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Comparative analysis on the effect of Z‐plasty versus conventional simple excision for the treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus: A retrospective randomised clinical study

Abstract

Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus is one of common diseases in general department. However, it is characterised, for surgeons, by high post‐surgical recurrence and high incidence of post‐surgical wound complications. Due to that fact, this retrospective randomised clinical study was designed to evaluate the surgical procedure effect of Z‐plasty (ZP), compared with convention simple excision (SE). A total of 67 patients from May 2015 to May 2019 in our department were studied into two groups randomly, the group of ZP and the group of SE. The patients' characteristics, surgical data, hospital length of stay (LOS), and post‐surgery complications were recorded. Statistical approaches were proceed with P‐value analysis. The results are as follows. No significant differences were found between these two groups of the ages, gender distribution, Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and blood hypertension. The estimated blood loss, specimen volume, distance to anus, and drain output on the first day of post‐surgery between the two groups were not statistically significant, either. However, surgical time in the ZP group was longer than that in the SE group (P < .0001). LOS in the ZP group was obviously shorter than that in the SE group (P = .0051). Furthermore, the patients of the ZP group were tending to suffer from fewer post‐surgical complications than the ones of the SE group. In a conclusion, we hold the point view that the surgical procedure of ZP can lead a better outcome than SE because it demonstrated shortened LOS and fewer post‐surgical complications.

Exploring the prevalence and management of wounds for people with dementia in long‐term care

Abstract

The prevalence of wounds and comorbidities such as dementia increase with age. With an ageing population, the likelihood of overlap of these conditions is strong. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of wound types and current management strategies of wound care for people with dementia in long‐term care (LTC). A scoping literature review, a cross‐sectional observational and chart audit study of residents in dementia specific facilities in LTC were conducted. The scoping review indicated that people with dementia/cognitive impairment are often excluded from wound related studies and of the nine studies included in this review, none looked at the prevalence of types of wounds other then pressure injuries. In the skin audit, skin tears were noted as the most common wound type with some evidence‐based practice strategies in place for residents. However, documentation of current wound occurred in less than a third of residents with wounds. This is the first study to note the prevalence of different wound types in people with dementia and current management strategies being used across two dementia‐specific facilities and a lack of research in this area limits evidence in guiding practice.

Quality indicators for a community‐based wound care centre: An integrative review

Abstract

The purpose of this review was to identify the role and contribution of community‐based nurse‐led wound care as a service delivery model. Centres increasingly respond proactively to assess and manage wounds at all stages – not only chronic wound care. We conducted an integrative review of literature, searching five databases, 2007–2018. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, we systematically approached article selection and all three authors collaborated to chart the study variables, evaluate data, and synthesise results. Eighteen studies were included, representing a range of care models internationally. The findings showed a need for nurse‐led clinics to provide evidence‐based care using best practice guidelines for all wound types. Wound care practices should be standardised across the particular service and be integrated with higher levels of resources such as investigative services and surgical units. A multi‐disciplinary approach was likely to achieve better patient outcomes, while patient‐centred care with strong patient engagement was likely to assist patients' compliance with treatment. High‐quality community‐based wound services should include nursing leadership based on a hub‐and‐spoke model. This is ideally patient‐centred, evidence‐based, and underpinned by a commitment to developing innovations in terms of treatment modalities, accessibility, and patient engagement.

Incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers in cancer patients admitted to hospice: A multicentre prospective cohort study

Abstract

Pressure ulcers lead to discomfort for patients and may have an important impact on a patient's quality of life. Measure the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers in a Hospice environment; evaluate the risk factors associated with pressure ulcers; and calculate the incidence of Kennedy Terminal Pressure Ulcers. This multicentre prospective cohort study enrolled 440 cancer patients in advanced phase, consecutively admitted to five hospices of the AUSL della Romagna (Italy), during a period of 1 year. Five hundred more patients were excluded from the study because of inability to sign the consent form or refusal to participate. All patients were adults above 18 years of age. The National Pressure Advisory Panel Classification System was used to evaluate the pressure ulcers. Potential risk predictors were evaluated through the Braden Scale, the Numerical Scale, and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale. Starting in September 2016, 214 (48.6%) females and 226 (51.4%) males were analysed. The incidence of pressure ulcers in the total population was 17.3%. The risk factors that influence the development of pressure ulcers were age, proximity to death, and duration of stay in Hospice. The incidence of Kennedy Terminal Pressure Ulcers was 2.7%. This study demonstrates that 17.3% of all patients admitted to a hospice setting developed a pressure ulcer. The longer the patients stay in hospice and the clinical condition deteriorates, the higher the risk of developing a pressure ulcer.

