Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second largest contributor to liver disease in the UK, with injecting drug use as the main risk factor among the estimated 200 000 people currently infected. Despite effective prevention interventions, chronic HCV prevalence remains around 40% among people who inject drugs (PWID). New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapies combine high cure rates (>90%) and short treatment duration (8 to 12 weeks). Theoretical mathematical modelling evidence suggests HCV treatment scale-up can prevent transmission and substantially reduce HCV prevalence/incidence among PWID. Our primary aim is to generate empirical evidence on the effectiveness of HCV ‘Treatment as Prevention’ (TasP) in PWID.
We plan to establish a natural experiment with Tayside, Scotland, as a single intervention site where HCV care pathways are being expanded (including specialist drug treatment clinics, needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), pharmacies and prison) and HCV treatment for PWID is being rapidly scaled-up. Other sites in Scotland and England will act as potential controls. Over 2 years from 2017/2018, at least 500 PWID will be treated in Tayside, which simulation studies project will reduce chronic HCV prevalence among PWID by 62% (from 26% to 10%) and HCV incidence will fall by approximately 2/3 (from 4.2 per 100 person-years (p100py) to 1.4 p100py). Treatment response and re-infection rates will be monitored. We will conduct focus groups and interviews with service providers and patients that accept and decline treatment to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing TasP. We will conduct longitudinal interviews with up to 40 PWID to assess whether successful HCV treatment alters their perspectives on and engagement with drug treatment and recovery. Trained peer researchers will be involved in data collection and dissemination. The primary outcome – chronic HCV prevalence in PWID – is measured using information from the Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative survey in Scotland and the Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Programme in England, conducted at least four times before and three times during and after the intervention. We will adapt Bayesian synthetic control methods (specifically the Causal Impact Method) to generate the cumulative impact of the intervention on chronic HCV prevalence and incidence. We will use a dynamic HCV transmission and economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the HCV TasP intervention, and to estimate the contribution of the scale-up in HCV treatment to observe changes in HCV prevalence. Through the qualitative data we will systematically explore key mechanisms of TasP real world implementation from provider and patient perspectives to develop a manual for scaling up HCV treatment in other settings. We will compare qualitative accounts of drug treatment and recovery with a ‘virtual cohort’ of PWID linking information on HCV treatment with Scottish Drug treatment databases to test whether DAA treatment improves drug treatment outcomes.
Extending HCV community care pathways is covered by ethics (ERADICATE C, ISRCTN27564683, Super DOT C Trial clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02706223). Ethical approval for extra data collection from patients including health utilities and qualitative interviews has been granted (REC ref: 18/ES/0128) and ISCRCTN registration has been completed (ISRCTN72038467). Our findings will have direct National Health Service and patient relevance; informing prioritisation given to early HCV treatment for PWID. We will present findings to practitioners and policymakers, and support design of an evaluation of HCV TasP in England.
Services are being encouraged to provide postdiagnostic treatment to those with dementia but the availability of evidence-based interventions following diagnosis has not kept pace with increase in demand. To address this need, the Journeying through Dementia (JtD) intervention was created. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), based on a pilot study, is in progress.
The RCT is a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel group trial designed to test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of JtD compared with usual care. Recruitment will be through NHS services, third sector organisations and Join Dementia Research. The sample size is 486 randomised (243 to usual care and 243 to the intervention usual care). Participants can choose to ask a friend or relative (supporter) to become involved in the study. The primary outcome measure for participants is Dementia-Related Quality of Life (DEMQOL), collected at baseline and at 8 months’ postrandomisation. Secondary outcome measures will be collected from participants and supporters at those visits. Participants will also be followed up at 12 months’ postrandomisation with a reduced set of measures. A process evaluation will be conducted through qualitative and fidelity substudies. Analyses will compare the two arms of the trial on an intention to treat as allocated basis. The primary analyses will compare the mean DEMQOL scores of the participants at 8 months between the two study arms. A cost-effectiveness analysis will consider the incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years of the intervention compared with usual care. Qualitative and fidelity substudies will be analysed through framework analysis and fidelity assessment tools respectively.
REC and HRA approval were obtained. A Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee has been constituted. Dissemination will be via publications, conferences and social media. Intervention materials will be made open access.
Compelling evidence supports multiple benefits of physical activity (PA) even in small bursts. Less than 50% of Americans achieve recommended PA levels, lower still for individuals living with chronic illness or disease.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of 3‐min follow‐along video scenarios to promote brief episodes of low–moderate levels of PA among individuals with chronic diseases.
