FreshRSS

🔒
❌ Acerca de FreshRSS
Hay nuevos artículos disponibles. Pincha para refrescar la página.
AnteayerTus fuentes RSS

The thriving of older people assessment scale: Psychometric evaluation and short‐form development

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the psychometric properties and performance of the 32‐item Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale (TOPAS) and to explore reduction into a short‐form.

Background

The 32‐item TOPAS has been used in studies of place‐related well‐being as a positive measure in long‐term care to assess nursing home resident thriving; however, item redundancy has not previously been explored.

Design

Cross‐sectional study.

Method

Staff members completed the 32‐item TOPAS as proxy raters for a random sample of Swedish nursing home residents (N = 4,831) between November 2013 ‐ September 2014. Reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and item response theory‐based analysis were undertaken. Items were systematically identified for reduction using statistical and theoretical analysis. Correlation testing, means comparison and model fit evaluation confirmed scale equivalence.

Results

Psychometric properties of the 32‐item TOPAS were satisfactory and several items were identified for scale reduction. The proposed short‐form TOPAS exhibited a high level of internal consistency (α = 0.90) and strong correlation (r = 0.98) to the original scale, while also retaining diversity among items in terms of factor structure and item difficulties.

Conclusion

The 32‐item and short‐form TOPAS’ indicated sound validity and reliability to measure resident thriving in the nursing home context.

Impact

There is a lack of positive life‐world measures for use in nursing homes. The short‐form TOPAS indicated sound validity and reliability to measure resident thriving, providing a feasible measure with enhanced functionality for use in aged care research, assessments and care planning for health‐promoting purposes in nursing homes.

Nurses’ perceptions of high‐alert medication administration safety: A qualitative descriptive study

Abstract

Aims

The aim of this study was to determine nurses’ perceptions of supports and barriers to high‐alert medication (HAM) administration safety.

Design

A qualitative descriptive design was used.

Methods

Eighteen acute care nurses were interviewed about HAM administration practices. Registered nurses (RNs) working with acutely ill adults in two hospitals participated in one‐on‐one interviews from July–September, 2017. Content analysis was conducted for data analysis.

Results

Three themes contributed to HAM administration safety: Organizational Culture of Safety, Collaboration, and RN Competence and Engagement. Error factors included distractions, workload and acuity. Work arounds bypassing bar code scanning and independent double check procedures were common. Findings highlighted the importance of intra‐ and interprofessional collaboration, nurse engagement and incorporating the patient in HAM safety.

Conclusions

Current HAM safety strategies are not consistently used. An organizational culture that supports collaboration, education on safe HAM practices, pragmatic HAM policies and enhanced technology are recommended to prevent HAM errors.

Impact

Hospitals incorporating these findings could reduce HAM errors. Research on nurse engagement, intra‐ and interprofessional collaboration and inclusion of patients in HAM safety strategies is needed.

The mental health needs and concerns of older people who identify as LGBTQ+: A narrative review of the international evidence

Abstract

Aims

To synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences and perceptions of older people who identify as LGBTQ+ regarding their mental health needs and concerns.

Design

A narrative review and critical appraisal of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies.

Data sources

A systematic search was undertaken across all of the databases including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Sociological Abstracts. International studies published in academic journals in the English language, from January 1995 to January 2019 were appraised. Studies had to involve older people identifying as LGBTQ+ and who had experiences mental health issues.

Review Methods

Fourteen papers were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. A narrative analysis of the papers was used by synthesizing the key findings and organizing them into themes and concepts.

Results

Following analysis of the data, the themes that emerged were: (i) LGBTQ+ identity issues (ii) risk and vulnerability factors, (iii) coping strategies and resilience, (iv) interventions and supports.

Conclusion

This review highlights key mental health‐related issues that need to be taken into account in the creation and provision of appropriate, responsive and inclusive supports and services.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Fuzzy cognitive mapping: an old tool with new uses in nursing research

Abstract

Aims

Describe the implementation and uses of fuzzy cognitive mapping as a constructive method for meeting the unique and rapidly evolving needs of nursing inquiry and practice.

Design

Discussion paper.

Data Sources

Drawing on published scholarship of cognitive mapping from the fields of ecological management, information technology, economics, organizational behavior and health development, we consider how fuzzy cognitive mapping can contribute to contemporary challenges and aspirations of nursing research.

