonged ICU stay. As the largest healthcare professional group, nurses can play an essential role in leading this.
by Rainer Reile, Merike SisaskBackground
Mental health problems follow a distinct socio-economic gradient and contribute to the health inequalities. The study aims to analyse the socio-economic and demographic factors of self-reported mental health complaints (stress, depressiveness, overtiredness, suicidal thoughts) among employed adult population in Estonia.Methods
Data on 4041 employed respondents (2064 men and 1977 women) aged 20–64 years from nationally representative health surveys from years 2016 and 2018 in Estonia were used for the study. Dependent variables included self-reported stress, depressiveness, overtiredness, and suicidal thoughts. Descriptive statistics and both log-binomial and Poisson regression analysis were used to describe the socio-economic and demographic variations in these mental health complaints.Results
More than half of the respondents had either stress, depressiveness, overtiredness or suicidal thoughts with 25% reporting two or more of mental health complaints. Lower personal income was associated with higher rates of all mental health complaints (stress, depressiveness, overtiredness, and suicidal thoughts) among employed adults in Estonia. Additionally, lower education was associated with higher prevalence of depressiveness and lower job skills predicted higher prevalence of suicidal thoughts. Higher prevalence ratios for depressiveness and overtiredness were found for women compared to men whereas Estonians had higher prevalence ratios for stress and suicidal thoughts compared to non-Estonians. All mental health complaints were more frequently reported at younger ages (compared to 50-64-year olds) and by not married or cohabiting respondents.Conclusion
High prevalence of mental health complaints and their socio-economic and demographic patterning refer to considerable inequalities in mental health among employed adults. Policy actions targeting especially younger adults and those with financial difficulties are needed to address these early manifestations of mental health problems.
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an acute or subacute inherited optic neuropathy caused by mitochondrial mutations. More than 90% of patients with LHON have one of three point mutations (ie, G3460A, G11778A and T14484C). We previously reported that a 12-week session of skin electrical stimulation (SES) with a 2-week interval significantly improved visual acuity and field tests 1 week after the last stimulation and without adverse effects in 10 cases of LHON carrying the mt DNA G11778A mutation. In the present study, we will examine the magnitude and persistence of the efficacy and presence or absence of adverse events using SES with a more frequent stimulation protocol.
This study will be a single-arm, open-labelled, non-randomised clinical study that analyses 15 cases of LHON with G11778A mutation. All participants will take a portable SES device home and perform SES by themselves every other day for 12 weeks. The logarithm for the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 week after the last SES will be measured as the primary outcome. LogMAR BCVA will be measured at four and 8 weeks after the last SES treatment. The Humphrey visual field sensitivity test using size V stimulation and critical fusion frequency at 1, 4 and 8 weeks after the last SES session will be secondary outcome measurements. Slit-lamp examination, optical coherence tomography and specular microscopy will also be performed to verify the safety of SES.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Kobe University, Japan (Approval No.C190030). This study is in progress and deserves Pre-result. All documents communicating with the ethics committee will be reposited by the researcher. Modifications to the protocol will be reviewed by the ethics committee and implemented after approval. Data monitoring will be performed by a researcher who is not involved in the study every 6 months after approval. The research summary results will be registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCTs) and made available to participants in accordance with the terms described in the documents. In addition, the results of this study will be presented at domestic and international meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals within a year after data is fixed.
Accurate and affordable laboratory testing is key to timely diagnosis and appropriate management of patients with COVID-19. New laboratory test protocols are released into the market under emergency use authorisation with limited evidence on diagnostic test accuracy. As such, robust evidence on the diagnostic accuracy and the costs of available tests is urgently needed to inform policy and practice especially in resource-limited settings. We aim to determine the diagnostic test accuracy, cost-effectiveness and utility of laboratory test strategies for COVID-19 in low-income and middle-income countries.
This will be a multistaged, protocol-driven systematic review conducted in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for diagnostic test accuracy studies. We will search for relevant literature in at least six public health databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and the WHO Global Index Medicus. In addition, we will search Cochrane Library, COVID-END and grey literature databases to identify additional relevant articles before double-screening and abstraction of data. We will conduct a structured narrative and quantitative synthesis of the results guided by the Fryback and Thornbury framework for assessing a diagnostic test. The primary outcome is COVID-19 diagnostic test accuracy. Using the GRADE approach specific to diagnostic accuracy tests, we will appraise the overall quality of evidence and report the results following the original PRISMA statement. The protocol is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
Ethical review was done by the School of Biomedical Sciences Research Ethics Committee and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. The published article will be accessible to policy and decision makers. The findings of this review will guide clinical practice and policy decisions and highlight areas for future research.