Guided by our previous studies and self‐efficacy theory, the program (WellMe in 3© for Patients) was modeled after another program developed for healthcare staff. An advisory panel and a health and fitness expert guided the creation of twelve 3‐min video scenarios that included two individuals living with chronic illness and a fitness leader who guided the PA scenarios and how to adapt them based on limitations. The 12 scenarios included 3 min of aerobic activities, stretching, or balance. Preliminary pilot effects were measured among 39 patients living with chronic conditions for one month. Standardized instruments were used to measure PA levels, PA self‐efficacy (SE), and quality of life (QoL); usability and satisfaction were assessed using researcher‐developed tools. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to evaluate change over time.
Twelve video scenarios were created tailored to persons with chronic illness. Thirty‐nine participants piloted the program, reporting an average of two chronic conditions. Baseline QoL scores were lower than normative data, self‐efficacy scores were low‐to‐moderate, and PA levels were very low. Participants averaged using one video per day. 62% of participants provided complete self‐reported pre‐ and post‐QoL and SE data and 41% provided pre‐ and post‐PA (accelerometer) data. Significant improvements were found for general health and energy scores, and trends were found for self‐efficacy scores. PA levels were highly variable with nonsignificant increases from baseline. Effect sizes were low–moderate for several measures. About 79% of participants rated program “Very good”; all recommended the program.
Physical activity has multiple health benefits for all people including those living with chronic conditions. Even short bouts of physical activity have health benefits. A program of 3‐min follow‐along PA videoclips for individuals living with chronic disease holds promise for clinicians and researchers.
The rapid increase in apartment construction in Australia has raised concerns about the impacts of poorly designed and located buildings on resident health and well-being. While apartment design policies exist, their content varies across jurisdictions and evidence on their impact on health and well-being is lacking. This cross-sectional observational study (2017–2021) aims to generate empirical evidence to guide policy decisions on apartment development and help to create healthy, equitable higher-density communities. Objectives include to benchmark the implementation of health-promoting apartment design requirements and to identify associations between requirements and resident health and well-being outcomes.
Eligible buildings in three Australian cities with different apartment design guidelines will be stratified by area disadvantage and randomly selected (~n=99). Building architects, developers and local governments will be approached to provide endorsed development plans from which apartment and building design features will be extracted. Additional data collection includes a resident survey (~n=1000) to assess environmental stressors and health and well-being impacts and outcomes, and geographic information systems measures of the neighbourhood. The study has 85% power to detect a difference of 0.5 SD in the primary outcome of mental well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale) at a 5% level of significance. Analyses will compare policy compliance and health-promoting design features between cities and area disadvantage groups. Regression models will test whether higher policy compliance (overall and by design theme) is associated with better health and well-being, and the relative contribution of the neighbourhood context.
Human Research Ethics Committees of RMIT University (CHEAN B 21146-10/17) and the University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/8735) approved the study protocol. In addition to academic publications, the collaboration will develop specific health-promoting indicators to embed into the monitoring of apartment design policy implementation and impact, and co-design research dissemination materials to facilitate uptake by decision makers.
To develop and psychometrically test the needs of children questionnaire (NCQ), a new instrument to measure school‐aged children's self‐reported psychosocial physical and emotional needs in paediatric wards.
This is an instrument development study based on recommendations for developing a reliable and valid questionnaire.
The NCQ was developed over three phases between February 2013–April 2017 and included item generation; content adequacy assessment; questionnaire administration; factor analysis; internal consistency assessment and construct validity. Psychometric properties were assessed after 193 school‐aged children completed the needs of children's questionnaire in four paediatric areas in Australia and New Zealand.
The development and validation of the NCQ over two countries resulted in a 16‐item, four‐category tool to measure the self‐reported importance and fulfilment of school‐aged children's needs in hospital. Cronbach's alpha for the combined samples was 0.93.
The NCQ bridges a gap to measure the level of importance and fulfilment of school‐aged children's self‐reported needs in hospital. Future testing and validation is needed in other paediatric areas and countries.
The 16‐item NCQ is a valid measure to evaluate if the quality of care delivered and received in hospital is in line with what children self‐report as important and required and to date indicates good usability and utility. Child self‐reports are essential to inform healthcare delivery, policy, research and theory development from a child and family‐centred care lens that honours the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the best interests of the child.
To estimate the association between (1) visual impairment (VI) and (2) eye disease and 6-year mortality risk within a cohort of elderly Kenyan people.