Use of home negative pressure wound therapy in peripheral artery disease and diabetic limb salvage

Abstract

Use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetic limb salvage (DLS) improves wound healing by providing moist wound conditions, reducing exudate, controlling wound‐bed infection, and stimulating granulation. NPWT duration may take several weeks, and home‐based NPWT allows patient to recover in the community while minimising risks of prolonged hospitalisation. The aim of this study is to review the use and outcomes of home NPWT in PAD and DLS. The methodology is the retrospective review of patients who were discharged with home NPWT after in‐patient PAD revascularisation and DLS debridement or minor amputations. The results included a total of 118 patients who received home NPWT between January 2017 and December 2017. The mean age was 62.8 years with 66% male and 34% female patients. The study population comprised 25% smokers, 98% patients with diabetics, 35% with ischemic heart disease, and 21% with end‐stage renal failure (ESRF). Of which, 56% of patients required revascularisation while 31% of patients underwent foot debridement, 48% underwent toe amputations, and 20% underwent forefoot amputations. All patients received in‐patient NPWT for a week before being discharged on home NPWT for 4 weeks. Then, 62% received targeted antibiotics regime while 36% received empirical antibiotics on discharge; 60% of patients achieved wound healing on home NPWT, with 9% requiring split‐thickness skin graft; 4% required further surgical debridement, 16% required further minor amputation while 20% required major amputation. 9% required further home NPWT extension, with a mean length of 7.1 ± 4.7 weeks' extension. Overall survival of 1 year was 89%. Risk factors that predict the failure of home NPWT includes subjects with a background of ESRF and wet gangrene on presentation. Home NPWT is a useful adjunct in the management of PAD and DLS foot wounds.

Preparation of placental tissue transplants and their application in skin wound healing and chosen skin bullous diseases ‐ Stevens‐Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis treatment

Abstract

Unique properties of amniotic membrane make it a promising source for tissue engineering and a clinically useful alternative for patients suffering from chronic wounds including, for example, ulcers, burns, ocular surface damages and wounds occurring in the course of bullous diseases like stevens‐johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Its use has many advantages over standard wound care, as it contains pluripotent cells, nutrients, anti‐fibrotic and anti‐inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Placental tissues can be prepared as a medical component, an advanced therapy medicinal product or a tissue graft. In addition to basic preparation procedures such as washing, rinsing, cutting, drying and sterilisation, there are many optional steps such as perforation, crosslinking and decellularisation. Finally, transplants should be properly stored—in cryopreserved or dehydrated form. In recent years, many studies including basic science and clinical trials have proven the potential to expand the use of amniotic membrane and amnion‐derived cells to the fields of orthopaedics, dentistry, surgery, urology, vascular tissue engineering and even oncology. In this review, we discuss the role of placental tissues in skin wound healing and in the treatment of various diseases, with particular emphasis on bullous diseases. We also describe some patented procedures for placental tissue grafts preparation.

Pressure injury data in Australian acute care settings: A comparison of three data sets

Abstract

Hospital‐acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) represent a serious clinical and economic problem. The cost of treating HAPIs in Australian public hospitals was recently reported at AUS$983 million per annum. There are three main sources of data for documenting pressure injury (PI) occurrence in Australian hospitals: incident reporting, medical record coded data, and real‐time surveys of pressure injury. PI data reported at hospital level and to external agencies using these three different sources are variable. This reporting issue leads to inaccurate data interpretation and hinders improvement in accuracy of PI identification and PI prevention. This study involved a comparison of the three different data sources in selected Australian hospitals, to improve the accuracy and comparability of data. Findings from this study provide benchmark areas for improvement in PI documenting and reporting. Better understanding the agreement between the three data sets could lead to a more efficient and effective sharing of data sources.

Nurses' Use and Ways of Understanding Web-Based National Guidelines for Child Healthcare

imageThe national Rikshandboken for child healthcare is both a Web-based guideline containing knowledge and methodological guidance and a national child healthcare program in the process of being implemented in Sweden. The aim of this study was to examine child healthcare nurses' use and ways of understanding the national Web-based Rikshandboken. A mixed-methods study with sequential explanatory design in two phases was used; a Web survey with descriptive statistics was followed with telephone interviews with phenomenographic analysis. The study showed variations in use and contributed deeper knowledge of child healthcare nurses' ways of understanding the unit Rikshandboken whose varied parts interact with each other. To be reliable, useful, and relevant for nurses in their specific contexts, Rikshandboken must be kept updated and involve the end users in the development process. With access to technical devices and optimal use of the possibilities of information and communication technology, Rikshandboken can be a resource for continuing learning, a tool in everyday work, and a possible determinant to equality in child healthcare. The study contributes valuable knowledge for the design of Web-based national guidelines for healthcare, making them useful and relevant for the end users.

