The Protective Behavioural Strategies for Marijuana (PBSM-17) scale serves to identify and measure strategies employed by young adults before, during or after cannabis use. After the adaptation and translation of the PBSM-17 into French, a methodological study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of this French version (FV) and of the original English version (EV) in a sample of bilingual Canadian university students.
A total of 211 cannabis users (mean age=22.1 years) completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, a question on frequency of cannabis use (four categories: 1–3 times a month, once a week, more than once a week, everyday) and both versions (FV and EV) of the PBSM-17.
Both versions had similar internal reliability (α=0.91; α=0.88). The one-factor solution explained 36.46% of the variance for the FV and 42.26% for the EV. As hypothesised, greater use of protective behavioural strategies was related to lower frequency of cannabis use. One-way ANOVA test results revealed a statistically significant difference in use of strategies by frequency of cannabis use for both the FV (F(3, 207)=27.38, p
The FV and EV of the PBSM-17 demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties. The proposed FV of the PBSM-17 is a reliable instrument that could be used for research and clinical purposes. Protective behavioural strategies can serve as indicator of lower-risk cannabis use and could be targeted in prevention interventions.
To quantify the frequency of antibiotic treatments attributable to specific enteric pathogens due to the treatment of diarrhoea among children in the first 2 years of life in low-resource settings.
Secondary analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort study, Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED).
This study was conducted at eight sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Peru, Pakistan, South Africa and Tanzania.
We analysed 9392 reported diarrhoea episodes, including 6677 with molecular diagnostic test results, as well as 31 408 non-diarrhoeal stools from 1715 children aged 0–2 years with 2 years of complete follow-up data.
We estimated incidence rates and the proportions of antibiotic use for diarrhoea and for all indications attributable to the top 10 aetiologies of diarrhoea. We estimated associations between specific aetiologies and antibiotic treatment, and assessed whether clinical characteristics of the diarrhoea episodes mediated these relationships.
Shigella and rotavirus were the leading causes of antibiotic treatment, responsible for 11.7% and 8.6% of diarrhoea treatments and 14.8 and 10.9 courses per 100 child-years, respectively. Shigella and rotavirus-attributable diarrhoea episodes were 46% (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.60), and 19% (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.31) more likely to be treated with antibiotics, respectively, compared with other aetiologies. Considering antibiotic uses for all indications, these two pathogens accounted for 5.6% of all antibiotic courses, 19.3% of all fluoroquinolone courses and 9.5% of all macrolide courses. Among indicated treatments for dysentery, Shigella and Campylobacter jenjui/Campylobacter coli were responsible for 27.5% and 8.5% of treated episodes, respectively.
The evidence that Shigella and rotavirus were disproportionately responsible for antibiotic use due to their high burden and severity further strengthens the value of interventions targeted to these pathogens. Interventions against Campylobacter could further prevent a large burden of indicated antibiotic treatment for dysentery, which could not be averted by antibiotic stewardship interventions.
To determine the association between left atrial epicardial conduction time (LAECT), fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after thoracoscopic surgical ablation of persistent AF.
Single tertiary care centre in the Netherlands.
Patients with persistent AF from the randomised Atrial Fibrillation Ablation and Autonomic Modulation via Thoracoscopic Surgery (AFACT)-trial were included. Patients eligible for thoracoscopic AF ablation were included, full inclusion and exclusion criteria were previously published. All patients underwent thoracoscopic ablation, encompassing pulmonary vein isolation with an additional roof and trigone lesion. In patients with conduction block across the roof and trigone lesion, LAECT was measured. LAECT was defined as the time to local activation at one side of the roofline on pacing from the opposite side. Collagen fibre density was quantified from left atrial appendage histology.
Primary outcome: AF recurrence during 2 years of follow-up.
121 patients were included, of whom 35(29%) were women, age was 60.4±7.8 and 51% (62) had at least one AF recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. LAECT was longer in patients with versus without AF recurrence (182±43 ms vs 147±29 ms, p
LAECT is correlated with collagen fibre density and BMI and is independently associated with AF recurrence in patients with persistent AF. In these patients, LAECT appears to reflect substrate characteristics beyond clinical AF type and left atrial volume.
Monitoring instructions related to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are not always clearly described in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and not always easily applicable in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the clarity of presentation and the applicability of ADR-related monitoring instructions in CPGs for children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic drugs.
Guidelines from different countries were selected, and monitoring instructions for 13 ADR-related parameters were assessed.
To assess the clarity and the applicability of the sections concerning monitoring instructions in each CPG, the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrument was used. To assess the clarity and the applicability of the monitoring instructions for each ADR-related parameter, the Systematic Information for Monitoring score was used.
Six CPGs were included. Overall, the presentation of the monitoring instructions in the different CPGs was clear; three CPGs scored >75%. All CPGs scored lower on applicability, as, for example, the barriers and facilitators were poorly described. The number of ADR-related parameters included in the CPGs varied between 8 and 13. Why and what to monitor was always described for each parameter. When to start monitoring was also often described (90.2%), but when to stop monitoring was less frequently described (37.4%).
The CPGs differed on the parameters that needed to be monitored. Overall, the monitoring instructions were clearly presented, but improvement in their applicability is required. By improving the monitoring instructions, CPGs can provide better guidance on monitoring ADRs in daily clinical practice.