Implications for nursing

Fuzzy cognitive mapping can generate theory, describe knowledge systems in comparable terms and inform questionnaire design and dialogue. It can help build participant‐researcher partnerships, elevate marginalized voices and facilitate intercultural dialogue. As a relatively culturally safe and foundational approach in participatory research, we suggest fuzzy cognitive mapping should be used in settings of transcultural nursing, patient engagement, person and family centered care and research with marginalized populations. Fuzzy cognitive mapping is amenable to rigorous analysis and simultaneously allows for greater participation of stakeholders.

Conclusion

In highly complex healthcare contexts, fuzzy cognitive mapping can act as a common language for defining challenges and articulating solutions identified within the nursing discipline.

Impact

There is a need to reconcile diverse sources of knowledge to meeting the needs of nursing inquiry. Fuzzy cognitive mapping can generate theory, describe knowledge systems, facilitate dialogue and support questionnaire design. In its capacity to engage multiple perspectives in defining problems and identifying solutions, fuzzy cognitive mapping can contribute to advancing nursing research and practice.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

How Career Facilitators and Barriers Influence Nurses' Professional Turnover Intention

Abstract

Aims

Our study investigates the influence of career facilitators and barriers on nurses' improvement of their professional capabilities and their professional turnover intention.

Background

Reducing nurses' professional turnover intention could help alleviate the global nursing shortage. Nevertheless, little research has addressed how career facilitators and barriers, nurses' improvement of their professional capabilities and professional turnover intention are related, indicating a gap.

Design

This study used a cross‐sectional design.

Methods

We surveyed 502 out of 2,660 full‐time nurses who worked for a medical centre in Taiwan between January and March 2018. Our items were adapted from Cunningham et al. and Teng et al. and had adequate reliability and validity. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses.

Results

Human capital, social capital and discrimination were positively related to intention to improve professional capabilities. Moreover, intention to improve professional capabilities was positively related to action to improve professional capabilities, which was negatively related to professional turnover intention.

Conclusion

Most of the career facilitators and even barriers, boost the improvement of professional capabilities and are useful for retaining nurses in the nursing profession.

Impact

Findings of this study should have an impact on nursing managers by offering them means to retain nurses, e.g., enhancing human capital and social capital among nurses to reduce their turnover intention.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Contaminantes en la alimentación infantil. Revisión bibliográfica

Objetivo principal: Actualizar el conocimiento actual existente sobre contaminantes en alimentos y productos elaborados específicamente para la población infantil. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los artículos disponibles publicados hasta marzo de 2019, en las siguientes bases de datos bibliográficas: PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science. Resultados principales: Son múltiples los contaminantes en los alimentos de consumo infantil, destacando entre ellos los metales pesados, micotoxinas, ftalatos, bisfenol A (BPA), contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (PCBs), contaminantes microbiológicos y metilmercurio, entre otros. Conclusión principal: Se necesitan datos adicionales que analicen la exposición y efec-tos del consumo de dichos contaminantes para la evaluación de riesgos y la distribución de las principales fuentes de contaminación.

Rationale and design of a statewide telestroke registry: Lone Star Stroke Consortium Telestroke Registry (LeSteR)

Por: Astudillo · C. · Ankrom · C. · Trevino · A. · Malazarte · R. M. · Bambhroliya · A. B. · Savitz · S. · Topel · C. H. · Milling · T. J. · Wu · T.-C.
Introduction

The Lone Star Stroke Consortium Telestroke Registry (LeSteR) currently consisting of 3 academic hub centres and 27 partner spokes is a statewide initiative organised by leading academic health centres in the State of Texas to understand practice patterns of acute stroke management via telestroke (TS) in Texas, a state with one of the largest rural populations in the USA.

Methods and analysis

All patients who had presumed stroke for whom a TS consultation has been obtained in the network are entered into a web-based, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant database from September 2013 to present. Spokes were enrolled into LeSteR in a staggered approach in two data collection phases: a retrospective phase and a prospective phase. Basic clinical, demographic data and relevant time metrics are collected in the retrospective phase. Starting 1 September 2015, additional outcome data including 90-day modified Rankin score, readmission and 90-day disposition are obtained by a standard phone interview. From the registry initiation to 31 December 2017, there are 8089 patients who had suspected stroke in the registry. Over 60% of patients enrolled after 1 September 2015 have reported outcome data. Enrolment is still active for this registry.

