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Incorporating value-based healthcare projects in residency training: a mixed-methods study on the impact of participation on understanding and competency development

Por: Vaassen · S. · Essers · B. A. B. · Stammen · L. A. · Walsh · K. · Kerssens · M. · Evers · S. M. A. A. · Heyligers · I. · Stassen · L. P. S. · van Mook · W. N. K. A. · Noben · C. Y. G.
Objectives

Stimulating the active participation of residents in projects with societally relevant healthcare themes, such as value-based healthcare (VBHC), can be a strategy to enhance competency development. Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies such as leader and scholar are important skills for all doctors. In this study, we hypothesise that when residents conduct a VBHC project, CanMEDS competencies are developed. There is the added value of gaining knowledge about VBHC.

Design

An explorative mixed-methods study assessing residents’ self-perceived learning effects of conducting VBHC projects according to three main components: (1) CanMEDS competency development, (2) recognition of VBHC dilemmas in clinical practice, and (3) potential facilitators for and barriers to implementing a VBHC project. We triangulated data resulting from qualitative analyses of: (a) text-based summaries of VBHC projects by residents and (b) semistructured interviews with residents who conducted these projects.

Setting

Academic and non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands.

Participants

Out of 63 text-based summaries from residents, 56 were selected; and out of 19 eligible residents, 11 were selected for semistructured interviews and were included in the final analysis.

Results

Regarding CanMEDS competency development, the competencies ‘leader’, ‘communicator’ and ‘collaborator’ scored the highest. Opportunities to recognise VBHC dilemmas in practice were mainly stimulated by analysing healthcare practices from different perspectives, and by learning how to define costs and relate them to outcomes. Finally, implementation of VBHC projects is facilitated by a thorough investigation of a VBHC dilemma combined with an in-depth stakeholder analysis.

Conclusion

In medical residency training programmes, competency development through active participation in projects with societally relevant healthcare themes—such as VBHC—was found to be a promising strategy. From a resident’s perspective, combining a thorough investigation of the VBHC dilemma with an in-depth stakeholder analysis is key to the successful implementation of a VBHC project.

Association between maternal adversity, DNA methylation, and cardiovascular health of offspring: a longitudinal analysis of the ALSPAC cohort study

Por: Hyde · N. K. · Dowty · J. G. · Scovelle · A. · Armstrong · G. · Sutherland · G. · Olive · L. · Lycett · K. · ONeil · A.
Objectives

Maternal adversity during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with some health outcomes in the offspring. This study investigated the association of maternal adversity during pregnancy and DNA methylation with offspring cardiovascular (CV) health.

Design

Longitudinal observational cohort study

Setting

All pregnant residents in county Avon (~0.9 million), UK, were eligible to participate if their estimated delivery date was between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992.

Participants

Mother–offspring pairs enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort at seven (n=7431) and 17 years of age (n=3143).

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Offspring CV health primary measures were heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and secondary measures were pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima–media thickness.

Results

Overall, there was no association between maternal adversity scores (number or perceived impact) and primary CV measures (Perceived impact; HR: 0.999-fold change 95% CI 0.998 to 1.001; systolic BP (SBP): 1.000-fold change 95% CI 0.999 to 1.001; diastolic BP: 1.000-fold change 95% CI 0.999 to 1.002). Some small offspring sex effects were observed and there was also a small association between methylation of some CpG sites and offspring BP measures.

Conclusions

We found little evidence to support the overall association of maternal adversity during pregnancy and DNA methylation with offspring CV measures. Offspring sex-specific and age-specific associations require further investigation.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gastrointestinal infection trends in England, February-July 2020

Por: Love · N. K. · Elliot · A. J. · Chalmers · R. M. · Douglas · A. · Gharbia · S. · McCormick · J. · Hughes · H. · Morbey · R. · Oliver · I. · Vivancos · R. · Smith · G.
Objective

To establish the impact of the first 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak response on gastrointestinal (GI) infection trends in England.

Design

Retrospective ecological study using routinely collected national and regional surveillance data from seven UK Health Security Agency coordinated laboratory, outbreak and syndromic surveillance systems using key dates of UK governmental policy change to assign phases for comparison between 2020 and historic data.