PROSPERO registration number CRD42020209528.
Development of pharmaceutical agents in transplantation is currently limited by long waits for hard endpoints. We applied a validated integrative risk-prognostication system integrative Box (iBox) as a surrogate endpoint to the TRANSFORM Study, a large randomised controlled trial, to project individual patient long-term kidney allograft survival from 1 year to 11 years after randomisation.
Post-hoc analysis of a randomised open-label controlled trial.
Multicentre study including 186 centres in 42 countries worldwide.
2037 de novo kidney transplant recipients.
Participants were randomised (1:1) to receive everolimus with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (EVR+rCNI) or mycophenolic acid with standard-exposure CNI (MPA+sCNI).
The iBox scores were computed for each participant at 1 year after randomisation using functional, immunological and histological parameters. Individual long-term death-censored allograft survival over 4, 6 and 11 years after randomisation was projected with the iBox risk-prognostication system.
Overall, 940 patients receiving EVR+rCNI and 932 receiving MPA+sCNI completed the 1-year visit. iBox scores generated at 1 year yielded graft survival prediction rates of 90.9% vs 92.1%, 87.9% vs 89.5%, and 80.0% vs 82.4% in the EVR+rCNI versus MPA+sCNI arms at 4, 6, and 11 years post-randomisation, respectively (all differences below the 10% non-inferiority margin defined by study protocol). Inclusion of immunological and histological Banff diagnoses parameters in iBox scores resulted in comparable and non-inferior predicted graft survival for both treatments.
This proof-of-concept study provides the first application of a validated prognostication system as a surrogate endpoint in the field of transplantation. The iBox system, by projecting kidney allograft survival up to 11 years post-randomisation, confirms the non-inferiority of EVR+rCNI versus MPA+sCNI regimen. Given the current process engaged for surrogate endpoints qualification, this study illustrates the potential to fast track development of pharmaceutical agents.
TRANSFORM trial: NCT01950819.
iBox prognostication system: NCT03474003.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of joint pain and its association with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural factors in Nepal.
The study was a national cross-sectional population-based study.
We used the most recent nationally representative population-based cross-sectional health survey, The WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) survey, 2019 from all seven provinces of Nepal including both urban and rural areas.
The participants were men and women aged 15–69 years, who were usual residents of the households for at least 6 months and have stayed the night before the survey.
Primary outcome in this study was prevalence of joint pain. The secondary outcome measure was factors associated with joint pain in Nepal. Joint pain in our study was based on any self-reported symptoms of joint pain, stiffness and swelling lasting for more than 1 month in the past 12 months. Data were weighted to generate national estimates.
The prevalence of self-reported joint pain in Nepal was 17% (95% CI 14.3% to 20.2%) with higher prevalence for older adults, females, ever married, none/less than primary education, smoker, lowest wealth quintile, homemaker, those with sufficient physical activity and those living in the Karnali province of Nepal. In multivariable analysis self-reported joint pain was found to be associated with advanced age (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.36; 95% CI 1.56 to 3.55), sex (AOR=1.47; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.82) and sufficient physical activity (AOR=0.40; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.65).
The results showed a high prevalence of joint pain in Nepal. Considering the process of ageing and rapid growth in non-communicable disease, this study warrants the need for health policies directed to prevention, treatment and rehabilitation for people affected by chronic musculoskeletal conditions addressing related disabilities and loss of work in Nepal.
Family health history underpins genetic medicine. Our study aimed to explore language and patterns of communication relating to family health history observed in interactions between general practitioners (GPs) and their patients within routine primary care consultations.
Secondary analysis of patient and GP routine consultation data (n=252).
Consultations that included ‘family health history’ were eligible for inclusion (n=58).
A qualitative inductive analysis of the interactions from consultation transcripts.
46/58 conversations about family health history were initiated by the GP. Most discussions around family history lasted for between approximately 1 to 2 min. Patients were invited to share family health history through one of two ways: non-specific enquiry (eg, by asking the patient about ‘anything that runs in the family’); or specific enquiry where they were asked if they had a ‘strong family history’ in relation to a particular condition, for example, breast cancer. Patients often responded to either approach with a simple no, but fuller negative responses also occurred regularly and typically included an account of some kind (eg, explaining family relationships/dynamics which impeded or prevented the accessibility of information).