Ethics and dissemination

LeSteR is a statewide TS registry organised by academic health centres that will provide significant insight regarding the impact of TS in the State of Texas. Findings from LeSteR will provide data that can be analysed to improve the allocation of healthcare resources using TS to treat stroke in a state with one of the largest rural populations.

Prevalence of common mental health disorders in adults who are high or costly users of healthcare services: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Por: Jadhakhan · F. · Lindner · O. C. · Blakemore · A. · Guthrie · E.
Introduction

In all healthcare settings, a small proportion of patients account for a large level of healthcare use and associated high healthcare costs. Depression and anxiety are common co-morbidities in patients who are high users of care. The aims of this systematic review are to: (1) estimate the prevalence of anxiety/depression in adults who are high users of general physical healthcare services and/or who accrue high healthcare costs (2) estimate the magnitude of healthcare use associated with the presence of anxiety/depression.

Methods and analysis

This review will include any studies where patients are high users of primary, secondary or emergency healthcare services and/or accrue high healthcare costs. This is the first systematic review to focus on patients who are over the age of 18, whose degree of anxiety/depression has been evaluated with a standardised questionnaire or by a clinical interview generating a diagnosis according to international diagnostic criteria. The review will include eligible studies indexed in Medline, PsychINFO, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Library from inception to 1 April 2019. We will estimate the prevalence of anxiety/depression in these populations and the magnitude of use associated with anxiety/depression across various general physical healthcare settings. We will provide a narrative description of findings and factors that may influence them. A meta-analysis may be pursued if the degree of heterogeneity across studies is acceptable.

Ethics and dissemination

This systematic review will use data from existing studies, hence no ethical approvals are required. Findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and at relevant academic meetings.

PROSPERO registration number

PROSPERO CRD42018102628.

Zoledronate in the prevention of Pagets (ZiPP): protocol for a randomised trial of genetic testing and targeted zoledronic acid therapy to prevent SQSTM1-mediated Pagets disease of bone

Por: Cronin · O. · Forsyth · L. · Goodman · K. · Lewis · S. C. · Keerie · C. · Walker · A. · Porteous · M. · Cetnarskyj · R. · Ranganath · L. R. · Selby · P. L. · Hampson · G. · Chandra · R. · Ho · S. · Tobias · J. H. · Young-Min · S. · McKenna · M. J. · Crowley · R. K. · Fraser · W. D. · Genna
Introduction

Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by increased and disorganised bone remodelling affecting one or more skeletal sites. Complications include bone pain, deformity, deafness and pathological fractures. Mutations in sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) are strongly associated with the development of PDB. Bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone pain in PDB, but there is no evidence that treatment alters the natural history of PDB or prevents complications. The Zoledronate in the Prevention of Paget’s disease trial (ZiPP) will determine if prophylactic therapy with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) can delay or prevent the development of PDB in people who carry SQSTM1 mutations.

Methods and analysis

People with a family history of PDB aged >30 years who test positive for SQSTM1 mutations are eligible to take part. At the baseline visit, participants will be screened for the presence of bone lesions by radionuclide bone scan. Biochemical markers of bone turnover will be measured and questionnaires completed to assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Participants will be randomised to receive a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZA or placebo and followed up annually for between 4 and 8 years at which point baseline assessments will be repeated. The primary endpoint will be new bone lesions assessed by radionuclide bone scan. Secondary endpoints will include changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, pain, HRQoL, anxiety, depression and PDB-related skeletal events.

Ethics and dissemination

The study was approved by the Fife and Forth Valley Research Ethics Committee on 22 December 2008 (08/S0501/84). Following completion of the trial, a manuscript will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice by determining if early intervention with ZA in presymptomatic individuals with SQSTM1 mutations can prevent or slow the development of bone lesions with an adverse event profile that is acceptable.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN11616770

Prevalence and correlates of cardiometabolic multimorbidity among hypertensive individuals: a cross-sectional study in rural South Asia--Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

Por: Feng · L. · Jehan · I. · de Silva · H. A. · Naheed · A. · Farazdaq · H. · Hirani · S. · Kasturiratne · A. · Ranasinha · C. D. · Islam · M. T. · Siddiquee · A. T. · Jafar · T. H.
Objective

To determinate the prevalence and correlates of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM), and their cross-country variation among individuals with hypertension residing in rural communities in South Asia.

Design

A cross-sectional study.

Setting

Rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Participants

A total of 2288 individuals with hypertension aged ≥40 years from the ongoing Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation- Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka clinical trial.