Results

Decreases in GI illness activity were observed across all surveillance indicators as COVID-19 cases began to peak. Compared with the 5-year average (2015–2019), during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 response, there was a 52% decrease in GI outbreaks reported (1544 vs 3208 (95% CI 2938 to 3478)) and a 34% decrease in laboratory confirmed cases (27 859 vs 42 495 (95% CI 40 068 to 44 922)). GI indicators began to rise during the first lockdown and lockdown easing, although all remained substantially lower than historic figures. Reductions in laboratory confirmed cases were observed across all age groups and both sexes, with geographical heterogeneity observed in diagnosis trends. Health seeking behaviour changed substantially, with attendances decreasing prior to lockdown across all indicators.

Conclusions

There has been a marked change in trends of GI infections in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The drivers of this change are likely to be multifactorial; while changes in health seeking behaviour, pressure on diagnostic services and surveillance system ascertainment have undoubtably played a role, there has likely been a true decrease in the incidence for some pathogens resulting from the control measures and restrictions implemented. This suggests that if some of these changes in behaviour such as improved hand hygiene were maintained, then we could potentially see sustained reductions in the burden of GI illness.

Prevalence and risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease in Nepal: evidence from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study

Por: Poudyal · A. · Karki · K. B. · Shrestha · N. · Aryal · K. K. · Mahato · N. K. · Bista · B. · Ghimire · L. · KC · D. · Gyanwali · P. · Jha · A. K. · Garcia-Larsen · V. · Kuch · U. · Groneberg · D. A. · Sharma · S. K. · Dhimal · M.
Objective

This study aimed to determine population-based prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated factors in Nepal.

Study design

The study was a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study.

Setting and participants

Cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of 12 109 Nepalese adult from 2016 to 2018 on selected chronic non-communicable diseases was examined. Multistage cluster sampling with a mix of probability proportionate to size and systematic random sampling was used for the selection of individuals aged 20 years and above.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Primary outcome in this study was population-based prevalence of CKD in Nepal. A participant was considered to have CKD if the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was greater than or equal to 30 mg/g and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate is less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline and in follow-up using modification of diet in renal disease study equations. The secondary outcome measure was factors associated with CKD in Nepal. The covariate adjusted association of risk factors and CKD was calculated using multivariable binary logistic regression.

Results

The overall prevalence of CKD in Nepal was 6.0% (95% CI 5.5 to 6.6). Factors independently associated with CKD included older age (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.6), Dalit caste (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), hypertension (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.0), diabetes mellitus (AOR 3.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 4.1), raised total cholesterol (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and increased waist-to-hip ratio (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3).

Conclusion

This nationally representative study shows that the prevalence of CKD in the adult population of Nepal is substantial, and it is independently associated with several cardiometabolic traits. These findings warrant longitudinal studies to identify the causes of CKD in Nepal and effective strategies to prevent it.

Development and testing of an opioid tapering self-management intervention for chronic pain: I-WOTCH

Por: Sandhu · H. K. · Shaw · J. · Carnes · D. · Furlan · A. D. · Tysall · C. · Adjei · H. · Muthiah · C. · Noyes · J. · Tang · N. K. Y. · Taylor · S. J. · Underwood · M. · Willis · A. · Eldabe · S. · On behalf of the I-WOTCH Team · Alleyne · Abraham · Balasubramanian · Betteley · Booth · Ha
Objectives

To describe the design, development and pilot of a multicomponent intervention aimed at supporting withdrawal of opioids for people with chronic non-malignant pain for future evaluation in the Improving the Wellbeing of people with Opioid Treated CHronic pain (I-WOTCH) randomised controlled trial.

Design

The I-WOTCH intervention draws on previous literature and collaboration with stakeholders (patient and public involvement). Intervention mapping and development activities of Behaviour Change Taxonomy are described.

Setting

The intervention development was conducted by a multidisciplinary team with clinical, academic and service user perspectives. The team had expertise in the development and testing of complex health behaviour interventions, opioid tapering and pain management in primary and secondary care, I.T programming, and software development—to develop an opioid tapering App.