The baseline of the Nakuru Posterior Segment Eye Disease Study was formed from a population-based survey of 4318 participants aged ≥50 years, enrolled in 2007–2008. Ophthalmic and anthropometric examinations were undertaken on all participants at baseline, and a questionnaire was administered, including medical and ophthalmic history. Participants were retraced in 2013–2014 for a second examination. Vital status was recorded for all participants through information from community members. Cumulative incidence of mortality, and its relationship with baseline VI and types of eye disease was estimated. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust for non-participation.
Cumulative incidence of mortality in relation to VI level at baseline.
Of the baseline sample, 2170 (50%) were re-examined at follow-up and 407 (10%) were known to have died (adjusted risk of 11.9% over 6 years). Compared to those with normal vision (visual acuity (VA) ≥6/12, risk=9.7%), the 6-year mortality risk was higher among people with VI (
Visual acuity was related to 6-year mortality risk in this cohort of elderly Kenyan people, potentially because both VI and mortality are related to ageing and risk factors for NCD.
by Kayla L. Foster, Kathleen D. Kern, Tiffany M. Chambers, Philip J. Lupo, Kala Y. Kamdar, Michael E. Scheurer, Austin L. BrownBackground
As survival rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) continue to improve, there is growing concern over the chronic health conditions that survivors face. Given that survivors of childhood ALL are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications and obesity, we sought to characterize BMI trends from diagnosis through early survivorship in a multi-ethnic, contemporary cohort of childhood ALL patients and determine if early weight change was predictive of long-term weight status.Methods
The study population consisted of ALL patients aged 2–15 years at diagnosis who were treated with chemotherapy alone at Texas Children’s Hospital. Each patient had BMI z-scores collected at diagnosis, 30-days post-diagnosis, and annually for five years. Linear regression models were estimated to evaluate the association between: 1) BMI z-score change in the first 30 days and BMI z-scores at five-years post-diagnosis; and 2) BMI z-score change in the first year post-diagnosis and BMI z-scores at five-years post-diagnosis.Results
This retrospective cohort study included longitudinal data from 121 eligible patients. The mean BMI z-scores for the population increased significantly (p-value Conclusion
Our results suggest that weight gain within the first year after diagnosis is more strongly associated with long-term BMI than early weight gain (within 30 days). If confirmed, this information may help identify a window of time during therapy when ALL patients would benefit most from weight management directed interventions.
Low quality of life is common in cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity, improving diet, supporting psychological well-being and weight loss can improve quality of life in several cancers and may limit relapse. The aim of the randomised controlled trial outlined in this protocol is to examine whether a digital intervention (Renewed), with or without human support, can improve quality of life in cancer survivors. Renewed provides support for increasing physical activity, managing difficult emotions, eating a healthier diet and weight management.
A randomised controlled trial is being conducted comparing usual care, access to Renewed or access to Renewed with brief human support. Cancer survivors who have had colorectal, breast or prostate cancer will be identified and invited through general practice searches and mail-outs. Participants are asked to complete baseline measures immediately after screening and will then be randomised to a study group; this is all completed on the Renewed website. The primary outcome is quality of life measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-c30. Secondary outcomes include anxiety and depression, fear of cancer recurrence, general well-being, enablement and items relating to costs for a health economics analysis. Process measures include perceptions of human support, intervention usage and satisfaction, and adherence to behavioural changes. Qualitative process evaluations will be conducted with patients and healthcare staff providing support.
The trial has been approved by the NHS Research Ethics Committee (Reference 18/NW/0013). The results of this trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals and through conference presentations.
Emergency intubation of children with abnormal respiratory or cardiac physiology is a high-risk procedure and associated with a high incidence of adverse events including hypoxemia. Successful emergency intubation is dependent on inter-related patient and operator factors. Preoxygenation has been used to maximise oxygen reserves in the patient and to prolong the safe apnoeic time during the intubation phase. Transnasal Humidified Rapid Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) prolongs the safe apnoeic window for a safe intubation during elective intubation. We designed a clinical trial to test the hypothesis that THRIVE reduces the frequency of adverse and hypoxemic events during emergency intubation in children and to test the hypothesis that this treatment is cost-effective compared with standard care.
The Kids THRIVE trial is a multicentre randomised controlled trial performed in participating emergency departments and paediatric intensive care units. 960 infants and children aged 0–16 years requiring emergency intubation for all reasons will be enrolled and allocated to THRIVE or control in a 1:1 allocation with stratification by site, age (7 years) and operator (junior and senior). Children allocated to THRIVE will receive weight appropriate transnasal flow rates with 100% oxygen, whereas children in the control arm will not receive any transnasal oxygen insufflation. The primary outcomes are defined as follows: (1) hypoxemic event during the intubation phase defined as SpO2
Ethics approval for the protocol and consent process has been obtained (HREC/16/QRCH/81). The trial has been actively recruiting since May 2017. The study findings will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Efforts are needed to reduce gendered inequities and improve health and well-being for women. Patient-centred care (PCC), an approach that informs and engages patients in their own health, is positively associated with improved care delivery, experiences and outcomes. This study aimed to describe how PCC for women (PCCW) has been conceptualised in research.