Main outcome measures

CMM was defined as the presence of ≥2 of the conditions: diabetes, chronic kidney disease, heart disease and stroke. Logistic regression was done to evaluate the correlates of CMM.

Results

About 25.4% (95% CI 23.6% to 27.2%) of the hypertensive individuals had CMM. Factors positively associated with CMM included residing in Bangladesh (OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.52 to 4.65) or Sri Lankan (3.73, 95% CI 2.48 to 5.61) versus in Pakistan, advancing age (2.33, 95% CI 1.59 to 3.40 for 70 years and over vs 40–49 years), higher waist circumference (2.15, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.25) for Q2–Q3 and 2.14, 95% CI 1.50 to 3.06 for Q3 and above), statin use (2.43, 95% CI 1.84 to 3.22), and higher levels of triglyceride (1.01, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.02 per 5 mg/dL increase). A lower odds of CMM was associated with being physically active (0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.97). A weak inverted J-shaped association between International Wealth Index and CMM was found (p for non-linear=0.058), suggesting higher risk in the middle than higher or lower socioeconomic strata.

Conclusions

CMM is highly prevalent in rural South Asians affecting one in four individuals with hypertension. There is an urgent need for strategies to concomitantly manage hypertension, cardiometabolic comorbid conditions and associated determinants in South Asia.

Medicines shortages in Pakistan: a qualitative study to explore current situation, reasons and possible solutions to overcome the barriers

Por: Atif · M. · Malik · I. · Mushtaq · I. · Asghar · S.
Objective

This study was conducted to assess current situation of medicines shortages in Pakistan and to identify its impact, reasons and possible solutions to overcome the barriers.

Design

A qualitative study.

Setting

The study was conducted between May 2018 and July 2018 in three cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Karachi and Bahawalpur, depending on the availability of most relevant key informants.

Participants

Health regulators, pharmaceutical manufacturers, pharmaceutical distributors and pharmacists.

Primary and secondary outcome measure

Study primarily explored current situation, reasons and potential solutions of medicines shortages in Pakistan. Secondary outcome was the issue of particular brand shortage.

Method

Semistructured interviews were conducted. Sample size was determined by using saturation point criteria. Convenient sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. The interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

Results

A total of 41 stakeholders including 12 health regulators, 6 pharmaceutical manufacturers, 8 pharmaceutical distributors and 15 pharmacists participated in this study. Data analysis yielded 4 themes, 16 subthemes, 51 categories. Essential and life-saving medicines were in short supply. The major reasons of short supply of medicines were active pharmaceutical ingredient and raw material availability issues, lack of traditional distribution system and sudden demand fluctuation. Among proposed solutions, three most common were the facilitation and regulation of manufacturers, reasonable price fixation and improvements in the inventory control system.

Conclusion

Medicines were short in supply, and this may have clinical and financial impact on the patients in Pakistan. There were multiple and complex reasons of medicines shortages. Mandatory government leadership is required to resolve the issue on priority basis for improving the access of medicines to the patients.

Operative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures: has randomised control trial evidence changed practice patterns?

Por: Schneider · P. · Bransford · R. · Harvey · E. · Agel · J.
Objectives

To determine if level 1 evidence from a landmark trial changed practice patterns for treatment of patients with displaced midshaft clavicle fractures.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Setting

Two level 1 trauma centres.

Participants

Displaced midshaft clavicle fractures.

Results

686 patients met inclusion criteria. The pretrial cohort (n=108) was 68.5% male, with a mean age of 37.7 (±13.9) years. The post-trial cohort (n=578) was 76.1% male, with a mean age of 41.9 (±12.7) years. There was nearly a 10-fold increase in the patients treated with openreduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in the post-trial cohort (34.1%) compared with the pretrial cohort (3.7%) (p9 (OR=1.6; 95% CI 0.89 to 2.99) or if they were treated at a centre that participated in the Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society ( COTS ) trial (OR=5.2; 95% CI 3.31 to 8.21).

Conclusions

This study demonstrated a significant shift towards more frequent ORIF for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures following the COTS trial. Quantifying changes in practice pattern following publication of level 1 evidence is important to further our understanding of the impact large randomised clinical trails are having on clinical practice.