Factors Affecting Patient Prioritization Decisions at Admission to Home Healthcare: A Predictive Study to Develop a Risk Screening Tool

imageThere is a lack of evidence on how to identify high-risk patients admitted to home healthcare. This study aimed (1) to identify which disease characteristics, medications, patient needs, social support characteristics, and other factors are associated with patient priority for the first home health nursing visit; and (2) to construct and validate a predictive model of patient priority for the first home health nursing visit. This was a predictive study of home health visit priority decisions made by 20 nurses for 519 older adults. The study found that nurses were more likely to prioritize patients who had wounds (odds ratio = 1.88), comorbid condition of depression (odds ratio = 1.73), limitation in current toileting status (odds ratio = 2.02), higher number of medications (increase in odds ratio for each medication = 1.04), and comorbid conditions (increase in odds ratio for each condition = 1.04). This study developed one of the first clinical decision support tools for home healthcare called “PREVENT”. (PRiority home health Visit Tool). Further work is needed to increase the specificity and generalizability of the tool and to test its effects on patient outcomes.

Promoting Emotional Well-being in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents With Virtual Reality: Usability and Acceptability of a Randomized Controlled Trial

imageThe aim of this study was to describe and compare small-sized preliminary data on the usability and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial. This study compares a one-to-one cognitive-behavioral treatment and a virtual reality treatment for children and adolescents hospitalized for long-term physical conditions. The final sample was composed of 19 children and adolescents with chronic illness who were hospitalized. The sample was randomly allocated to two intervention groups: cognitive-behavioral usual treatment and virtual reality–based treatment. Participants in the virtual reality group demonstrated higher perceived efficacy scores for every treatment component than for traditional treatment. Statistically significant differences were found for the total usability and acceptability scores. Participants in the virtual reality group show high acceptability of all the virtual environments. The components and environments of virtual reality were well accepted. The virtual reality program received high scores in immersion, feasibility of use, and sense of reality. Technology-based treatments, that is, virtual reality, can provide motivational benefits in relation to traditional treatments.

Steps to Develop a Mobile App for Pain Assessment of Cancer Patients: A Usability Study

imageHealth-related mobile apps have the potential to allow patients and providers to proactively and responsibly manage pain together. However, there is a gap between the science of pain and current mobile apps. To develop a prototype science-based pain assessment mobile app (PainSmart) for Android smartphones, pain assessment tasks were extracted from a clinical guideline. These tasks were then converted to activity diagrams and became the logic of PainSmart. Five participants diagnosed with breast cancer evaluated usability of PainSmart with the System Usability Scale. Patient experience was recorded using Camtasia Studio Version 9 software. The five participants were able to explore the pain app after only 20 minutes of training. Using the System Usability Scale with comments, participant mean usability score was 77.5; above 68 is considered an above average system. A prototype of a pain assessment mobile app for cancer patients demonstrated high usability and will be refined based on participant feedback.

Intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería en la mejora del sueño/descanso de los pacientes hospitalizados

Introducción: los pacientes en el hospital están expuestos a factores clínicos, ambientales y emocionales que contribuyen a la inquietud, miedo, incertidumbre y a reducir y fragmentar el sueño/descanso. Por ello, una intervención y cuidados de enfermería adecuados por parte de los profesionales de la salud, llevando a cabo medidas específicas para atenuar el impacto del ingreso en el hospital, es funda-mental para mejorar el bienestar y la rápida recuperación de los pacientes. Objetivo: revisar cuales son las intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería más eficaces para mejorar el sueño/descanso. Material y métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en las princi-pales bases de datos primarias y secundarias como Google Académico®, Pubmed®, CINAHL®, Cochrane® y CUIDEN® de los últimos 10 años, fundamentalmente para conseguir una revisión reciente de la literatura, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional en relación al tema de estudio. El presente trabajo está enfocado como una revisión narrativa descriptiva crítica para aportar datos basados en la evi-dencia. Resultados: se obtuvo un gran número de artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron los que fueron más relevantes según el obje-tivo de esta revisión narrativa crítica. Discusión y conclusiones: la literatura aporta que unas intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería específicos acordes a la actividad rutinaria en el hospital favorece el sueño/descanso de los pacientes teniendo incidencia en su recupe-ración.