Participants

The I-WOTCH trial participants are adults (18 years and over) with chronic non-malignant pain using strong opioids for at least 3 months and on most days in the preceding month.

Outcomes

A multicomponent self-management support package to help people using opioids for chronic non-malignant pain reduce opioid use.

Interventions and results

Receiving information on the impact of long-term opioid use, and potential adverse effects were highlighted as important facilitators in making the decision to reduce opioids. Case studies of those who have successfully stopped taking opioids were also favoured as a facilitator to reduce opioid use. Barriers included the need for a ‘trade-off to fill the deficit of the effect of the drug’. The final I-WOTCH intervention consists of an 8–10 week programme incorporating: education; problem-solving; motivation; group and one to one tailored planning; reflection and monitoring. A detailed facilitator manual was developed to promote consistent delivery of the intervention across the UK.

Conclusions

We describe the development of an opioid reduction intervention package suitable for testing in the I-WOTCH randomised controlled trial.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN49470934.

HIV viral load non-suppression and associated factors among pregnant and postpartum women in rural northeastern South Africa: a cross-sectional survey

Por: Ngandu · N. K. · Lombard · C. J. · Mbira · T. E. · Puren · A. · Waitt · C. · Prendergast · A. J. · Tylleskär · T. · Van de Perre · P. · Goga · A. E.
Objectives

We aimed to measure the prevalence of maternal HIV viral load (VL) non-suppression and assess associated factors, to evaluate progress towards United Nations-AIDS (UNAIDS) targets.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Setting

The eight largest community health centres of Ehlanzeni, a rural district in northeast South Africa.

Participants

Pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV) in their third trimester and postpartum WLHIV and their biological infants, recruited equally across all stages of the first 24 months post partum, were included. A sample of 612 mothers participated from a target of 1000.

Primary outcome measures

The primary outcome was maternal VL (mVL) non-suppression (defined here as mVL >1000 copies/mL). We collected information on antiretroviral use, healthcare visits and sociodemographics through interviews and measured plasma mVL. Descriptive statistics, 2 tests and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted.

Results

All mothers (median age: 30 years) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 24.9% were on ART ≤12 months. The prevalence of mVL non-suppression was 14.7% (95% CI: 11.3% to 19.0%), while 13.8% had low-level viraemia (50–1000 copies/mL). Most (68.9%) women had initiated breast feeding and 37.6% were currently breast feeding their infants. Being younger than 25 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 6.4)), on first-line ART (AOR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1 to 4.6)) and married/cohabiting (AOR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0 to 3.7)) were significantly associated with increased odds of mVL non-suppression.

Conclusions

The prevalence of mVL ≤1000 copies/mL of 85.3% among pregnant and postpartum WLHIV and attending public healthcare centres in this rural district is below the 2020 90–90–90 and 2030 95–95–95 UNAIDS targets. Given that low-level viraemia may also increase the risk of vertical HIV transmission, we recommend strengthened implementation of the new guidelines which include better ART options, improved ART regimen switching and mVL monitoring schedules, and intensified psychosocial support for younger women, while exploring district-level complementary interventions, to sustain VLs below 50 copies/mL among all women.

UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national datasets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after knee replacement?

Por: Smith · L. K. · Garriga · C. · Kingsbury · S. R. · Pinedo-Villanueva · R. · Delmestri · A. · Arden · N. K. · Stone · M. · Conaghan · P. G. · Judge · A.
Objective

To identify patients at risk of mid-late term revision of knee replacement (KR) to inform targeted follow-up.

Design

Analysis of linked national datasets from primary and secondary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD GOLD), National Joint Registry (NJR), English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs)).

Participants

Primary elective KRs aged ≥18 years.

Event of interest

Revision surgery ≥5 years (mid–late term) postprimary KR.

Statistical methods

Cox regression modelling to ascertain risk factors of mid–late term revision. HRs and 95% CIs assessed association of sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, medication, surgical variables and PROMs with mid–late term revision.