Impact of Ebola outbreak on reproductive health services in a rural district of Sierra Leone: a prospective observational study

Por: Quaglio · G. · Tognon · F. · Finos · L. · Bome · D. · Sesay · S. · Kebbie · A. · Di Gennaro · F. · Camara · B. S. · Marotta · C. · Pisani · V. · Bangura · Z. · Pizzol · D. · Saracino · A. · Mazzucco · W. · Jones · S. · Putoto · G.
Objectives

To assess the trends concerning utilisation of maternal and child health (MCH) services before, during and after the Ebola outbreak, quantifying the contribution of a reorganised referral system (RS).

Design

A prospective observational study of MCH services.

Setting

Pujehun district in Sierra Leone, 77 community health facilities and 1 hospital from 2012 to 2017.

Main outcome measures

MCH utililization was evaluated by assessing: (1) institutional deliveries, Cesarean-sections, paediatric and maternity admissions and deaths, and major direct obstetric complications (MDOCs), at hospital level; (2) antenatal care (ANC) 1 and 4, institutional delivery and family planning, at community level. Contribution of a strengthened RS was also measured.

Results

At hospital level, there is a significant difference between trends Ebola versus pre-Ebola for maternal admissions (7, 95% CI 4 to 11, p

Conclusions

A stronger health system compared with other districts in Sierra Leone and a strengthened RS enabled health facilities in Pujehun to maintain service provision and uptake during and after the Ebola epidemic.

Open carpal tunnel release and diabetes: a retrospective study using PROMs and national quality registries

Por: Zimmerman · M. · Eeg-Olofsson · K. · Svensson · A.-M. · Aström · M. · Arner · M. · Dahlin · L.
Objectives

To study patient-reported outcome after open carpal tunnel release (OCTR) for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with or without diabetes using national healthcare quality registries.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Setting

Data from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Hand Surgery (HAKIR; www.hakir.se) were linked to data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR; www.ndr.nu).

Participants

We identified 9049 patients (10 770 hands) operated for CTS during the inclusion period (2010–2016).

Primary outcome measures

Patient-reported outcome measures were analysed before surgery and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively using the QuickDASH as well as the HAKIR questionnaire with eight questions on hand symptoms and disability.

Results

Patients with diabetes (n=1508; 14%) scored higher in the QuickDASH both preoperatively and postoperatively than patients without diabetes, but the total score change between preoperative and postoperative QuickDASH was equal between patients with and without diabetes. The results did not differ between patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Patients with diabetic retinopathy scored higher in QuickDASH at 3 months postoperatively than patients with diabetes without retinopathy. In the regression analysis, diabetes was associated with more residual symptoms at 3 and 12 months postoperatively.

Conclusions

Patients with diabetes experience more symptoms both before and after OCTR, but can expect the same relative improvement from surgery as patients without diabetes . Patients with retinopathy, as a proxy for neuropathy, may need longer time for symptoms to resolve after OCTR. Smoking, older age, higher HbA1c levels and receiving a diabetes diagnosis after surgery were associated with more residual symptoms following OCTR.

Analysis of anticholinergic and sedative medicine effects on physical function, cognitive function, appetite and frailty: a cross-sectional study in Australia

Por: Lim · R. · Kalisch Ellett · L. M. · Widagdo · I. S. · Pratt · N. L. · Roughead · E. E.
Objective

To test the association between use of medicines with anticholinergic or sedative properties and physical function, cognitive function, appetite and frailty.

Design, setting and participants

This cross-sectional study analysed baseline data collected as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a population-based cohort of 2087 participants aged 65 years or over living in South Australia.

Main outcome measures

Physical function was measured at baseline using measures including hand grip strength, walking speed, chair stands, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cognitive function was measured using Mini-Mental State Examination. Appetite was measured using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression question 2. Frailty was measured using frailty index. The association between use of anticholinergics or sedatives and physical or cognitive function, appetite, or frailty was assessed using analysis of covariance and ordinal or binary logistic regression.

Results

Almost half of the population were using anticholinergics or sedatives (n=954, 45.7%). Use of anticholinergics was significantly associated with poorer grip strength, slower walking speed, poorer IADL and poorer appetite. Use of sedatives was significantly associated with poorer grip strength, slower walking speed and poorer IADL. We found no significant association between medicine use and cognitive function. Users of anticholinergics or sedatives were significantly more likely to be frail compared with non-users.

Conclusion

Use of medicines with anticholinergic or sedative properties is significantly associated with poorer physical function, poorer appetite and increased frailty. Early identification of signs and symptoms of deterioration associated with medicine use is particularly important in older people so that worsening frailty and subsequent adverse events are prevented.