Family health history is regarded as a genetic test and is embedded in the sociocultural norms of the patient from whom information is being sought. Our findings highlight that it is more complex than asking simply if ‘anything’ runs in the family. As the collection of family health history is expected to be more routine, it will be important to also consider it from sociocultural perspectives in order to help mitigate any inequities in how family history is collected, and therefore used (or not) in a person’s healthcare. Orientating an enquiry away from ‘anything’ and asking more specific details about particular conditions may help facilitate the dialogue.
Psychosocial and economic (socioeconomic) barriers, including poverty, stigma and catastrophic costs, impede access to tuberculosis (TB) services in low-income countries. We aimed to characterise the socioeconomic barriers and facilitators of accessing TB services in Nepal to inform the design of a locally appropriate socioeconomic support intervention for TB-affected households.
From August 2018 to July 2019, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study consisting of semistructured focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected multisectoral stakeholders. The data were managed in NVivo V.12, coded by consensus and analysed thematically.
The study was conducted in four districts, Makwanpur, Chitwan, Dhanusha and Mahottari, which have a high prevalence of poverty and TB.
Seven FGDs were conducted with 54 in-country stakeholders, grouped by stakeholders, including people with TB (n=21), community stakeholders (n=13) and multidisciplinary TB healthcare professionals (n=20) from the National TB Programme.
The perceived socioeconomic barriers to accessing TB services were: inadequate TB knowledge and advocacy; high food and transportation costs; income loss and stigma. The perceived facilitators to accessing TB care and services were: enhanced championing and awareness-raising about TB and TB services; social protection including health insurance; cash, vouchers and/or nutritional allowance to cover food and travel costs; and psychosocial support and counselling integrated with existing adherence counselling from the National TB Programme.
These results suggest that support interventions that integrate TB education, psychosocial counselling and expand on existing cash transfer schemes would be locally appropriate and could address the socioeconomic barriers to accessing and engaging with TB services faced by TB-affected households in Nepal. The findings have been used to inform the design of a socioeconomic support intervention for TB-affected households. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of this intervention on TB-related costs, stigma and TB treatment outcomes, is now being evaluated in a pilot implementation study in Nepal.
Wealthy nations must do much more, much faster.
Wealthy nations must do much more, much faster.
The United Nations General Assembly in September 2021 will bring countries together at a critical time for marshalling collective action to tackle the global environmental crisis. They will meet again at the biodiversity summit in Kunming, China, and the climate conference (Conference of the Parties (COP)26) in Glasgow, UK. Ahead of these pivotal meetings, we—the editors of health journals worldwide—call for urgent action to keep average global temperature increases below 1.5°C, halt the destruction of nature and protect health.
Health is already being harmed by global temperature increases and the destruction of the natural world, a state of affairs health professionals have been bringing attention to for decades.
by Niti Chuchird, Tirawat Rairat, Arunothai Keetanon, Putsucha Phansawat, Chi-Chung Chou, Joy CampbellSpray-dried animal plasma (SDP) in feed for several animal species provides health benefits, but research about use of SDP in shrimp feed is very limited. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of dietary SDP on growth performance, feed utilization, immune responses, and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). In Experiment 1, the post-larvae were divided into five groups (four tank/group and 80 shrimp/tank) and fed four times daily diets with porcine SDP at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6% of the diet for 45 days. In Experiment 2, the surviving shrimp from Experiment 1 were redistributed into six groups: four SDP groups as in Experiment 1 plus the positive and negative controls (four tank/group and 30 shrimp/tank). They were then challenged with V. parahaemolyticus by immersion at 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and were fed with the same diets for another 4 days. In Experiment 1, shrimp fed 4.5% or 6% SDP diets had significantly higher body weight, survival rate, and improved feed conversion ratio. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count and phagocytic, phenoloxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities) of the shrimp fed 3–6% SDP diets also showed significant enhancement compared to the control. In Experiment 2, the survival rates of the 3–6% SDP groups were significantly higher than the positive control at day 4 after the immersion challenge. Likewise, the histopathological study revealed milder signs of bacterial infection in the hepatopancreas of the 3–6% SDP groups compared to the challenged positive control and 1.5% SDP groups. In conclusion, shrimp fed diets with SDP, especially at 4.5–6% of the diet, showed significant improvement in overall health conditions and better resistance to V. parahaemolyticus infection.