Cannabinoid receptor expression in non-small cell lung cancer. Effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol inhibiting cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition <i>in vitro</i>

by Lara Milian, Manuel Mata, Javier Alcacer, María Oliver, María Sancho-Tello, José Javier Martín de Llano, Carlos Camps, José Galbis, Julian Carretero, Carmen Carda

Background/Objective

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance to antitumor agents by mechanisms that involve the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This necessitates the development of new complementary drugs, e.g., cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) agonists including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The combined use of THC and CBD confers greater benefits, as CBD enhances the effects of THC and reduces its psychotropic activity. We assessed the relationship between the expression levels of CB1 and CB2 to the clinical features of a cohort of patients with NSCLC, and the effect of THC and CBD (individually and in combination) on proliferation, EMT and migration in vitro in A549, H460 and H1792 lung cancer cell lines.

Methods

Expression levels of CB1, CB2, EGFR, CDH1, CDH2 and VIM were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. THC and CBD (10–100 μM), individually or in combination (1:1 ratio), were used for in vitro assays. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation assay. Morphological changes in the cells were visualized by phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Migration was studied by scratch recolonization induced by 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF).

Results

The tumor samples were classified according to the level of expression of CB1, CB2, or both. Patients with high expression levels of CB1, CB2, and CB1/CB2 showed increased survival reaching significance for CB1 and CB1/CB2 (p = 0.035 and 0.025, respectively). Both cannabinoid agonists inhibited the proliferation and expression of EGFR in lung cancer cells, and CBD potentiated the effect of THC. THC and CBD alone or in combination restored the epithelial phenotype, as evidenced by increased expression of CDH1 and reduced expression of CDH2 and VIM, as well as by fluorescence analysis of cellular cytoskeleton. Finally, both cannabinoids reduced the in vitro migration of the three lung cancer cells lines used.

Conclusions

The expression levels of CB1 and CB2 have a potential use as markers of survival in patients with NSCLC. THC and CBD inhibited the proliferation and expression of EGFR in the lung cancer cells studied. Finally, the THC/CBD combination restored the epithelial phenotype in vitro.

Genetic characteristics of Jiaji Duck by whole genome re-sequencing

by Lihong Gu, Feng Wang, Zhemin Lin, Tieshan Xu, Dajie Lin, Manping Xing, Shaoxiong Yang, Zhe Chao, Baoguo Ye, Peng Lin, Chunhui Hui, Lizhi Lu, Shuisheng Hou

Jiaji Duck (JJ) is a Muscovy duck species that possesses many superior characteristics, and it has become an important genetic resource in China. However, to date, its genetic characteristics and genetic relationship with other duck breeds have not been explored yet, which greatly limits the utilization of JJ. In the present study, we investigated the genome sequences of 15 individual ducks representing five different duck populations, including JJ, French Muscovy duck (FF), mallard (YD), hong duck (HD) and Beijing duck (BD). Moreover, we investigated the characteristics of JJ-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and compared the genome sequences of JJ vs. YD and JJ vs. BD using integrated strategies, including mutation detection, selective screening, and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. More than 40 Gb of clean data were obtained for each population (mean coverage of 13.46 Gb per individual). A total number of 22,481,367 SNPs and 4,156,829 small insertion-deletions (Indels) were identified for the five duck populations, which could be used as molecular markers in breeding and utilization of JJ. Moreover, we identified 1,447,932 JJ-specific SNPs, and found that genes covering at least one JJ-specific SNP mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as well as DNA modification. Phylogenetic tree and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the genetic relationship of JJ was closest to FF, while it was farthest to BD. A total of 120 and 111 genes were identified as positive selection genes for JJ vs. BD and JJ vs. YD, respectively. GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed that the positive selection genes for JJ vs. BD ducks mainly involved in pigmentation, muscle contraction and stretch, gland secretion, and immunology, while the positive selection genes obtained from JJ vs. YD ducks mainly involved in embryo development, muscle contraction and stretch, and gland secretion. Taken together, our findings enabled us to better understand the characteristics of JJ and provided a molecular basis for the breeding and hybrid utilization of JJ in the future.