We conducted a theoretical rapid review of PCCW in four health conditions. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs index for English-language articles published from January 2008 to February 2018 inclusive that investigated PCC and involved at least 50% women aged 18 or older. We analysed findings using a six-domain PCC framework, and reported findings with summary statistics and narrative descriptions.
After screening 2872 unique search results, we reviewed 51 full-text articles, and included 14 (five family planning, three preventive care, four depression, one cardiovascular disease and one rehabilitation). Studies varied in how they assessed PCC. None examined all six PCC framework domains; least evaluated domains were addressing emotions, managing uncertainty and enabling self-management. Seven studies that investigated PCC outcomes found a positive association with appropriate health service use, disease remission, health self-efficacy and satisfaction with care. Differing views about PCC between patients and physicians, physician PCC attitudes and geographic affluence influenced PCC. No studies evaluated the influence of patient characteristics or tested interventions to support PCCW.
There is a paucity of research that has explored or evaluated PCCW in the conditions of interest. We excluded many studies because they arbitrarily labelled many topics as PCC, or simply concluded that PCC was needed. More research is needed to fully conceptualise and describe PCCW across different characteristics and conditions, and to test interventions that improve PCCW. Policies and incentives may also be needed to stimulate greater awareness and delivery of PCCW.
by Iransé Oliveira-Silva, Vinícius Araújo Silva, Raphael Martins Cunha, Carl FosterCycling is a sport which requires great physical effort from athletes. The stress and anxiety of competition might interfere greatly with performance, by impacting the autonomic system. Physiological alterations, such as situations that irritate, frighten or excite the individual can cause a stress response, defined as a response of the organism to reestablish the homeostasis, regardless of its relationship to a sports situation. The aim of this study was to present data on the autonomic changes induced by precompetitive stress in cyclists and their relation with physical fitness and anxiety. Twelve healthy cyclists aged between 18 and 40 years, with previous experience in competition at the regional level, participated in the study. Heart rate variability (HRV) and physical fitness (body mass index, body fat and aerobic capacity) were measured 5 days before the Mountain Bike championship and remeasured 45 minutes before the start of the race (HRV and Anciety). Paired T test, effect size and correlational test were used. Cycling competition is a stressful situation capable of altering autonomic and hemodynamic parameters. We observed the increase in SDNN, reflecting an increase in sympathetic autonomic control. There were correlations between physical fitness with some autonomic parameters, while anxiety correlated with the years of experience in competition.
To synthesise and critically interpret literature of relevance to intervening in intergenerational transmission of relational trauma within parent–infant relationships.
Intergenerational trauma is a discrete process and form of psychological trauma transmitted within families and communities. Intergenerational trauma can be transmitted through attachment relationships where the parent has experienced relational trauma and have significant impacts upon individuals across the lifespan, including predisposition to further trauma.
Critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) was used. CIS is an inductive qualitative process that generates new theory grounded within reviewed literature.
The review commenced by systematically searching for literature on interventions for intergenerational trauma. As the core theoretical construct emerged, elements that may contribute to preventing intergenerational trauma were identified iteratively and influenced further searching. In the final synthesis, 77 articles were included from the fields of intergenerational trauma, trauma interventions and attachment interventions. The review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses checklist.
The key construct is that prevention of intergenerational trauma transmission is the key intervention. The two contributing constructs were identified as “resolving parental trauma” and “actively supporting parent–infant attachment.”
Prevention is the most effective intervention approach for intergenerational transmission of trauma. Prevention requires trauma‐specific interventions with adults and attachment‐focused interventions within families. Preventative strategies need to target individual, relationship, familial, community and societal levels, as addressing and preventing trauma requires a multipronged, multisystemic approach.
