Continuous general practitioner (GP) and patient relations associate with positive health outcomes. Termination of GP practice is unavoidable, while consequences of final breaks in relations are less explored. We will study how an ended GP relation affects patient’s healthcare utilisation and mortality compared with patients with a continuous GP relation.
We link national registries data on individual GP affiliation, sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare use and mortality. From 2008 to 2021, we identify patients whose GP stopped practicing and will compare acute and elective, primary and specialist healthcare use and mortality, with patients whose GP did not stop practicing. We match GP–patient pairs on age and sex (both), immigrant status and education (patients), and number of patients and practice period (GPs). We analyse the outcomes before and after an ended GP–patient relation, using Poisson regression with high-dimensional fixed effects.
This study protocol is part of the approved project Improved Decisions with Causal Inference in Health Services Research, 2016/2159/REK Midt (the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics) and does not require consent. HUNT Cloud provides secure data storage and computing. We will report using the STROBE guideline for observational case–control studies and publish in peer-reviewed journals, accessible in NTNU Open and present at scientific conferences. To reach a broader audience, we will summarise articles in the project’s web page, regular and social media, and disseminate to relevant stakeholders.
Muslims have been shown to have less favourable attitudes towards organ donation and are less likely to consent to donate their organs. While several studies have been undertaken globally to identify the barriers and facilitators of organ donation, no systematic review has synthesised this evidence to date. Therefore, this systematic review aims to identify the barriers and facilitators of organ donation among Muslims living globally.
This systematic review will include cross-sectional surveys and qualitative studies published between 30 April 2008 and 30 June 2023. Evidence will be restricted only to studies reported in English. An extensive search strategy will be used in PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, Global Health and Web of Science, as well as specific relevant journals that may not be indexed in these databases. A quality appraisal will be undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute quality appraisal tool. An integrative narrative synthesis will be used to synthesise the evidence.
Ethical approval has been obtained from the Institute for Health Research Ethics Committee (IHREC) (IHREC987), University of Bedfordshire. The findings of this review will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed journal articles and leading international conferences.
Summarise longitudinal observational studies to determine whether diabetes (types 1 and 2) is a risk factor for frozen shoulder.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, Epistemonikos, Trip, PEDro, OpenGrey and The Grey Literature Report were searched on January 2019 and updated in June 2021. Reference screening and emailing professional contacts were also used.
Longitudinal observational studies that estimated the association between diabetes and developing frozen shoulder.
Data extraction was completed by one reviewer and independently checked by another using a predefined extraction sheet. Risk of bias was judged using the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool. For studies providing sufficient data, random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive summary estimates of the association between diabetes and the onset of frozen shoulder.
A meta-analysis of six case–control studies including 5388 people estimated the odds of developing frozen shoulder for people with diabetes to be 3.69 (95% CI 2.99 to 4.56) times the odds for people without diabetes. Two cohort studies were identified, both suggesting diabetes was associated with frozen shoulder, with HRs of 1.32 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.42) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.91). Risk of bias was judged as high in seven studies and moderate in one study.
People with diabetes are more likely to develop frozen shoulder. Risk of unmeasured confounding was the main limitation of this systematic review. High-quality studies are needed to confirm the strength of, and understand reasons for, the association.
Nowadays, most rectal tumours are treated open or minimally invasive, using laparoscopic, robot-assisted or transanal total mesorectal excision. However, insight into the total costs of these techniques is limited. Since all three techniques are currently being performed, including cost considerations in the choice of treatment technique may significantly impact future healthcare costs. Therefore, this systematic review aims to provide an overview of evidence regarding costs in patients with rectal cancer following open, laparoscopic, robot-assisted and transanal total mesorectal excision.
A systematic search will be conducted for papers between January 2000 and March 2022. Databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases will be searched. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be performed independently by four reviewers and discrepancies will be resolved through discussion. The Consensus Health Economic Criteria list will be used for assessing risk of bias. Total costs of the different techniques, consisting of but not limited to, theatre, in-hospital and postoperative costs, will be the primary outcome.
No ethical approval is required, as there is no collection of patient data at an individual level. Findings will be disseminated widely, through peer-reviewed publication and presentation at relevant national and international conferences.
Immunisations are highly impactful, cost-effective public health interventions. However, substantial gaps in complete vaccination coverage persist. We aimed to describe caregivers’ immunisation experiences and identify determinants of vaccine dropout.
We used a community-based participatory research approach employing Photovoice, SMS (short messaging service) exchanges and in-depth interviews. A team-based approach was used for thematic analysis. The Increasing Vaccination Model guided the analysis and identification of vaccination facilitators and barriers.
This study was conducted in Zambézia province, Mozambique, in Namarroi and Gilé districts, where roughly 19% of children under 2 start but do not complete the recommended vaccination schedule.
Participants were identified through health facility vaccination records and included caregivers of children aged 25–34 months who were fully vaccinated (n=10) and partially vaccinated (n=22). We also collected data from 12 health workers responsible for delivering immunisations at the selected health facilities.
Four main patterns of barriers leading to dropout emerged: (1) social norms and limited family support place the immunisation burden on mothers; (2) perceived poor quality of health services reduces caregivers’ trust in vaccination services; (3) concern about side effects causes vaccine hesitancy; and (4) caregivers hesitate to seek and advocate for vaccination due to power imbalances with health workers. COVID-19 created additional barriers related to social distancing, mask requirements, supply chain challenges and disrupted outreach services. For most caregivers, dropout becomes increasingly likely with compounding barriers. Caregivers of fully-vaccinated children noted facilitators, including accompaniment to health facilities or assistance caring for other children, which enabled them to complete vaccination.
Overcoming immunisation barriers requires strengthening health systems, including improving logistics to avert vaccine stockouts and building health worker capacity, including empathic communication with caregivers. Consistent and reliable immunisation outreach services could address access challenges and improve immunisation uptake, particularly in distant communities.
Type 2 diabetes is an important public health problem but the risk in UK military veterans is unknown. We used data from the Trends in Scottish Veterans' Health study to investigate the risk in comparison with people with no record of service.
Retrospective cohort study of a large national sample in Scotland, with up to 37 years follow-up.
Pseudoanonymised extract of computerised Scottish National Health Service records, including a disease register and national vital records.
78 000 veterans and 253 000 people with no record of service matched for age, sex and area of residence.
Cox proportional HRs for first record of type 2 diabetes in veterans compared with non-veterans, overall and by sex and birth cohort. Long-term trend, comorbidity with specific mental health outcomes and risk of limb loss.
Overall, 7.2% of veterans were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and were at slightly increased risk compared with non-veterans, Cox proportional HR 1.08, 95%CIs 1.04 to 1.11, p
Older veterans in Scotland have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in comparison with non-veterans, but there is no difference in respect of younger veterans, and the pattern of risk shows no evidence that it is changing. There is a positive association between type 2 diabetes and PTSD, especially in the presence of comorbid mood disorder, an important finding which should be noted by care providers.
Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.
The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.
The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.