Simple Muscle Architecture Analysis (SMA): An ImageJ macro tool to automate measurements in B-mode ultrasound scans

by Olivier R. Seynnes, Neil J. Cronin

In vivo measurements of muscle architecture (i.e. the spatial arrangement of muscle fascicles) are routinely included in research and clinical settings to monitor muscle structure, function and plasticity. However, in most cases such measurements are performed manually, and more reliable and time-efficient automated methods are either lacking completely, or are inaccessible to those without expertise in image analysis. In this work, we propose an ImageJ script to automate the entire analysis process of muscle architecture in ultrasound images: Simple Muscle Architecture Analysis (SMA). Images are filtered in the spatial and frequency domains with built-in commands and external plugins to highlight aponeuroses and fascicles. Fascicle dominant orientation is then computed in regions of interest using the OrientationJ plugin. Bland-Altman plots of analyses performed manually or with SMA indicate that the automated analysis does not induce any systematic bias and that both methods agree equally through the range of measurements. Our test results illustrate the suitability of SMA to analyse images from superficial muscles acquired with a broad range of ultrasound settings.

Long-term mortality and outcome in hospital survivors of septic shock, sepsis, and severe infections: The importance of aftercare

by Tim Rahmel, Stefanie Schmitz, Hartmuth Nowak, Kaspar Schepanek, Lars Bergmann, Peter Halberstadt, Stefan Hörter, Jürgen Peters, Michael Adamzik

Patients with severe infections and especially sepsis have a high in-hospital mortality, but even hospital survivors face long-term sequelae, decreased health-related quality of life, and high risk of death, suggesting a great need for specialized aftercare. However, data regarding a potential benefit of post-discharge rehabilitation in these patients are scarce. In this retrospective matched cohort study the claim data of a large German statutory health care insurer was analyzed. 83,974 hospital survivors having suffered from septic shock, sepsis, and severe infections within the years 2009–2016 were identified using an ICD abstraction strategy closely matched to the current Sepsis-3 definition. Cases were analyzed and compared with their matched pairs to determine their 5-year mortality and the impact of post-discharge rehabilitation. Five years after hospital discharge, mortality of initial hospital survivors were still increased after septic shock (HRadj 2.03, 95%-CI 1.87 to 2.19; Padj 1.73, 95%-CI 1.71 to 1.76; Padj 1.70, 95%-CI 1.65 to 1.74; Padj 0.81, 95%-CI 0.77 to 0.85; Padj 0.81, 95%-CI 0.73 to 0.90; P

Persistent frequent emergency department users with chronic conditions: A population-based cohort study

by Yohann Moanahere Chiu, Alain Vanasse, Josiane Courteau, Maud-Christine Chouinard, Marie-France Dubois, Nicole Dubuc, Nicolas Elazhary, Isabelle Dufour, Catherine Hudon

Background

Frequent emergency department users are patients cumulating at least four visits per year. Few studies have focused on persistent frequent users, who maintain their frequent user status for multiple consecutive years. This study targets an adult population with chronic conditions, and its aims are: 1) to estimate the prevalence of persistent frequent ED use; 2) to identify factors associated with persistent frequent ED use (frequent use for three consecutive years) and compare their importance with those associated with occasional frequent ED use (frequent use during the year following the index date); and 3) to compare characteristics of “persistent frequent users” to “occasional frequent users” and to “users other than persistent frequent users”.

Methods

This is a retrospective cohort study using Quebec administrative databases. All adult patients who visited the emergency department in 2012, diagnosed with chronic conditions, and living in non-remote areas were included. Patients who died in the three years following their index date were excluded. The main outcome was persistent frequent use (≥4 visits per year during three consecutive years). Potential predictors included sociodemographic characteristics, physical and mental comorbidities, and prior healthcare utilization. Odds ratios were computed using multivariable logistic regression.

Results

Out of 297,182 patients who visited ED at least once in 2012, 3,357 (1.10%) were persistent frequent users. Their main characteristics included poor socioeconomic status, mental and physical comorbidity, and substance abuse. Those characteristics were also present for occasional frequent users, although with higher percentages for the persistent user group. The number of previous visits to the emergency department was the most important factor in the regression model. The occasional frequent users’ attrition rate was higher between the first and second year of follow-up than between the second and third year.

Conclusions

Persistent frequent users are a subpopulation of frequent users with whom they share characteristics, such as physical and mental comorbidities, though the former are poorer and younger. More research is needed in order to better understand what factors can contribute to persistent frequent use.

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