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Defining CD4 T helper and T regulatory cell endotypes of progressive and remitting pulmonary sarcoidosis (BRITE): protocol for a US-based, multicentre, longitudinal observational bronchoscopy study

Por: Koth · L. L. · Harmacek · L. D. · White · E. K. · Arger · N. K. · Powers · L. · Werner · B. R. · Magallon · R. E. · Grewal · P. · Barkes · B. Q. · Li · L. · Gillespie · M. · Collins · S. E. · Cardenas · J. · Chen · E. S. · Maier · L. A. · Leach · S. M. · OConnor · B. P. · Hamzeh · N. Y.

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.

Methods and analysis

The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.

Reliability and validity of a Spanish-language measure assessing clinical capacity to sustain Paediatric Early Warning Systems (PEWS) in resource-limited hospitals

Por: Agulnik · A. · Malone · S. · Puerto-Torres · M. · Gonzalez-Ruiz · A. · Vedaraju · Y. · Wang · H. · Graetz · D. · Prewitt · K. · Villegas · C. · Cardenas-Aguierre · A. · Acuna · C. · Arana · A. E. · Diaz · R. · Espinoza · S. · Guerrero · K. · Martinez · A. · Mendez · A. · Montalvo · E. · So

Paediatric Early Warning Systems (PEWSs) improve identification of deterioration, however, their sustainability has not been studied. Sustainability is critical to maximise impact of interventions like PEWS, particularly in low-resource settings. This study establishes the reliability and validity of a Spanish-language Clinical Sustainability Assessment Tool (CSAT) to assess clinical capacity to sustain interventions in resource-limited hospitals.


Participants included PEWS implementation leadership teams of 29 paediatric cancer centres in Latin America involved in a collaborative to implement PEWS. The CSAT, a sustainability assessment tool validated in high-resource settings, was translated into Spanish and distributed to participants as an anonymous electronic survey. Psychometric, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and multivariate analyses were preformed to assess reliability, structure and initial validity. Focus groups were conducted after participants reviewed CSAT reports to assess their interpretation and utility.


The CSAT survey achieved an 80% response rate (n=169) with a mean score of 4.4 (of 5; 3.8–4.8 among centres). The CSAT had good reliability with an average internal consistency of 0.77 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.81); and CFAs supported the seven-domain structure. CSAT results were associated with respondents’ perceptions of the evidence for PEWS, its implementation and use in their centre, and their assessment of the hospital culture and implementation climate. The mean CSAT score was higher among respondents at centres with longer time using PEWS (p


We present information supporting the reliability and validity of the CSAT tool, the first Spanish-language instrument to assess clinical capacity to sustain evidence-based interventions in hospitals of variable resource levels. This assessment demonstrates a high capacity to sustain PEWS in these resource-limited centres with improvement over time from PEWS implementation.

Plan de cuidados desde clínica de heridas para el salvamento del pie diabético, un caso de éxito

Este caso clínico presenta la situación de un paciente de 66 años insulino requirente, quien se negó a realizar amputación digital transmetatarsiana en el pie derecho como única opción de tratamiento para el pie diabético, el paciente fue atendido en clínica de heridas donde se elaboró el plan de cuidados utilizando el modelo de enfermería de Virginia Henderson, las taxonomías de la North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (Nanda), Nursing Outcomes Classification (Noc) y Nursing Interventions Classification (Nic). Se establecieron como diagnósticos enfermeros: deterioro de la integridad tisular, perfusión tisular periférica ineficaz y gestión ineficaz de la salud. El desbridamiento mecánico del tejido necrótico bajo la aplicación de procesos de asepsia, el compromiso del grupo multidiscipli-nario de la salud y la educación al paciente, permitieron el salvamento de 2 falanges del dedo y el retorno a la vida normal del paciente en un periodo de 7 meses.

Pediatric home confinement due to COVID‐19: Somatic and anxiety spectrum consequences


Aims and Objectives

We aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 related home confinement on the paediatric population by focusing on anxiety, behavioural disturbances and somatic symptoms.


To limit the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, governments have imposed nationwide lockdowns to prevent direct contact; this has affected everyday lives and activities such as attending school classes. Such isolation may have impacted children’s anxiety levels.