Results

NJR-HES-PROMs data were available from 2008 to 2011 on 188 509 KR. CPRD GOLD-HES data covered 1995–2011 on 17 378 KR. Patients had minimum 5 years postprimary surgery to end 2016. Age and gender distribution were similar across datasets; mean age 70 years, 57% female. In NJR, there were 8607 (4.6%) revisions, median time-to-revision postprimary surgery 1.8 years (range 0–8.8), with 1055 (0.6%) mid–late term revisions; in CPRD GOLD, 877 (5.1%) revisions, median time-to-revision 4.2 years (range 0.02–18.3), with 352 (2.0%) mid–late term revisions.

Reduced risk of revision after 5 years was associated with older age (HR: 0.95; 95% CI 0.95 to 0.96), obesity (0.70; 0.56 to 0.88), living in deprived areas (0.71; 0.58 to 0.87), non-white ethnicity (0.58; 0.43 to 0.78), better preoperative pain and functional limitation (0.42; 0.33 to 0.53), better 6-month postoperative pain and function (0.33; 0.26 to 0.41) or moderate anxiety/depression (0.73; 0.63 to 0.83) at primary surgery.

Increased risk was associated with male gender (1.32; 1.04 to 1.67); when anticonvulsants (gabapentin and pregabalin) (1.58; 1.01 to 2.47) or opioids (1.36; 1.08 to 1.71) were required prior to primary surgery.

No implant factors were identified.

Conclusion

The risk of mid–late term KR revision is very low. Increased risk of revision is associated with patient case-mix factors, and there is evidence of sociodemographic inequality.

UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national data sets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after hip replacement? Retrospective cohort study

Por: Smith · L. K. · Garriga · C. · Kingsbury · S. R. · Pinedo-Villanueva · R. · Delmestri · A. · Arden · N. K. · Stone · M. · Conaghan · P. G. · Judge · A.
Objective

To identify patients at risk of mid-late term revision of hip replacement to inform targeted follow-up.

Design

Analysis of linked national data sets from primary and secondary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD); National Joint Registry (NJR); English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES); Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs)).

Participants

Primary elective total hip replacement (THR) aged≥18.

Event of interest

Revision surgery≥5 years (mid-late term) after primary THR.

Statistical methods

Cox regression modelling to ascertain risk factors of mid-late term revision. HR and 95% CI assessed association of sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, medication, surgical variables and PROMs with mid-late term revision.

Results

NJR-HES-PROMs data were available from 2008 to 2011 on 142 275 THR; mean age 70.0 years and 61.9% female. CPRD GOLD-HES data covered 1995–2011 on 17 047 THR; mean age 68.4 years, 61.8% female. Patients had minimum 5 years postprimary surgery to end 2016. In NJR-HES-PROMS data, there were 3582 (2.5%) revisions, median time-to-revision after primary surgery 1.9 years (range 0.01–8.7), with 598 (0.4%) mid-late term revisions; in CPRD GOLD, 982 (5.8%) revisions, median time-to-revision 5.3 years (range 0–20), with 520 (3.1%) mid-late term revisions.

Reduced risk of mid-late term revision was associated with older age at primary surgery (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.96); better 6-month postoperative pain/function scores (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.46); use of ceramic-on-ceramic (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.95) or ceramic-on-polyethylene (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.00) bearing surfaces.

Increased risk of mid-late term revision was associated with the use of antidepressants (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.59), glucocorticoid injections (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.67) and femoral head size≥44 mm (HR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.09 to 6.02)

No association of gender, obesity or Index of Multiple Deprivation was observed.

Conclusion

The risk of mid-late term THR is associated with age at primary surgery, 6-month postoperative pain and function and implant factors. Further work is needed to explore the associations with prescription medications observed in our data.

Effect of a brief motivational interview and text message intervention targeting tobacco smoking, alcohol use and medication adherence to improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes in adult patients with tuberculosis: a multicentre, randomised controlled tri

Por: Louwagie · G. · Kanaan · M. · Morojele · N. K. · Van Zyl · A. · Moriarty · A. S. · Li · J. · Siddiqi · K. · Turner · A. · Mdege · N. D. · Omole · O. B. · Tumbo · J. · Bachmann · M. · Parrott · S. · Ayo-Yusuf · O. A.
Objective

To investigate the effectiveness of a complex behavioural intervention, ProLife, on tuberculosis (TB) treatment success, medication adherence, alcohol use and tobacco smoking.