To understand self-reported potential cancer symptom help-seeking behaviours and attitudes during the first 6 months (March–August 2020) of the UK COVID-19 pandemic.
UK population-based survey conducted during August and September 2020. Correlates of help-seeking behaviour were modelled using logistic regression in participants reporting potential cancer symptoms during the previous 6 months. Qualitative telephone interviews with a purposeful subsample of participants, analysed thematically.
Online UK wide survey.
7543 adults recruited via Cancer Research UK online panel provider (Dynata) and HealthWise Wales (a national register of ‘research ready’ participants) supplemented with social media (Facebook and Twitter) recruitment. 30 participants were also interviewed.
Survey measures included experiences of 15 potential cancer symptoms, help-seeking behaviour, barriers and prompts to help-seeking.
Of 3025 (40.1%) participants who experienced a potential cancer symptom, 44.8% (1355/3025) had not contacted their general practitioner (GP). Odds of help-seeking were higher among participants with disability (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.38, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.71) and who experienced more symptoms (aOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.56 to 1.82), and lower among those who perceived COVID-19 as the cause of symptom(s) (aOR=0.36, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.52). Barriers included worries about wasting the doctor’s time (1158/7543, 15.4%), putting strain on healthcare services (945, 12.6%) and not wanting to make a fuss (907, 12.0%). Interviewees reported reluctance to contact the GP due to concerns about COVID-19 and fear of attending hospitals, and described putting their health concerns on hold.
Many people avoided healthcare services despite experiencing potential cancer symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Alongside current help-seeking campaigns, well-timed and appropriate nationally coordinated campaigns should signal that services are open safely for those with unusual or persistent symptoms.
Healthcare workers have greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and an estimated 2.5-fold increased risk of contracting COVID-19 than the general population. We wished to explore the predictive role of basic demographics to establish a simple tool that could help risk stratify healthcare workers.
We undertook a review of the published literature (including multiple search strategies in MEDLINE with PubMed interface) and critically assessed early reports on preprint servers. We explored the relative risk of mortality from readily available demographics to identify the population at the highest risk.
The published studies specifically assessing the risk of healthcare workers had limited demographics available; therefore, we explored the general population in the literature. Clinician demographics: Mortality increased with increasing age from 50 years onwards. Male sex at birth, and people of black and minority ethnicity groups had higher susceptibility to both hospitalisation and mortality. Comorbid disease. Vascular disease, renal disease, diabetes and chronic pulmonary disease further increased risk. Risk stratification tool: A risk stratification tool was compiled using a white female aged
We generated a tool that provides a framework for objective risk stratification of doctors and healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic, without requiring disclosure of information that an individual may not wish to share with their direct line manager during the risk assessment process. This tool has been made freely available through the British Medical Association website and is widely used in the National Health Service and other external organisations.
The World Health Organisation endorses community-based programmes as a cost-effective, feasible and a ‘best buy’ in the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These programmes are particularly successful when the community actively participates in its design, implementation and evaluation. However, they may be only useful insofar as they can be scaled up and sustained in some meaningful way. Social network research may serve as an important tool for determining the underlying mechanisms that contribute to this process. The aim of this planned scoping review is to map and collate literature on the role of social networks in scaling-up and sustaining community-based physical activity and diet programmes in low-income and middle-income countries.
This scoping review protocol has been planned around the Arksey and O'Malley framework and its enhancement. Inclusion criteria are peer-reviewed articles and grey literature exploring the role of social networks in the scale-up and/or sustainability of NCD prevention community-based programmes in adult populations. Studies must have been published since 2000, in English, and be based in a low-income or middle-income country. The following databases will be used for this review: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, SocIndex, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Google and Google Scholar. Books, conference abstracts and research focused only on children will be excluded. Two reviewers will independently select and extract eligible studies. Included publications will be thematically analysed using the Framework Approach.
Ethical approval will not be sought for this review as no individual-level data or human participants will be involved. This protocol is registered on the Open Science Framework (https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/KG7TX). The findings from the review will be published in an accredited journal. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist will be used to support transparency and guide translation of the review.
We aimed to analyse the degree of carer burden and depressive symptoms in family carers of persons with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and explore the factors independently associated with carer burden and depressive symptoms.
