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Comparison of 12‐Hour Biweekly Versus 6‐Hour Weekly Shifts on Fatigue in Student Nurses



Some challenges affecting student nurse learning include student fatigue, clinical recovery time, and hindered clinical experiences due to students experiencing long clinical shifts.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between 12-hour biweekly and 6-hour weekly shifts on student nurse fatigue.


A descriptive research design was used with second-year nursing students (N = 80) upon completion of their clinical rotations of four distinct cohorts during 2019–2020. All students in these cohorts were invited to complete the Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery (OFER15) online survey, developed and validated to assess the full spectrum of fatigue.


There were no statistically significant differences in acute fatigue, chronic fatigue, or the inter-shift recovery subscale for the 6-hour and 12-hour clinical groups. Student nurses, like registered nurses, would likely prefer to choose between a 6-hour and 12-hour clinical shift depending on their individual circumstances. In the parameters of this study, there was no statistical significance in shift length and student nurse fatigue.

Linking Evidence to Action

Student nurse fatigue levels can affect learning inside and outside of nursing clinical experiences. In this study, no statistical significances were found between 6-hour and 12-hour clinical experiences in second-year nursing students. Offering both the 6-hour and 12-hour clinical experiences provides flexibility for students, clinical sites, and the school of nursing.

Defining CD4 T helper and T regulatory cell endotypes of progressive and remitting pulmonary sarcoidosis (BRITE): protocol for a US-based, multicentre, longitudinal observational bronchoscopy study

Por: Koth · L. L. · Harmacek · L. D. · White · E. K. · Arger · N. K. · Powers · L. · Werner · B. R. · Magallon · R. E. · Grewal · P. · Barkes · B. Q. · Li · L. · Gillespie · M. · Collins · S. E. · Cardenas · J. · Chen · E. S. · Maier · L. A. · Leach · S. M. · OConnor · B. P. · Hamzeh · N. Y.

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.

Methods and analysis

The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.

Prospective characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children presenting to tertiary paediatric hospitals across Australia in 2020: a national cohort study

Por: Wurzel · D. · McMinn · A. · Hoq · M. · Blyth · C. C. · Burgner · D. · Tosif · S. · Buttery · J. · Carr · J. · Clark · J. E. · Cheng · A. C. · Dinsmore · N. · Francis · J. R. · Kynaston · A. · Lucas · R. · Marshall · H. · McMullan · B. · Singh-Grewal · D. · Wood · N. · Macartney · K. · Britto

To present Australia-wide data on paediatric COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndromes to inform health service provision and vaccination prioritisation.


Prospective, multicentre cohort study.


Eight tertiary paediatric hospitals across six Australian states and territories in an established research surveillance network—Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease (PAEDS).


All children aged


Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Main outcome

Incidence of severe disease among children with COVID-19, PIMS-TS and KD-TS. We also compared KD epidemiology before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Among 386 children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 381 (98.7%) had COVID-19 (median 6.3 years (IQR 2.1–12.8),53.3% male) and 5 (1.3%) had multisystem inflammatory syndromes (PIMS-TS, n=4; KD-TS, n=1) (median 7.9 years (IQR 7.8–9.8)). Most children with COVID-19 (n=278; 73%) were Australian-born from jurisdictions with highest community transmission. Comorbidities were present in 72 (18.9%); cardiac and respiratory comorbidities were most common (n=32/72;44%). 37 (9.7%) children with COVID-19 were hospitalised, and two (0.5%) required intensive care. Postinfective inflammatory syndromes (PIMS-TS/KD-TS) were uncommon (n=5; 1.3%), all were hospitalised and three (3/5; 60%) required intensive care management. All children recovered and there were no deaths. KD incidence remained stable during the pandemic compared with prepandemic.


Most children with COVID-19 had mild disease. Severe disease was less frequent than reported in high prevalence settings. Preventative strategies, such as vaccination, including children and adolescents, could reduce both the acute and postinfective manifestations of the disease.

Protocol for a multicentre, randomised, parallel-control, superiority trial comparing administration of clotting factor concentrates with a standard massive haemorrhage protocol in severely bleeding trauma patients: the FiiRST 2 trial (a 2020 EAST multice

Por: da Luz · L. T. · Callum · J. · Beckett · A. · Hucke · H.-P. · Carroll · J. · Grewal · D. · Schwartz · B. · Peng · H. · Engels · P. T. · Parry · N. · Petrosoniak · A. · Tien · H. · Nathens · A. B. · Scales · D. · Karkouti · K.

Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in bleeding trauma patients increase in-hospital mortality. Fibrinogen concentrate (FC) and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) are two purified concentrates of clotting factors that have been used to treat ATC. However, there is a knowledge gap on their use compared with the standard of care, the transfusion of plasma.

Methods and analysis

The factors in the initial resuscitation of severe trauma 2 trial is a multicentre, randomised, parallel-control, single-blinded, phase IV superiority trial. The study aims to address efficacy and safety of the early use of FC and PCC compared with a plasma-based resuscitation. Adult trauma patients requiring massive haemorrhage protocol activation on hospital arrival will receive FC 4 g and PCC 2000 IU or plasma 4 U, based on random allocation. The primary outcome is a composite of the cumulative number of all units of red cells, plasma and platelets transfused within 24 hours following admission. Secondary outcomes include measures of efficacy and safety of the intervention. Enrolment of 350 patients will provide an initial power >80% to demonstrate superiority for the primary outcome. After enrolment of 120 patients, a preplanned adaptive interim analysis will be conducted to reassess assumptions, check for early superiority demonstration or reassess the sample size for remainder of the study.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has been approved by local and provincial research ethics boards and will be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki, Good Clinical Practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. As per the Tri-Council Policy Statement, patient consent will be deferred due to the emergency nature of the interventions. If superiority is established, results will have a major impact on clinical practice by reducing exposure to non-virally inactivated blood products, shortening the time for administration of clotting factors, correct coagulopathy more efficaciously and reduce the reliance on AB plasma.

Trial registration number

NCT04534751, pre results.