Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de enfermeiros de um serviço público em Sinop-MT Metodologia: Estudo transversal com 33 enfermeiros. As variáveis sociodemográficas, de qualidade de vida, do consumo alimentar e antropométricas foram obtidas através de quatro questionários autoaplicáveis. O cortisol plasmático foi coletado e avaliado por laboratório privado da região. As análises foram realizadas pelo Statistical Package for the Social Sciences e Graph Pad Prism, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados e Conclusões: Houve predomínio de enfermeiros casados, do sexo feminino e de classe econômica A ou B. O escore de alimentação correlacionou-se positiva e significantemente com o domínio psicológico e nível de cortisol. O cortisol médio foi de 11,6 ug/dle correlacionou-se positiva e significantemente com os domínios físico, ambiente e ao escore geral de qualidade de vida. O peso corporal correlacionou-se inversa e significantemente com os domínios físico, psicológico, ambiente, o escore geral de qualidade de vida e à classe socioeconômica. Os enfermeiros possuem alto nível socioeconômico e baixa prevalência de excesso de peso. A percepção da qualidade de vida geral e nos seus quatro domínios pelos enfermeiros estudados foi regular e boa. O consumo alimentar e outros hábitos de vida apresentaram-se razoáveis, requerendo atenção por parte destes profissionais.
To assess the impact of herpes zoster vaccination in the 5 years after introduction for 70- to 79-year-olds in England in September 2013.
Population based ecological impact assessment.
Hospitals covering the whole English population for the period 2008 to 2018 and 293 general practices (GP) for the period 2005 to 2018, in England.
Over the period the population contributed 117·5 million person-years for hospitalisation events and 6.96 million person-years for GP events in individuals aged 60 to 89.
Live attenuated herpes zoster vaccination (Zostavax), first used on 1st September 2013, in 70- and 79-year-olds with continued use in new 70 year-olds and with a staged catch-up of those aged 71 to 78 years in 2013.
Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) consultation and hospitalisation rates in age-cohorts according to vaccine eligibility. Incidence rate ratios in age-cohorts eligible for vaccination compared with those non-eligible were calculated by Poisson regression. This was used to estimate prevented cases and, along with vaccine coverage, to estimate vaccine effectiveness.
Large and prolonged reductions in herpes zoster and PHN consultations and hospitalisations were observed in the 5 years post-implementation. For example, in 79 year-olds first eligible in 2013, the incidence rate ratio for consultations 5 years later was 0·65 (95% CI: 0·52 to 0·81). Over the whole period an estimated 40 500 fewer zoster consultations and 1840 fewer zoster hospitalisations occurred because of the vaccination programme. These reductions were consistent with effectiveness in the routine cohorts (vaccinated aged 70) of between 37% (for hospitalised zoster) and 75% (for PHN consultations) and, in catch up cohorts (vaccinated aged 78 to 79) of between 49% (for hospitalised PHN) and 66% (for PHN consultations).
Given the clear and sustained impact of herpes zoster vaccination over the 5-year period since introduction, optimising vaccination coverage is important to attain maximum benefit.
by Timothy Howarth, Raelene Brunette, Tanya Davies, Ross M. Andrews, Bhavini K. Patel, Steven Tong, Federica Barzi, Therese M. KearnsObjective
To describe antibiotic prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children aged Design
A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.Setting
Three primary health care centres located in the Katherine East region.Participants
Consent was obtained from 149 mothers to extract data from 196 child records. There were 124 children born between January 2010 and July 2014 who resided in one of the three chosen communities and had electronic health records for their first two years of life.Main outcome measures
Antibiotic prescription rates, factors associated with antibiotic prescription and factors associated with appropriate antibiotic prescription.Results
There were 5,675 Primary Health Care (PHC) encounters for 124 children (median 41, IQR 25.5, 64). Of the 5,675 PHC encounters, 1,542 (27%) recorded at least one infection (total 1,777) and 1,330 (23%) had at least one antibiotic prescription recorded (total 1,468). Children had a median five (IQR 2, 9) prescriptions in both their first and second year of life, with a prescription rate of 5.99/person year (95% CI 5.35, 6.63). Acute otitis media was the most common infection (683 records, 38%) and Amoxycillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (797 prescriptions, 54%). Of the 1,468 recorded prescriptions, 398 (27%) had no infection recorded and 116 (8%) with an infection recorded were not aligned with local treatment guidelines.Conclusion
Prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children in these communities are significantly higher than that reported nationally for non-Aboriginal Australians. Prescriptions predominantly aligned with treatment guidelines in this setting where there is a high burden of infectious disease.
