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Associations of statin use with 30-day adverse outcomes among 4 801 406 US Veterans with and without SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study

Por: Wander · P. L. · Lowy · E. · Beste · L. A. · Tulloch-Palomino · L. · Korpak · A. · Peterson · A. C. · Kahn · S. E. · Danaei · G. · Boyko · E. J.

To estimate associations of statin use with hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality at 30 days among individuals with and without a positive test for SARS-CoV-2.


Retrospective cohort study.


US Veterans Health Administration (VHA).


All veterans receiving VHA healthcare with ≥1 positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 March 2020 and 10 March 2021 (cases; n=231 154) and a comparator group of controls comprising all veterans who did not have a positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 but who did have ≥1 clinical lab test performed during the same time period (n=4 570 252).

Main outcomes

Associations of: (1) any statin use, (2) use of specific statins or (3) low-intensity/moderate-intensity versus high-intensity statin use at the time of positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 (cases) or result of clinical lab test (controls) assessed from pharmacy records with hospitalisation, ICU admission and death at 30 days. We also examined whether associations differed between individuals with and without a positive test for SARS-CoV-2.


Among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, statin use was associated with lower odds of death at 30 days (OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.85)) but not with hospitalisation or ICU admission. Associations were similar comparing use of each specific statin to no statin. Compared with low-/moderate intensity statin use, high-intensity statin use was not associated with lower odds of ICU admission or death. Over the same period, associations of statin use with 30-day outcomes were significantly stronger among individuals without a positive test for SARS-CoV-2: hospitalisation OR 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.80), ICU admission OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.90) and death 0.60 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.62; p for interaction all


Associations of statin use with lower adverse 30-day outcomes are weaker among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with individuals without a positive test, indicating that statins do not exert SARS-CoV-2 specific effects.

Multimorbidity and mortality in an older, rural black South African population cohort with high prevalence of HIV findings from the HAALSI Study

Por: Wade · A. N. · Payne · C. F. · Berkman · L. · Chang · A. · Gomez-Olive · F. X. · Kabudula · C. · Kahn · K. · Salomon · J. A. · Tollman · S. · Witham · M. · Davies · J.

Multimorbidity is associated with mortality in high-income countries. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between multimorbidity (≥2 of the following chronic medical conditions: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, anaemia, HIV, angina, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence) and all-cause mortality in an older, rural black South African population. We further investigated the relationship between HIV multimorbidity (HIV as part of the multimorbidity cluster) and mortality, while testing for the effect of frailty in all models.


Population cohort study.


Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province, South Africa.


4455 individuals (54.7% female), aged ≥40 years (median age 61 years, IQR 52–71) and resident in the study area.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The primary outcome measure was time to death and the secondary outcome measure was likelihood of death within 2 years of the initial study visit. Mortality was determined during annual population surveillance updates.


3157 individuals (70.9%) had multimorbidity; 29% of these had HIV. In models adjusted for age and sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity was associated with greater risk of death (women: HR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.50; men: HR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.95) and greater odds of dying within 2 years (women: OR 2.34; 95% CI: 1.32 to 4.16; men: OR 1.51; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.24). HIV multimorbidity was associated with increased risk of death compared with non-HIV multimorbidity in men (HR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.54), but was not statistically significant in women (HR 1.85; 95% CI: 0.85 to 4.04); when detectable, HIV viral loads were higher in men (p=0.021). Further adjustment for frailty slightly attenuated the associations between multimorbidity and mortality risk (women: HR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.26; men: HR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.82), but slightly increased associations between HIV multimorbidity and mortality risk.


Multimorbidity is associated with mortality in this older black South African population. Health systems which currently focus on HIV should be reorganised to optimise identification and management of other prevalent chronic diseases.

MUFFIN-PTS trial, Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction for the Treatment of Post-Thrombotic Syndrome: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Por: Galanaud · J. P. · Abdulrehman · J. · Lazo-Langner · A. · Le Gal · G. · Shivakumar · S. · Schulman · S. · Kahn · S.

After deep vein thrombosis, up to 50% of patients develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). PTS is a chronic condition that reduces quality of life (QOL). Cornerstones of PTS treatment include the use of elastic compression stockings but this treatment is usually incompletely effective and is burdensome. Venoactive drugs have been reported to be effective to treat chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). However, the level of evidence supporting their use in CVI in general and in PTS in particular is low.

Methods and analysis

The MUFFIN-PTS trial is an academic, publically funded, multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of micronised purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF, Venixxa), a venoactive drug, to treat PTS. Eighty-six patients with PTS (Villalta score (VS) ≥5) and experiencing at least two of the following PTS manifestations among daily leg heaviness, cramps, pain or oedema will be randomised to receive 1000 mg of oral MPFF or a similar appearing placebo for 6 months, in addition to their usual PTS treatment. Total study follow-up will be 9 months, with visits at inclusion/baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Primary outcome is the proportion of patients with improvement in VS in each group, where improvement is defined as a decrease of at least 30% in VS or a VS

Ethics and dissemination

Primary ethics approval was received from Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux (CIUSSS) West-Central Montreal Research Ethics Board. Results of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific conferences.

Trial registration number Registry (NCT03833024); Pre-results.