Discontinuation, persistence and adherence to subcutaneous biologics delivered via a homecare route to Scottish adults with rheumatic diseases: a retrospective study

Por: Alvarez-Madrazo · S. · Kavanagh · K. · Siebert · S. · Semple · Y. · Godman · B. · Maciel Almeida · A. · Acurcio · F. d. A. · Bennie · M.
Objectives

To understand patterns of subcutaneous (SC) biologics use over time in adults with inflammatory rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases receiving a homecare delivery service.

Design

Retrospective cohort.

Setting

Patients in secondary care receiving SC biologics in the largest Scottish Health Board.

Participants

A new bespoke cohort was created from routine data gathered as part of a health board Homecare Service Database. Patients over 18 years who received a supply of SC biologic from January 2012 to May 2015 with a diagnosis for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were included.

Outcomes measured

A standardised framework was applied by measuring discontinuation rates, persistence using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression and adherence using medication refill adherence (MRA) and compliance rate (CR).

Results

751 patients were identified (AS: 105, PsA: 227, RA: 419) of whom 89.3% had more than one biologic delivery (median days’ follow-up: AS: 494; PsA: 544; RA: 529) and 83.2% did not switch biologic. For all conditions, approximately half were persistent on their index biologic (52% AS, 54% PsA, 48%RA). Of patients who discontinued treatment, the majority reinitiated with the same biologic (19% AS, 18% PsA and 21% RA). Overall adherence during the period of treatment was over 80% when calculated using MRA (median %MRA: AS: 84.0%, PsA: 85.0%, RA: 82.4%) or CR (median %CR: AS: 96.6%, PsA: 97%, RA: 96.6%).

Conclusion

Use of linked routine data is a sustainable pathway to enable ongoing evaluation of biologics use. A more consistent approach to studying use (discontinuation, persistence and adherence metrics) should be adopted to enable comparability of studies.

Quality appraisal of clinical practice guidelines for diabetes mellitus published in China between 2007 and 2017 using the AGREE II instrument

Por: Gao · Y. · Wang · J. · Luo · X. · Song · X. · Liu · L. · Ke · L. · Liao · Z. · Wang · D. · Mu · Y. · Chen · Y. · Estill · J. A. M.
Objective

The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the quality of the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for diabetes mellitus published in China over the period of January 2007 to April 2017.

Methods

We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature database, VIP database and WanFang databases and guideline websites for CPGs for diabetes mellitus published between January 2007 and April 2017 in China. Two reviewers independently screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and extracted data. We used the the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ottawa, Canada) to evaluate the quality of the included guidelines, calculated the scores of each domain and evaluated the consistency among the assessors via use of the intragroup correlation coefficient. And then we compared the results with Chinese CPGs and international CPGs. We conducted a subgroup analysis based on different classification criteria and compared scores of each domain subgroup analyses.

Results

A total of 98 guidelines were identified. The correlation coefficient within the group was 0.93, suggesting that the consistency between the evaluators was good. The scores of the six domains of AGREE II were described in median (IQR) as follows: scope and purpose 53.7 (50.0–59.7), stakeholder involvement 31.5 (27.3–37.0), rigour of development 19.1 (15.3–22.2), clarity of presentation 59.3 (50.0–64.8), applicability 18.1 (13.9–25.7) and editorial independence 0.0 (0.0–0.0). The mean score in each domain of quality of Chinese diabetes CPGs was lower than that of CPGs published worldwide but higher than the mean score of Chinese guidelines of all topics. A funding source, the updated version, organisation and publishers of the guidelines and target fields are all the factors influencing the quality of CPGs to a certain degree.

Conclusions

A large number of Chinese diabetes CPGs have been produced. Their quality remain unsatisfactorily low compared with CPGs worldwide, there is still room for improvement. Chinese guideline developers should pay more attention to the transparency of methodology, and use the AGREE II instrument to develop and report guidelines.

Physical activity and sport participation among adolescents: associations with mental health in different age groups. Results from the Young-HUNT study: a cross-sectional survey

Por: Guddal · M. H. · Stensland · S. O. · Smastuen · M. C. · Johnsen · M. B. · Zwart · J.-A. · Storheim · K.
Objectives

Knowledge of how physical activity (PA) and sport participation are related to mental health throughout adolescence is scarce. Our objective was to describe PA levels and sport participation in a population-based sample of adolescents, and to explore how they relate to mental health in different age groups.