Systematic trauma‐informed attachment‐focused interventions in health and social service settings are recommended. There are opportunities to provide multifocal individual and relational interventions within existing services that work with parents to help prevent the likelihood and impact of transmission of intergenerational relational trauma within families. Nurses are well placed to provide preventative interventions in mental health, early childhood and primary health settings.
by Ali Judd, Caroline Foster, Lindsay C. Thompson, Kate Sturgeon, Marthe Le Prevost, Eva Jungmann, Katie Rowson, Hannah Castro, Diana M. Gibb, on behalf of the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) Steering CommitteeAs adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) survive into adulthood, gaining insight into sexual behaviour and risk-taking is important. Between 2013–2015, 296 PHIV aged 13–21 years and 96 HIV negative affected adolescents (13–23 years) were recruited to the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort in England. Sexual health data were collected through computer-assisted self-interview questionnaires. Quality of life and household deprivation were also measured. T-tests compared means, and χ2 proportions; logistic regression examined predictors of ever having sex. 120(41%) PHIV and 31(32%) HIV- young people were male, 254(86%) and 70(73%) were black, median age 16 [IQR 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years respectively. 77(26%) PHIV had a previous AIDS diagnosis. 93(32%) PHIV and 38(40%) HIV- had ever had sex; median number of partners was 3 [1,6] and 4 [1,6] respectively. 54 (41%) of 131 young people who were sexually active reported not always using condoms, including 32% (30/93) of PHIV. In multivariable analysis, older age, male sex, worse deprivation score, worse quality of life, and alcohol and/or drugs were associated with ever having sex, but not HIV status. 12/30 PHIV reporting unprotected sex had at least one HIV viral load ≥200c/ml in the previous 12 months. Age at first sex and number of sexual partners were similar among PHIV and HIV-, and comparable to normative data. In conclusion, small numbers of PHIV reported condomless sex with a detectable viral load, which could result in HIV transmission, indicating the need for targeted sexual health and ART adherence interventions for young people with perinatal HIV.
To explore the acceptability of peer mentoring for people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in New Zealand.
This is a qualitative descriptive study exploring the experiences reported by mentees and mentors taking part in a feasibility study of peer mentoring. Interviews with five mentees and six mentors were carried out. Data were analysed using conventional content analysis.
The first mentoring session took place predischarge from the rehabilitation unit. The remaining five sessions took place in mentees’ homes or community as preferred.
Twelve people with TBI took part: six mentees (with moderate to severe TBI; aged 18–46) paired with six mentors (moderate to severe TBI >12 months previously; aged 21–59). Pairing occurred before mentee discharge from postacute inpatient brain injury rehabilitation. Mentors had been discharged from rehabilitation following a TBI between 1 and 5 years previously.
The peer mentoring programme consisted of up to six face-to-face sessions between a mentee and a mentor over a 6-month period. The sessions focused on building rapport, exploring hopes for and supporting participation after discharge through further meetings and supported community activities.
Data were synthesised into one overarching theme: making sense of recovery. This occurred through the sharing of experiences and stories; was pivotal to the mentoring relationship; and appeared to benefit both mentees and mentors. Mentors were perceived as valued experts because of their personal experience of injury and recovery, and could provide support in ways that were different from that provided by clinicians or family members. Mentors required support to manage the uncertainties inherent in the role.
The insight mentors developed through their own lived experience established them as a trusted and credible source of hope and support for people re-engaging in the community post-TBI. These findings indicate the potential for mentoring to result in positive outcomes.
To describe the nature and scope of nurse‐midwifery practice in Texas and to determine legislative priorities and practice barriers.
Across the globe, midwives are the largest group of maternity care providers despite little known about midwifery practice. With a looming shortage of midwives, there is a pressing need to understand midwives’ work environment and scope of practice.
Mixed methods research utilising prospective descriptive survey and interview.
An online survey was administered to nurse‐midwives practicing in the state of Texas (N = 449) with a subset (n = 10) telephone interviewed. Descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis was performed.
The survey was completed by 141 midwives with eight interviewed. Most were older, Caucasian and held a master's degree. A majority worked full‐time, were in clinical practice in larger urban areas and were employed by a hospital or physician group. Care was most commonly provided for Hispanic and White women; approximately a quarter could care for greater numbers of patients. Most did not clinically teach midwifery students. Physician practice agreements were believed unnecessary and prescriptive authority requirements restrictive. Legislative issues were typically followed through the professional organisation or social media sites; most felt a lack of competence to influence health policy decisions. While most were satisfied with current clinical practice, a majority planned a change in the next 3 to 5 years.
An ageing midwifery workforce, not representative of the race/ethnicity of the populations served, is underutilised with practice requirements that limit provision of services. Health policy changes are needed to ensure unrestricted practice.
Robust midwifery workforce data are needed as well as a midwifery board which tracks availability and accessibility of midwives. Educators should consider training models promoting long‐term service in underserved areas, and development of skills crucial for impacting health policy change.