Design and Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based anonymous questionnaire from 22–26 April, 2020, among children (N = 2,292) in Spain. For children below 7 years of age, parents reported the children’s behavioural, emotional and somatic symptoms and family environment data on a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Children over 7 years answered the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale either independently or with their parents’ assistance.


Children over 7 years, boys in particular, scored high on the anxiety spectrum. Moreover, participants who knew someone who had suffered from COVID-19 at home or whose parent was directly involved in the pandemic, obtained higher Total Anxiety scores. Significantly high values were found in all aspects of anxiety among those who feared infection or whose parents been unemployed. Of the children below 7 years, 56.3% had four or more anxiety-related symptoms, the most frequent of which were tantrums, emotional changes, restlessness and fear of being alone. The number of symptoms reported was significant when someone in the family home had been infected with COVID-19.


The COVID-19 home confinement had a significant impact on children, causing anxiety, behavioural problems and somatic manifestations.

Relevance to clinical practice

Nurses play a key role in screening children who have experience confinement owing to the COVID-19 pandemic in order to detect early anxiety symptoms using tele-health. Suitable direct interventions can then be implemented or interdisciplinary manage could be started.

Expediente Electrónico vs Expediente Físico para mejorar la calidad del proceso de atención en pacientes hospitalizados

Objetivo principal: Comparar la eficacia del uso del Expediente Clínico Electrónico (ECE) Vs Expediente Clínico Físico (ECF) en la mejora la calidad en atención de pacientes hospitalizados. Metodología: Se consideraron estudios relacionados con uso del ECE, utilizando los descriptores DeCS y MeSH, operadores booleanos AND, NOT y OR. Criterios inclusión: artículos de revisión con cinco años de publicación; criterios exclusión: pacientes ambulatorios o de consulta externa. Resultados principales: La evidencia establece ventajas del uso ECE como la facilidad de uso, accesibilidad, lectura, calidad en la documentación, control de información sobre los cuidados de los pacientes, cumplimiento normativo y toma de decisiones, lo cual reduce el riesgo de errores médicos; sin embargo, algunas desventajas es el empleo de hardware, software, redes; requiere soporte técnico las 24 horas al día. Conclusión principal: el empleo del ECE establece eficacia en la atención al paciente hospitalizado mediante la minimización de tiempos en registros y el aumento en la seguridad de la información.

COVID-19: la lucha invisible contra la ignorancia y el estigma

Trabajar para cuidar a los epidemiados representa un noble cometido en unos tiempos en que el miedo y el desaliento desata los mayores sentimientos de inseguridad entre la población. Pero también produce lo contrario, una percepción de amenaza alimentada por la ignorancia y la intransigencia, que pone en peligro la integridad de los profesionales de la salud.

Translation, cross‐cultural adaptation and validation of the “Cardiff wound impact schedule,” a wound‐specific quality of life instrument, to the native Spanish of Mexican patients

International Wound Journal Translation, cross‐cultural adaptation and validation of the “Cardiff wound impact schedule,” a wound‐specific quality of life instrument, to the native Spanish of Mexican patients


The aim of this study was to translate into Mexican Spanish, cross‐culturally adapt and validate the wound‐specific quality of life (QoL) instrument Cardiff wound impact schedule (CWIS) for Mexican patients. This instrument went through the full linguistic translation process based on the guidelines of Beaton et al (Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB, Guidelines for the process of cross‐cultural adaptation of self‐report measures, Spine Phila Pa, 1976, 2000, 318‐391). We included a total of 500 patients with chronic leg ulcers. The expert committee evaluated the Face validity and they agreed unanimously that the instrument was adequate to assess the QoL of these patients, covering all relevant areas presented by them. The content validity index obtained was of 0.95. The construct validity demonstrated moderately significant correlations between related sub‐scales of CWIS and SF‐36 (P = .010 to P < .001). The instrument was able to discriminate between healed and unhealed ulcers. The instrument obtained an overall Cronbach's alpha of .952, corresponding to an excellent internal consistency (.903‐.771 alpha range for domains). The CWIS can be appropriately used to assess the health‐related QoL of Mexican patients with chronic leg ulcers.