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Determinants of immunisation dropout among children under the age of 2 in Zambezia province, Mozambique: a community-based participatory research study using Photovoice

Por: Powelson · J. · Magadzire · B. P. · Draiva · A. · Denno · D. · Ibraimo · A. · Benate · B. B. L. · Jahar · L. C. · Marrune · Z. · Chilundo · B. · Chinai · J. E. · Emerson · M. · Beima-Sofie · K. · Lawrence · E.

Immunisations are highly impactful, cost-effective public health interventions. However, substantial gaps in complete vaccination coverage persist. We aimed to describe caregivers’ immunisation experiences and identify determinants of vaccine dropout.


We used a community-based participatory research approach employing Photovoice, SMS (short messaging service) exchanges and in-depth interviews. A team-based approach was used for thematic analysis. The Increasing Vaccination Model guided the analysis and identification of vaccination facilitators and barriers.


This study was conducted in Zambézia province, Mozambique, in Namarroi and Gilé districts, where roughly 19% of children under 2 start but do not complete the recommended vaccination schedule.


Participants were identified through health facility vaccination records and included caregivers of children aged 25–34 months who were fully vaccinated (n=10) and partially vaccinated (n=22). We also collected data from 12 health workers responsible for delivering immunisations at the selected health facilities.


Four main patterns of barriers leading to dropout emerged: (1) social norms and limited family support place the immunisation burden on mothers; (2) perceived poor quality of health services reduces caregivers’ trust in vaccination services; (3) concern about side effects causes vaccine hesitancy; and (4) caregivers hesitate to seek and advocate for vaccination due to power imbalances with health workers. COVID-19 created additional barriers related to social distancing, mask requirements, supply chain challenges and disrupted outreach services. For most caregivers, dropout becomes increasingly likely with compounding barriers. Caregivers of fully-vaccinated children noted facilitators, including accompaniment to health facilities or assistance caring for other children, which enabled them to complete vaccination.


Overcoming immunisation barriers requires strengthening health systems, including improving logistics to avert vaccine stockouts and building health worker capacity, including empathic communication with caregivers. Consistent and reliable immunisation outreach services could address access challenges and improve immunisation uptake, particularly in distant communities.

Type 2 diabetes in Scottish military veterans: a retrospective cohort study

Por: Bergman · B. P. · Mackay · D. · Pell · J. P.

Type 2 diabetes is an important public health problem but the risk in UK military veterans is unknown. We used data from the Trends in Scottish Veterans' Health study to investigate the risk in comparison with people with no record of service.


Retrospective cohort study of a large national sample in Scotland, with up to 37 years follow-up.


Pseudoanonymised extract of computerised Scottish National Health Service records, including a disease register and national vital records.


78 000 veterans and 253 000 people with no record of service matched for age, sex and area of residence.

Outcome measures

Cox proportional HRs for first record of type 2 diabetes in veterans compared with non-veterans, overall and by sex and birth cohort. Long-term trend, comorbidity with specific mental health outcomes and risk of limb loss.


Overall, 7.2% of veterans were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and were at slightly increased risk compared with non-veterans, Cox proportional HR 1.08, 95%CIs 1.04 to 1.11, p


Older veterans in Scotland have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in comparison with non-veterans, but there is no difference in respect of younger veterans, and the pattern of risk shows no evidence that it is changing. There is a positive association between type 2 diabetes and PTSD, especially in the presence of comorbid mood disorder, an important finding which should be noted by care providers.

Experiences of accessing healthcare services by people with hearing loss/impairment (deaf) in sub‐Saharan Africa: An integrative review



The aim was to review published articles to identify experiences of people with hearing loss/impairment accessing healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa.

Design and method

The study was guided by Cooper's integrative review methodology. Articles published between 2010 and 2020 were identified through electronic databases. The search included: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, EBSCOHOST, MEDLINE, and Psyc INFO and using specific search terms. Ninety-one (91) articles were identified and screened for eligibility, and only seven articles were appraised using relevant tools for qualitative and quantitative designs.


The articles that met the inclusion criteria were from the following sub-Saharan countries: Ghana (n = 2) South Africa (n = 3) Uganda (n = 1) and Zimbabwe (n = 1). Review analysis revealed seven (7) major themes categorized as: communication, lack of knowledge, discrimination, financial problem, healthcare workers’ attitudes, and a lack of autonomy, security and privacy issues.


The review provides evidence that indicate the challenges faced by people with hearing loss/impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies suggest that communication, lack of knowledge; financial problems, lack of autonomy and privacy, and a perception of being discriminated against were major impediments in accessing healthcare service. Undesirable attitudes were also a hindrance for healthcare access.

Clinical relevance

Communication is a major impediment in accessing healthcare for the hearing impaired people residing in sub-Saharan Africa.

Defining CD4 T helper and T regulatory cell endotypes of progressive and remitting pulmonary sarcoidosis (BRITE): protocol for a US-based, multicentre, longitudinal observational bronchoscopy study

Por: Koth · L. L. · Harmacek · L. D. · White · E. K. · Arger · N. K. · Powers · L. · Werner · B. R. · Magallon · R. E. · Grewal · P. · Barkes · B. Q. · Li · L. · Gillespie · M. · Collins · S. E. · Cardenas · J. · Chen · E. S. · Maier · L. A. · Leach · S. M. · OConnor · B. P. · Hamzeh · N. Y.

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.

Methods and analysis

The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.