Design

Multicentre, individual, randomised controlled trial where participants were assigned (1:1) to the ProLife intervention or usual care.

Setting

27 primary care clinics in South Africa.

Participants

574 adults starting treatment for drug-sensitive pulmonary TB who smoked tobacco or reported harmful/hazardous alcohol use.

Interventions

The intervention, delivered by lay health workers (LHWs), consisted of three brief motivational interviewing (MI) sessions, augmented with short message service (SMS) messages, targeting medication adherence, alcohol use and tobacco smoking.

Outcome measures

The primary outcome was successful versus unsuccessful TB treatment at 6–9 months, from TB records. Secondary outcomes were biochemically confirmed sustained smoking cessation, reduction in the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score, improved TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and ART initiation, each measured at 3 and 6 months by questionnaires; and cure rates in patients who had bacteriology-confirmed TB at baseline, from TB records.

Results

Between 15 November 2018 and 31 August 2019, 574 participants were randomised to receive either the intervention (n=283) or usual care (n=291). TB treatment success rates did not differ significantly between intervention (67.8%) and control (70.1%; OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.64% to 1.27%). There was no evidence of an effect at 3 and 6 months, respectively, on continuous smoking abstinence (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.14; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.63), TB medication adherence (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.87; OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.07), taking ART (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.65; OR 2.05, 95% CI 0.80 to 5.27) or AUDIT scores (mean score difference 0.55, 95% CI –1.01 to 2.11; –0.04, 95% CI –2.0 to 1.91) and adjusting for baseline values. Cure rates were not significantly higher (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.63).

Conclusions

Simultaneous targeting of multiple health risk behaviours with MI and SMS using LHWs may not be an effective approach to improve TB outcomes.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN62728852.

Protocol for a prospective open-label clinical trial to investigate the utility of concurrent TBS/fNIRS for antidepressant treatment optimisation

Por: Kan · R. L. D. · Mak · A. D. P. · Chan · S. K. W. · Zhang · B. B. B. · Fong · K. N. K. · Kranz · G. S.
Introduction

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with theta burst stimulation (i.e. TBS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is an innovative treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, fewer than 50% of patients show sufficient response to this treatment; markers for response prediction are urgently needed. Research shows considerable individual variability in the brain responses to rTMS. However, whether differences in individual DLPFC modulation by rTMS can be used as a predictive marker for treatment response remains to be investigated. Here, we present a research programme that will exploit the combination of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with brain stimulation. Concurrent TBS/fNIRS will allow us to systematically investigate TBS-induced modulation of blood oxygenation as a proxy for induced brain activity changes. The findings from this study will (1) elucidate the immediate effects of excitatory and inhibitory TBS on prefrontal activity in TBS treatment-naïve patients with MDD and (2) validate the potential utility of TBS-induced brain modulation at baseline for the prediction of antidepressant response to 4 weeks of daily TBS treatment.

Methods and analysis

Open-label, parallel-group experiment consisting of two parts. In part 1, 70 patients and 37 healthy controls will be subjected to concurrent TBS/fNIRS. Intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) will be applied on the left and right DLPFC, respectively. fNIRS data will be acquired before, during and several minutes after stimulation. In part 2, patients who participated in part 1 will receive a 4 week iTBS treatment of the left DLPFC, performed daily for 5 days per week. Psychometric evaluation will be performed periodically and at 1 month treatment follow-up. Statistical analysis will include a conventional, as well as a machine learning approach.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board. Findings will be disseminated through scientific journals, conferences and university courses.

Trial registration number

NCT04526002.

Defining CD4 T helper and T regulatory cell endotypes of progressive and remitting pulmonary sarcoidosis (BRITE): protocol for a US-based, multicentre, longitudinal observational bronchoscopy study

Por: Koth · L. L. · Harmacek · L. D. · White · E. K. · Arger · N. K. · Powers · L. · Werner · B. R. · Magallon · R. E. · Grewal · P. · Barkes · B. Q. · Li · L. · Gillespie · M. · Collins · S. E. · Cardenas · J. · Chen · E. S. · Maier · L. A. · Leach · S. M. · OConnor · B. P. · Hamzeh · N. Y.
Introduction

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.

