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Intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 and adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 prior to the second wave of the pandemic in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

Por: Wafula · S. T. · Mugume · I. B. · Sensasi · B. · Okware · S. · Chimbaru · A. · Nanyunja · M. · Talisuna · A. · Kabanda · R. · Bakyaita · T. · Wanyenze · R. K. · Byakika-Tusiime · J.
Objectives

The resurgence in cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in many countries suggests complacency in adhering to COVID-19 preventive guidelines. Vaccination, therefore, remains a key intervention in mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures and intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among Ugandans.

Design, setting and participants

A nationwide cross-sectional survey of 1053 Ugandan adults was conducted in March 2021 using telephone interviews.

Main outcome measures

Participants reported on adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures and intention to be vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines.

Results

Overall, 10.2% of the respondents adhered to the COVID-19 preventive guidelines and 57.8% stated definite intention to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Compared with women, men were less likely to adhere to COVID-19 guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.99). Participants from the northern (4.0%, OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.92), western (5.1%, OR=0.30, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.65) and eastern regions (6.5%, OR=0.47, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.92), respectively, had lower odds of adhering to the COVID-19 guidelines than those from the central region (14.7%). A higher monthly income of ≥US$137 (OR=2.31, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.58) and a history of chronic disease (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.86) were predictors of adherence. Concerns about the chances of getting COVID-19 in the future (Prevalence Ratio (PR)=1.26, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.48) and fear of severe COVID-19 infection (PR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38) were the strongest predictors for a definite intention, while concerns for side effects were negatively associated with vaccination intent (PR=0.75, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.83).

Conclusion

Behaviour change programmes need to be strengthened to promote adherence to COVID-19 preventive guidelines as vaccination is rolled out as another preventive measure. Dissemination of accurate, safe and efficacious information about the vaccines is necessary to enhance vaccine uptake.

Household food insecurity, maternal nutrition, environmental risks and infants health outcomes: protocol of the IMPALA birth cohort study in Uganda

Por: Terfa · Z. G. · Nantanda · R. · Lesosky · M. · Devereux · G. · Obasi · A. · Mortimer · K. · Khan · J. · Rylance · J. · Niessen · L. W. · IMPALA Consortium · Addo-Yobo · Allwood · Banda · Bates · Binegdie · Sony · Falade · Mbatchou · Meme · Mutayoba · Chakaya · Ntinginya · Bertel Squir
Introduction

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), food insecurity and undernutrition disproportionately affect women of reproductive age, infants and young children. The disease burden from undernutrition in these vulnerable sections of societies remains a major concern in LMICs. Biomass fuel use for cooking is also common in LMICs. Empirical evidence from high-income countries indicates that early life nutritional and environmental exposures and their effect on infant lung function are important; however, data from sub-Saharan Africa are scarce.

Aim

To estimate the association between infant lung function and household food insecurity, energy poverty and maternal dietary diversity.

Methods and analysis

Pregnant women will be recruited in an existing Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in South-West Uganda. Household food insecurity, sources and uses of energy, economic measures and maternal dietary diversity will be collected during pregnancy and after birth. Primary health outcomes will be infant lung function determined by tidal breath flow and volume analysis at 6–10 weeks of age. Infant weight and length will also be collected.

A household Food Consumption Score and Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) indicator will be constructed. The involved cost of dietary diversity will be estimated based on MDD-W. The association between household level and mothers’ food access indicators and infant lung function will be evaluated using regression models. The Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI) will be estimated and used as an indicator of households’ environmental exposures. The association between household MEPI and infant lung function will be assessed using econometric models.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approvals have been obtained from Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (18-059), the Uganda Virus Research Institute Ethics Committee (097/2018) and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (SS 4846). Study results will be shared with participants, policy-makers, other stakeholders and published in peer-reviewed journals.

Identifying forms of interventions towards cross border malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: a scoping review protocol

Por: Cintyamena · U. · Murhandarwati · E. E. H. · Elyazar · I. · Probandari · A. · Ahmad · R. A.
Introduction

An ambitious epidemiology strategy has been set by the WHO, targeting malaria elimination for at least 35 countries in 2030. Challenges in preventing malaria cross borders require greater attention to achieve the elimination target. This scoping review aims to identify successful forms of interventions to control malaria transmission across national borders in the Asia-Pacific region.

