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Mapping the evidence regarding school-to-work/university transition and health inequalities among young adults: a scoping review protocol

Por: Matos Fialho · P. M. · Dragano · N. · Reuter · M. · Metzendorf · M.-I. · Richter · B. · Hoffmann · S. · Diehl · K. · Wachtler · B. · Sundmacher · L. · Herke · M. · Pischke · C.

School-to-work/university transition is a sensitive period that can have a substantial impact on health and health behaviour over the life course. There is some indication that health and health behaviour is socially patterned in the age span of individuals in this transition (16–24 years) and that there are differences by socioeconomic position (SEP). However, evidence regarding this phenomenon has not been systematically mapped. In addition, little is known about the role of institutional characteristics (eg, of universities, workplaces) in the development of health and possible inequalities in health during this transition. Hence, the first objective of this scoping review is to systematically map the existing evidence regarding health and health behaviours (and possible health inequalities, for example, differences by SEP) in the age group of 16–24 years and during school-to-work transition noted in Germany and abroad. The second objective is to summarise the evidence on the potential effects of contextual and compositional characteristics of specific institutions entered during this life stage on health and health behaviours. Third, indicators and measures of these characteristics will be summarised.

Methods and analysis

We will systematically map the evidence on health inequalities during school-to-work-transitions among young adults (aged 16–24 years), following the methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O’Malley. The literature search is performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, International Labour Organization and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, using a predetermined search strategy. Articles published between January 2000 and February 2020 in English or German are considered for the review. The selection process follows a two-step approach: (1) screening of titles and abstracts, and (2) screening of full texts, both steps by two independent reviewers. Any discrepancies in the selection process are resolved by a third researcher. Data extraction will be performed using a customised data extraction sheet. The results will be presented in tabular and narrative form.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval is not required for this scoping review. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at international conferences and project workshops.

Best Practices for Obtaining Genomic Consent in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research

imageBackground Precision health relies on large sample sizes to ensure adequate power, generalizability, and replicability; however, a critical first step to any study is the successful recruitment of participants. Objectives This study seeks to explore how the enrollment strategies used in a parent study contributed to the high consent rates, establish current best practices that can be used in future studies, and identify additional factors that contribute to consent into pediatric traumatic brain injury biobanks. Methods Retrospective secondary analysis of data from a parent study with high consent rates was examined to explore factors affecting consent into biobanking studies. Results Of the 76 subjects who were approached, met the eligibility criteria, and reviewed the consent form, only 16 (21.1%) declined to participate. The consented group (n = 60) represents 64.5% of those who met the eligibility criteria upon initial screening (n = 93) and 78.9% of those with confirmed eligibility (n = 76). Analysis of screening data suggested there were no major barriers to consenting individuals into this pediatric traumatic brain injury biobank. Discussion There were no demographic or research-related characteristics that significantly explained enrollment. Ethically, to obtain true informed consent, parents need to understand only their child’s diagnosis, prognosis, and medical care, as well as the purpose of the proposed research and its risks and benefits. Researchers need to implement best practices, including a comprehensive review of census data to identify eligible participants to approach, a prescreening protocol, and effective consenting process to obtain informed consent so that precision care initiatives can be pursued.

Family Violence Curricula in Europe (FAVICUE): a cross-sectional descriptive study protocol

Por: Gomez Bravo · R. · Lygidakis · C. · Feder · G. · Reuter · R. A. P. · Vögele · C.

Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem of epidemic proportions and serious consequences. Doctors may be the first or only point of contact for victims who may be hesitant or unable to seek other sources of assistance, and they tend not to disclose abuse to doctors if not specifically asked. A comprehensive healthcare response is key to a coordinated community-wide approach to FV, but most of the practising physicians have received either no or insufficient education or training in any aspect of FV. Training of medical students concerning FV is often delivered in an inconsistent or ad hoc manner.

The main aim of this project, Family Violence Curricula in Europe (FAVICUE), is to (1) describe current FV education delivery in European medical universities (undergraduate period) and during the specialist training in general practice (GP)/family medicine (FM) (postgraduate residency programme), and (2) compare it with WHO recommendations for FV curriculum.

Methods and analysis

This is the protocol of a cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of two self-report online surveys (for undergraduate and postgraduate training, respectively) with 40 questions each. For both surveys, general practitioners, residents, medical students and professionals involved in their education from countries of the European region will be identified through the European Regional Branch of the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA Europe) and will be invited to provide information regarding the training on FV. Descriptive tests will be carried out and a thematic analysis will be conducted on the open-ended questions.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics approval has been obtained by the University of Luxembourg (ERP 17–015 FAVICUE). The results will provide important information concerning current curricula on FV, and can be used for mapping the educational needs and planning the implementation of future training interventions. They will be published and disseminated through WONCA Europe and its networks.