Cross-sectional study using self-administered and interviewer-administered surveys, involving 96 family carer–care recipient pairs. Participants were identified from tertiary ophthalmology clinics in Sydney, Australia, as well as the Macular Disease Foundation of Australia database. Logistic regression, Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations of explanatory factors (family caregiving experience, carer fatigue, carer quality of life and care-recipient level of dependency) with study outcomes—carer burden and depressive symptoms.
Over one in two family carers reported experiencing mild or moderate-severe burden. More than one in five and more than one in three family carers experienced depressive symptoms and substantial fatigue, respectively. High level of care-recipient dependency was associated with greater odds of moderate-severe and mild carer burden, multivariable-adjusted OR 8.42 (95% CI 1.88 to 37.60) and OR 4.26 (95% CI 1.35 to 13.43), respectively. High levels of fatigue were associated with threefold greater odds of the carer experiencing depressive symptoms, multivariable-adjusted OR 3.47 (95% CI 1.00 to 12.05).
A substantial degree of morbidity is observed in family carers during the caregiving experience for patients with AMD. Level of dependency on the family carer and fatigue were independently associated with family carer burden and depressive symptoms.
The trial registration number is ACTRN12616001461482. The results presented in this paper are Pre-results stage.
by Kobpat Phadungsaksawasdi, Sakone Sunantaraporn, Nirin Seatamanoch, Switt Kongdachalert, Atchara Phumee, Kanyarat Kraivichian, Vorthon Sawaswong, Sunchai Payungporn, Narisa Brownell, Padet SiriyasatienBackground
Pediculus humanus capitis or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite and its infestation remains a major public health issue worldwide. Molecular analysis divides head lice into six clades and intra-clade genetic differences have been identified. Several hypotheses have been formulated to elucidate the discrepancies of the variety of head lice among different regions of the world. It is currently concluded that head lice distribution might be associated with human migration history. This study aims to investigate genetic data of human head lice in Thailand. We believe that the analysis could help establish the correlation between local and global head lice populations.Method
We investigated mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene of the collected 214 head lice to evaluate genetic diversity from 15 provinces among 6 regions of Thailand. The head lice genes were added to the global pool for the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian tree, Skyline plot, and median joining network construction. The biodiversity, neutrality tests, and population genetic differentiation among the 6 Thailand geographic regions were analyzed by DNAsp version 6.Results
The phylogenetic tree analysis of 214 collected head lice are of clade A and clade C accounting for roughly 65% and 35% respectively. The Bayesian tree revealed a correlation of clade diversification and ancient human dispersal timeline. In Thailand, clade A is widespread in the country. Clade C is confined to only the Central, Southern, and Northeastern regions. We identified 50 novel haplotypes. Statistical analysis showed congruent results between genetic differentiation and population migration especially with South Asia.Conclusions
Pediculosis remains problematic among children in the rural areas in Thailand. Cytb gene analysis of human head lice illustrated clade distribution and intra-clade diversity of different areas. Our study reported novel haplotypes of head lice in Thailand. Moreover, the statistic calculation provided a better understanding of their relationship with human, as an obligate human parasite and might help provide a better insight into the history of human population migration. Determination of the correlation between phylogenetic data and pediculicide resistance gene as well as residing bacteria are of interest for future studies.
Transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) and minor strokes are important risk factors for further vascular events. We explored the role of albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) in improving risk prediction after a first event.
Rapid access stroke clinics in the UK.
2202 patients attending with TIA or minor stroke diagnosed by the attending stroke physician, able to provide a urine sample to evaluate ACR using a near-patient testing device.
Primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE: recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death) at 90 days. The key secondary outcome was to determine whether urinary ACR could contribute to a risk prediction tool for use in a clinic setting.
151 MACE occurred in 144 participants within 90 days. Participants with MACE had higher ACR than those without. A composite score awarding a point each for age >80 years, previous stroke/TIA and presence of microalbuminuria identified those at low risk and high risk. 90% of patients were at low risk (scoring 0 or 1). Their 90-day risk of MACE was 5.7%. Of the remaining ‘high-risk’ population (scoring 2 or 3) 12.4% experienced MACE over 90 days (p
A risk score comprising age, previous stroke/TIA and microalbuminuria predicts future MACE while identifying those at low risk of a recurrent event. This tool shows promise in the risk stratification of patients to avoid the admission of low-risk patients.