Methods and analysis

This scoping review will search four electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost and ProQuest) limiting the time of publication to the last 10 years. Two independent reviewers will screen all titles and abstracts during the second stage. Study characteristics will be recorded; qualitative data will be extracted and evaluated, while quantitative data will be extracted and summarised. Overall, we will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines.

Ethics and dissemination

This scoping review has received ethical approval from the Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and policy briefs.

Optimising implementation strategies of the first scaleup of a primary care psychological intervention for common mental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a mixed methods study protocol for the optimised Friendship Bench (OptFB)

Por: Verhey · R. · Chitiyo · C. · Mboweni · S. N. · Chiriseri · E. · Chibanda · D. · Healey · A. · Wagenaar · B. · Araya · R.
Introduction

Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a leading cause of disability globally. CMDs are highly prevalent in Zimbabwe and have been addressed by an evidence-based, task-shifting psychological intervention called the Friendship Bench (FB). The task-shifted FB programme guides clients through problem-solving therapy. It was scaled up across 36 implementation sites in Zimbabwe in 2016.

Methods and analysis

This study will employ a mixed-method framework. It aims to: (1) use quantitative survey methodologies organised around the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption and Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework to assess the current scaleup of the FB intervention and classify 36 clinics according to levels of performance; (2) use qualitative focus group discussions and semistructured interviews organised around the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to analyse determinants of implementation success, as well as elucidate heterogeneity in implementation strategies through comparing high-performing and low-performing clinics; and (3) use the results from aims 1 and 2 to develop strategies to optimise the Friendship Bench intervention and apply this model in a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate potential improvements among low-performing clinics. The trial will be registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (www.pactr.org). The planned randomised controlled trial for the third research aim will be registered after completing aims one and two because the intervention is dependent on knowledge generated during these phases.

Ethics and dissemination

The research protocol received full authorisation from the Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (MRCZ A/242). It is anticipated that changes in data collection tools and consent forms will take place at all three phases of the study and approval from MRCZ will be sought. All interview partners will be asked for informed consent. The research team will prioritise open-access publications to disseminate research results.

Automanejo y apoyo social en personas con cronicidad

Introducción. La diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial representan un problema de salud pública en México y el mundo. El automanejo es una estrategia prometedora de atención a las enfermedades crónicas. Por lo anterior el objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la relación entre automanejo y apoyo social en personas con cronicidad de Tamaulipas-México. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio correlacional de corte transversal con 188 adultos diagnosticados medicamente con Diabetes Mellitus e Hipertensión Arterial, para evaluar automanejo se utilizó el Partners in Health Scale y para apoyo social el Duke. Resultados. El índice general del automanejo de las enfermedades crónicas indica adecuado manejo con una media de 78.82, el apoyo social percibido también fue adecuado con media de 46.55. El resultado más relevante fue la correlación significativa (r=184 p=.010) entre las variables antes mencionadas. Discusión. Los indicadores de automanejo y apoyo social son adecuados y concuerdan con estudios anteriores. Con referencia a la asociación entre estas variables se sugiere seguir investigando esta área ya que no existe evidencia suficiente en muestras de personas con cronicidad. Conclusiones. El automanejo y el apoyo social percibido se encuentran relacionados en la muestra de pacientes de personas con enfermedades crónicas de Ciudad Victoria-Tamaulipas

 

Abstract

Introduction. Diabetes Mellitus and arterial hypertension represent a public health problem in Mexico and the world. Self-management is a promising strategy for the management of chronic diseases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the relationship between self-management and social support in people with chronic conditions in Tamaulipas-Mexico. Methodology. A cross-sectional correlational study was carried out with 188 adults diagnosed medically with Diabetes Mellitus T2 and / or Arterial Hypertension, the Partners in Health Scale for self-management was used, as well as the Duke questionnaire to assess social support. Results. The general index of self-management of chronic diseases indicates adequate management with an average of 78.82, perceived social support was also adequate with an average of 46.55. The most relevant result was the significant correlation (r=184 p=.010) between the above variables. Discussion. Indicators of self-management and social support are adequate and consistent with previous studies. With reference to the association between these variables it is suggested to continue investigating this area since there is not enough evidence in samples of chronically ill people. Conclusions. Self-management and perceived social support are related to the sample of patients of people with chronic diseases in Ciudad Victoria-Tamaulipas.

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