Design

A population-based cross-sectional study.

Setting and participants

The adolescent part of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, a Norwegian population-based health survey, conducted from 2006 to 2008. Of 10 464 invited participants (age 13–19 years), 7619 (73%) participated, of whom 3785 (50%) were boys.

Outcome measures

Mental health outcomes included psychological distress assessed using a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Check List Five items, self-esteem assessed using a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and life satisfaction assessed with a single-item satisfaction with life measure.

Method

Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of psychological distress, low self-esteem and low life satisfaction, according to self-reported PA level and type of sport participation, stratified by gender and school level (junior vs senior high school).

Results

Fewer senior high school students participated in team sports compared with junior high school students (p

Conclusion

A high PA level was favourably associated with various dimensions of mental health, especially for adolescents in senior high school. Team sport participation may have a positive impact on mental health and should, therefore, be encouraged.

Healthcare under siege: a qualitative study of health-worker responses to targeting and besiegement in Syria

Por: Fardousi · N. · Douedari · Y. · Howard · N.
Objectives

To explore health-worker perspectives on security, improving safety, managing constrained resources and handling mass casualties during besiegement in Syria.

Design

A qualitative study using semi-structured key informant interviews, conducted remotely over WhatsApp and Skype, and analysed thematically using inductive coding.

Setting

Secondary and tertiary health facilities affected by besiegement in Aleppo (from July to December 2016) and Rural Damascus (from August 2013 to February 2018).

Participants

Twenty-one male Syrian health-workers and service-users who had experienced besiegement and targeting of their health facilities.

Results

Participants described four related challenges of: (i) conflict-related responses, particularly responding to mass casualties; (ii) targeted attack responses, particularly preventing/surviving facility bombings; (iii) besiegement responses, particularly mitigating severe resource constraints; and (iv) chronic risk responses, particularly maintaining emotional resilience. Mass casualty response involved triage and training to prioritise mortality reduction and available resources, for example those with greatest need and likelihood of survival. Targeting response was largely physical, including fortification, working underground, reducing visibility and services dispersal. Besiegement response required resource conservation, for example, controlling consumption, reusing consumables, low-technology equipment, finding alternative supply routes, stockpiling and strengthening available human resources through online trainings and establishing a medical school in Ghouta. Risk responses included managing safety worries, finding value in work and maintaining hope.

Conclusion

Besieged health-workers were most affected by severe resource constraints and safety concerns while responding to overwhelming mass casualty events. Lessons for targeting/besiegement planning include training staff and preparing for: (i) mass casualties, through local/online health-worker training in triage, emergency response and resource conservation; allowing task-shifting; and providing access to low-technology equipment; (ii) attacks, through strengthened facility security, for example, protection and deterrence through fortification, working underground and reducing visibility; and (iii) besiegement, through ensuring access to internet, electricity and low-technology/reusable equipment; securely stockpiling fuel, medicines and supplies; and establishing alternative supply routes.

Effectiveness of strategies for nutritional therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension in primary care: protocol of a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Introduction

Despite the increasing number of drugs available and various guidelines on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension, an expressive number of patients continue with these diseases uncontrolled. Nutrition therapy (NT) plays a fundamental role in the prevention and management of these comorbidities, as well as in the prevention of complications related to them. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of NT strategies in the management of patients with T2DM and/or hypertension in primary care. The selected strategies did not substitute pharmaceutical treatment but instead focused on preventing a sedentary lifestyle and stimulating healthy nutrition.

Methods and analysis

We will perform a systematic review according to Cochrane methodology of randomised controlled trials, wherein patients with T2DM and/or hypertension were allocated into one of the two groups: NT strategy, which may be of dietary quality or energy restriction, and conventional treatment. The primary outcomes will be glycaemic and blood pressure (BP) control, measured by final glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (%) and BP (mm Hg), respectively. Four general and adaptive search strategies have been created for the Embase, Medline, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) electronic databases. Two reviewers will independently select eligible studies, assess the risk of bias and extract data from the included studies. Similar outcomes measured in at least two trials will be plotted in the meta-analysis using Review Manager V.5.3. The quality of evidence of the effect estimate of the intervention will be generated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group.

Ethics and dissemination

As no primary data collection will be undertaken, formal ethical assessment is not required. We plan to present the results of this systematic review in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, conferences and the popular press.

PROSPERO registration number

Our systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 20 December 2018 (Registration number CRD42018118117).

❌