Methods and analysis

The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.

Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in current and former recreational and elite cricketers: a cross-sectional study

Por: Panagodage-Perera · N. K. · Bullock · G. S. · Arden · N. K. · Filbay · S. R.
Objective

Former sports participants do not necessarily maintain high levels of physical activity (PA) across their lifespan. Considering physical inactivity in former athletes is associated with an increased susceptibility to inactivity-related chronic diseases, research into PA behaviours in cricketers of all playing-standards is needed. The objective was to (1) describe PA and sedentary behaviour in current and former cricketers, and (2) determine the odds of current, former, recreational and elite cricketers meeting PA guidelines and health-enhancing PA (HEPA) compared with the general population.

Study design

Cross-sectional survey.

Setting

Questionnaire response, UK.

Participants

2267 current and former cricketers (age: 52±15 years, male: 97%, current: 59%, recreational: 45%) participated. Cricketers were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (aged ≥18 years; played ≥1 year of cricket).

Primary and secondary outcomes

Age-matched and sex-matched data from Health Survey for England 2015 (n=3201) was used as the general population-based sample. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short-Form assessed PA. Logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, education and ethnicity were used to meet the second aim.

Results

90% of current and 82% of former cricketers met UK PA guidelines. Current (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.49)) and elite (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.78) cricketers had greater odds of meeting UK PA guidelines, and elite cricketers had greater odds of HEPA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42), compared with the general population. Former cricketers had reduced odds (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.99) of meeting the UK PA guidelines compared with the general population.

Conclusions

Elite cricketers had a greater odds of meeting the PA guidelines and HEPA, compared with the general population. Former cricketers demonstrated reduced odds of meeting the PA guidelines compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to transition cricketers to an active lifestyle after retirement, since former cricketers demonstrated reduced odds of meeting the PA guidelines compared with the general population.

Study protocol for yoga-based lifestyle intervention for healthy ageing phenotype in the older adults (yHAP): a two-armed, waitlist randomised controlled trial with multiple primary outcomes

Por: Majumdar · V. · Snigdha · A. · Manjunath · N. K. · Nagarathna · R. · Mavathur · R. · Singh · A. · S R · K. · H R · N.
Introduction

The conceptualisation of healthy ageing phenotype (HAP) and the availability of a tentative panel for HAP biomarkers raise the need to test the efficacy of potential interventions to promote health in older adults. This study protocol reports the methodology for a 24-week programme to explore the holistic influence of the yoga-based intervention on the (bio)markers of HAP.

Methods and analysis

The study is a two-armed, randomised waitlist controlled trial with blinded outcome assessors and multiple primary outcomes. We aim to recruit 250 subjects, aged 60–80 years from the residential communities and old age clubs in Bangalore city, India, who will undergo randomisation into intervention or control arms (1:1). The intervention will include a yoga-based programme tailored for the older adults, 1 hour per day for 6 days a week, spread for 24 weeks. Data would be collected at the baseline and post-intervention, the 24th week. The multiple primary outcomes of the study are the (bio)markers of HAP: glycated haemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s for physiological and metabolic health; Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Tests A and B for cognition; hand grip strength and gait speed for physical capability; loneliness for social well-being and WHO Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form for quality of life. The secondary outcomes include inflammatory markers, tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II, C reactive protein, interleukin 6 and serum Klotho levels. Analyses will be by intention-to-treat and the holistic impact of yoga on HAP will be assessed using global statistical test.

Ethics and dissemination

The study is approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana University, Bangalore (ID: RES/IEC-SVYASA/143/2019). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant prior to inclusion. Results will be available through research articles and conferences.

Trial registration number

CTRI/2021/02/031373.

Impact of bed height on the biomechanics of healthcare professionals during chest compressions on the neonate: a descriptive pilot study

Por: Parent-Nichols · J. · Perez · J. · Witherell · B. · McWilliam · P. · Halamek · L. P. · Kent · N. · Varnum · W. · Yamada · N. K.
Objectives

The biomechanics of the healthcare professionals (HCPs) performing the life-saving intervention of chest compressions in the neonatal population is poorly understood. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the variations in body position at a self-selected and a predetermined bed height during neonatal chest compressions. Measures of joint angles, time to postural sway and number of postural adjustments were chosen as indices for the stability of the HCP’s position.