Autologous T-cells transduced to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against CD19 elicit high response rates in relapsed or refractory (r/r) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). However, r/r B-NHL remissions are durable in fewer than half of recipients of second-generation CAR T-cells. Third-generation (3G) CARs employ two costimulatory domains, resulting in improved CAR T-cell efficacy in vitro and in animal models in vivo. This investigator-initiated, phase I dose escalation trial, termed ENABLE, will investigate the safety and preliminary efficacy of WZTL-002, comprising autologous T-cells expressing a 3G anti-CD19 CAR incorporating the intracellular signalling domains of CD28 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) for the treatment of r/r B-NHL.
Eligible participants will be adults with r/r B-NHL including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and its variants, follicular lymphoma, transformed follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. Participants must have satisfactory organ function, and lack other curative options. Autologous T-cells will be obtained by leukapheresis. Following WZTL-002 manufacture and product release, participants will receive lymphodepleting chemotherapy comprising intravenous fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. A single dose of WZTL-002 will be administered intravenously 2 days later. Targeted assessments for cytokine release syndrome and immune cell effector-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, graded by the American Society Transplantation and Cellular Therapy criteria, will be made. A modified 3+3 dose escalation scheme is planned starting at 5x104 CAR T-cells/kg with a maximum dose of 1x106 CAR T-cells/kg. The primary outcome of this trial is safety of WZTL-002. Secondary outcomes include feasibility of WZTL-002 manufacture and preliminary measures of efficacy.
Ethical approval for the study was granted by the New Zealand Health and Disability Ethics Committee (reference 19/STH/69) on 23 June 2019 for Protocol V.1.2. Trial results will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal, and results presented at scientific conferences or meetings.
After infection, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1) becomes latent in the trigeminal ganglion and can enter the brain via retrograde axonal transport. Recurrent reactivation of HSV1 may lead to neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. HSV1 (oral herpes) and HSV2 (genital herpes) can trigger amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) aggregation and HSV1 DNA is common in amyloid plaques. Anti-HSV drugs reduce Aβ and phosphorylated tau accumulation in cell-culture models. Cognitive impairment is greater in patients with HSV seropositive, and antiviral drugs show robust efficacy against peripheral HSV infection. Recent studies of electronic health records databases demonstrate that HSV infections increase dementia risk, and that antiviral medication treatment reduces this risk. The generic antiviral drug valacyclovir was superior to placebo in improving memory in a schizophrenia pilot trial but has not been tested in AD.
In patients with mild AD who test positive for HSV1 or HSV2 serum antibodies, valacyclovir, repurposed as an anti-AD drug, will be compared with placebo (lactose pills) in 130 patients (65 valacyclovir and 65 placebo) in a randomised, double-blind, 78-week phase II proof-of-concept trial. Patients on valacyclovir, dose-titrated from 2 g to a targeted oral dose of 4 g daily, compared with placebo, are hypothesised to show smaller cognitive and functional decline, and, using 18F-Florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) and 18F-MK-6240 PET imaging, to show less amyloid and tau accumulation, respectively. In the lumbar puncture subsample, cerebrospinal fluid acyclovir will be assayed to assess central nervous system valacyclovir penetration.
The trial is being overseen by the New York State Psychiatric Institute Institutional Review Board (protocol 7537), the National Institute on Ageing, and the Data Safety Monitoring Board. Written informed consent is obtained for all subjects. Results will be disseminated via publication, clinicaltrials.gov, media and conferences.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT03282916) Pre-results.
To investigate the safety of live attenuated varicella zoster vaccination when administered to immunosuppressed individuals.
Prospective observational cohort study.
The study used anonymised data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), comprising a representative sample of routinely collected primary care data in England between 2013 and 2017 and and linked Hospital Episode Statistics data.
168 767 individuals age-eligible for varicella zoster vaccination registered at a general practice in England contributing data to CPRD.
Electronic health records indicating immunosuppression, zoster vaccination, diagnoses of specific varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-related disease and non-specific rash/encephalitis compatible with VZV-related disease.
Between 1 September 2013 and 31 August 2017, a period of immunosuppression was identified for 9093/168 767 (5.4%; 95% CI: 5.3%–5.5%) individuals age-eligible for zoster vaccination. The overall rate of vaccination while immunosuppressed was 1742/5251 (33.2 per 100 adjusted person years at risk; 95% CI: 31.9%–34.5%). Follow-up of the 1742 individuals who were inadvertently vaccinated while immunosuppressed identified only two cases of VZV-related disease within 8 weeks of vaccination (0.1%; 95% CI: 0.01%–0.4%), both primary care diagnoses of ‘shingles’, neither with a related hospital admission.
Despite evidence of inadvertent vaccination of immunosuppressed individuals with live zoster vaccination, there is a lack of evidence of severe consequences including hospitalisation. This should reassure primary care staff and encourage vaccination of mildly immunosuppressed individuals who do not meet current thresholds for contraindication. These findings support a review of the extent to which live zoster vaccination is contraindicated among the immunosuppressed.
The appropriateness of using routinely collected laboratory data combined with administrative data for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is still being explored. This paper outlines a protocol to estimate influenza VE using linked laboratory and administrative data which could act as a companion to estimates derived from other methods.
We will use the test-negative design to estimate VE for each influenza type/subtype and season. Province-wide individual-level records of positive and negative influenza tests at the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health in Alberta will be linked, by unique personal health numbers, to administrative databases and vaccination records held at the Ministry of Health in Alberta to determine covariates and influenza vaccination status, respectively. Covariates of interests include age, sex, immunocompromising chronic conditions and healthcare setting. Cases will be defined based on an individual’s first positive influenza test during the season, and potential controls will be defined based on an individual’s first negative influenza test during the season. One control for each case will be randomly selected based on the week the specimen was collected. We will estimate VE using multivariable logistic regression.
Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta’s Health Research Ethics Board—Health Panel under study ID Pro00075997. Results will be disseminated by public health officials in Alberta.
The overall quality of evidence of autologous platelet‐rich plasma (PRP) for treating chronic wounds remains low. While further well‐designed clinical studies are clearly required to convincingly demonstrate the efficacy of autologous PRP in improved healing of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and other chronic wounds, there is also an increasing need to better define the underlying mechanisms of action and whether positive outcomes can be predicted based on the analysis of PRP. This brief review will discuss the current understanding of autologous PRP in VLUs and whether molecular evaluation of PRP at the time of collection could potentially be informative to clinical outcomes. Benefits of the autologous PRP treatment strategy include that PRP is easily accessible and is relatively inexpensive and safe. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved could improve treatment, enable supplementation, and/or lead to gains in product development. Analysis of PRP could also add value to future clinical trials on efficacy and potentially personalised treatment regimens.
Rapidly undertaken age-stratified serology studies can produce valuable data about a new emerging infection including background population immunity and seroincidence during an influenza pandemic. Traditionally seroepidemiology studies have used surplus laboratory sera with little or no clinical information or have been expensive detailed population based studies. We propose collecting population based sera from the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC), a sentinel network with extensive clinical data.
To pilot a mechanism to undertake population based surveys that collect serological specimens and associated patient data to measure seropositivity and seroincidence due to seasonal influenza, and create a population based serology bank.
Setting and Participants: We will recruit 6 RCGP RSC practices already taking nasopharyngeal virology swabs. Patients who attend a scheduled blood test will be consented to donate additional blood samples. Approximately 100–150 blood samples will be collected from each of the following age bands – 18– 29, 30– 39, 40– 49, 50– 59, 60– 69 and 70+ years.
We will send the samples to the Public Health England (PHE) Seroepidemiology Unit for processing and storage. These samples will be tested for influenza antibodies, using haemagglutination inhibition assays. Serology results will be pseudonymised, sent to the RCGP RSC and combined using existing processes at the RCGP RSC secure hub. The influenza seroprevalence results from the RCGP cohort will be compared against those from the annual PHE influenza residual serosurvey.
Ethical approval was granted by the Proportionate Review Sub- Committee of the London – Camden & Kings Cross on 6 February 2018. This study received approval from Health Research Authority on 7 February 2018. On completion the results will be made available via peer-reviewed journals.
The Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease (OsteoPerio) study is a prospective cohort study focused on the relationship between the microbiome and oral and systemic health outcomes in postmenopausal women. The cohort was established to examine how the oral microbiome is affected by (and how it affects) periodontal disease presence, severity and progression and to characterise the relationship between the microbiome, lifestyle habits and systemic disease outcomes.
Participants (n=1342) were postmenopausal women who were participating in the Women’s Health Initiative observational study at the Buffalo, New York clinical centre. There were 1026 participants at the 5-year follow-up visit and 518 at the 15-year visit.
Data collected include questionnaires, anthropometric measures, serum blood and saliva samples. At each clinic visit, participants completed a comprehensive oral examination to measure oral health and the oral microbiome. Preliminary findings have contributed to our understanding of risk factors for periodontal disease and the relationship between the oral microbiome and periodontal disease.
The novel microbiome data collected on a large sample of participants at three time points will be used to answer a variety of research questions focused on temporal changes in the microbiome and the relationship between the oral microbiome and oral and systemic disease outcomes. Little is currently known about the relationship between the oral microbiome and health outcomes in older adults; data from the OsteoPerio cohort will fill this gap. Microbiome samples are currently being analysed using next-generation sequencing technology with an anticipated completion date of late 2018.