Setting

Data were collected at a simulation-based research centre in which the patient care environment was replicated.

Participants

HCPs with varying roles working in the neonatal intensive care unit and holding a current Neonatal Resuscitation Program Provider certification were recruited for this study.

Interventions

Fifteen HCPs performed two trials of chest compressions, each lasting 2 min, at a predetermined bed height and a self-selected bed height. Trials were video recorded, capturing upper and lower body movements. Videos were analysed for time to postural sway and number of postural adjustments. Joint angles were measured at the start and end of each trial.

Results

A statistically significant difference was found between the two bed height conditions for number of postural adjustments (p=0.02). While not statistically significant, time postural sway was increased in the choice bed height condition (85 s) compared with the predetermined bed height (45 s). After 30 s of chest compressions, mean shoulder and knee angles were smaller for choice bed height (p=0.03, 95% CI Lower=–12.14, Upper=–0.68 and p=0.05, 95% CI Lower=3.43, Upper=0.01, respectively). After 1 min and 45 s of chest compressions, mean wrist angles were smaller in the choice bed height condition (p=0.01, 95% CI Lower=–9.20, Upper=–1.22), stride length decreased between the 30 s and 1 min 45 s marks of the chest compressions in the predetermined height condition (p=0.02).

SYMptom monitoring with Patient-Reported Outcomes using a web application among patients with Lung cancer in the Netherlands (SYMPRO-Lung): study protocol for a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial

Por: Billingy · N. E. · Tromp · V. N. M. F. · Veldhuijzen · E. · Belderbos · J. · Aaronson · N. K. · Feldman · E. · Hoek · R. J. A. · Bogaard · H.-J. · Onwuteaka-Philipsen · B. D. · van de Poll-Franse · L. · Hugtenburg · J. G. · van den Hurk · C. J. G. · Becker-Commissaris · A. · Walr
Introduction

Lung cancer and its treatment cause a wide range of symptoms impacting the patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The use of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) to monitor symptoms during and after cancer treatment has been shown not only to improve symptom management but also to improve HRQoL and overall survival (OS). Collectively, these results favour implementation of PRO-symptom monitoring in daily clinical care. However, these promising outcomes have been obtained under trial conditions in which patients were selected based on stringent inclusion criteria, and in countries with a dissimilar healthcare system than in the Netherlands.

The primary aim of the SYMptom monitoring with Patient-Reported Outcomes using a web application among patients with Lung cancer in the Netherlands (SYMPRO-Lung) study is to evaluate the effect of PRO-symptom monitoring during and after lung cancer treatment on HRQoL in daily clinical practice. Secondary objectives include assessing the effect of PRO-symptom monitoring on progression-free survival, OS, the incidence and grade of PRO symptoms, medication adherence, implementation fidelity and cost-effectiveness.

Methods and analysis

The SYMPRO-Lung study is a prospective, multicentre trial with a stepped wedge cluster randomised design. Study participants (n=292 intervention, n=292 controls) include patients with lung cancer (stages I–IV) starting treatment with surgery, systemic treatment, targeted treatment and/or radiotherapy.

Every participating centre will consecutively switch from the control period to the intervention period, in which patients report their symptoms weekly via an online tool. In the intervention group, we evaluate two alert approaches: the active and reactive approach. If the symptoms exceed a predefined threshold, an alert is sent to the healthcare provider (active approach) or to the patient (reactive approach). Both the control and intervention group complete HRQoL questionnaires at 4 time points: at baseline, 15 weeks, 6 months and 1-year post treatment). Differences in HRQoL between the groups will be compared using linear mixed modelling analyses, accounting for within-centre clustering, potential time effects and confounding.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board and the Medical Ethics Committee of the Amsterdam UMC (under number NL 68440.029.18) and the institutional review boards of the participating study sites. The dissemination of the results will be conducted through publication in peer-reviewed journals and through scientific conferences.

Trial registration number

Trial register identifier: Netherlands Trial register Trial NL7897. Date of registration: 24 July 2019. https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/7897.

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