Patient safety is a healthcare discipline that aims to prevent and reduce patient harm, risks and errors during the provision of healthcare. Given the size of the nursing workforce in the healthcare system the inclusion of patient safety in the undergraduate nursing curriculum is necessary to enhance a safe culture in the daily work of their future careers. To this end, it is essential to apply effective teaching strategies to develop patient safety competencies. This review will aim to evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions in developing patient safety knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes in undergraduate nursing students within the existing topic areas of the WHO Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide.
The databases Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Education Research Complete, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, Medes and Grey literature such as ClinicalTrials.gov, Google Scholar, DART-Europe, ProQuest Dissertations, CAPES thesis and dissertations, The Virginia Henderson Global e-Repository, Mednar and Thesis Canada will be searched from July 2011 to January 2022. Two independent reviewers will conduct the search, extract the data and assess the risk of bias for the included studies, using standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The quality of the evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment Development and Evaluation methodology. Studies will be pooled in the meta-analysis. Alternatively, the findings will be presented in narrative form, including tables and figures, to aid in data presentation.
This study raises no ethical issues. The findings will be disseminated through presentations at professional conferences and publications in a peer-reviewed journal.
Accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is key to evaluate its effects. We sought to validate and establish cut-offs for self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy using urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(-3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a large contemporary prospective study from the USA, with lower smoking prevalence than has previously been evaluated.
Prospective birth cohort.
Pregnancy clinics in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA.
1396 women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study with self-reported smoking, urinary cotinine, NNAL and pregnancy outcomes.
Cut-offs for urinary cotinine and NNAL concentrations were estimated from logistic regression models using Youden’s method to predict SHS and active smoking. Cotinine and NNAL were each used as the exposure in separate multifactorial models for pregnancy outcomes.
Self-reported maternal smoking was: 72% non-smokers, 5.7% ex-smokers, 6.4% SHS exposure, 6.2% currently smoked, 10% unreported. Cotinine and NNAL levels were low and highly intercorrelated (r=0.91). Geometric mean cotinine, NNAL were 0.99 ng/mL, 0.05 pmol/mL, respectively. Cotinine cut-offs for SHS, current smoking were 1.2 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL (area under curve (AUC) 95% CI: 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57), 0.90 (0.85 to 0.94)). NNAL cut-off for current smoking was 0.09 pmol/mL (AUC=0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.87)). Using cotinine and NNAL cut-offs combined gave similar AUC to cotinine alone, 0.87 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.91). Cotinine and NNAL gave almost identical effect estimates when modelling pregnancy outcomes.
In this population, we observed high concordance between self-complete questionnaire smoking data and urinary cotinine and NNAL. With respect to biomarkers, either cotinine or NNAL can be used as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure overall but only cotinine can be used to detect SHS.
Physical activity is important for healthy ageing. Despite strong evidence on the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being, physical inactivity remains a significant problem among older adults. This study aims to determine the feasibility and acceptability of implementing an online volunteer-led group exercise for older adults.
A quasi-experimental mixed-methods approach will be used in this study. A training programme will be developed to train volunteers to deliver online group exercises to older adults aged >65 years (n=30). The primary outcome is the feasibility of implementing the intervention. This will be assessed by the number of volunteers recruited, trained, and retained at the end of the study, and the number of exercise sessions delivered and completed by participants. Secondary outcomes include physical activity levels measured using the Community Health Model Activities Programme for Seniors questionnaire, Barthel Index, EQ-5D-5L as a measure of health-related quality of life, SARC-F to determine sarcopenia status, and PRIMSA-7 to determine frailty status. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at 6 months.
Qualitative interviews will be conducted with volunteers(n=5), older adults (n=10) and family members (n=5) to explore their views on the intervention.
Simple descriptive statistics will be used to describe participant characteristics, the feasibility of the study and the impact of the intervention on health outcomes. Parametric(t-test) or non-parametric(Mann-Whitney U test) statistics will be used to analyse continuous variables. 2 test will be used for categorical variables. Qualitative data will be analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach.
This study received ethical approval from the University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee and Research Integrity and Governance committee (ID: 52 967 .A1). Study findings will be made available to service users, voluntary organisations and other researchers who may be interested in implementing the intervention.
Assessing the impact of COVID-19 policy is critical for informing future policies. However, there are concerns about the overall strength of COVID-19 impact evaluation studies given the circumstances for evaluation and concerns about the publication environment.
We included studies that were primarily designed to estimate the quantitative impact of one or more implemented COVID-19 policies on direct SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 outcomes. After searching PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published on 26 November 2020 or earlier and screening, all studies were reviewed by three reviewers first independently and then to consensus. The review tool was based on previously developed and released review guidance for COVID-19 policy impact evaluation.
After 102 articles were identified as potentially meeting inclusion criteria, we identified 36 published articles that evaluated the quantitative impact of COVID-19 policies on direct COVID-19 outcomes. Nine studies were set aside because the study design was considered inappropriate for COVID-19 policy impact evaluation (n=8 pre/post; n=1 cross-sectional), and 27 articles were given a full consensus assessment. 20/27 met criteria for graphical display of data, 5/27 for functional form, 19/27 for timing between policy implementation and impact, and only 3/27 for concurrent changes to the outcomes. Only 4/27 were rated as overall appropriate. Including the 9 studies set aside, reviewers found that only four of the 36 identified published and peer-reviewed health policy impact evaluation studies passed a set of key design checks for identifying the causal impact of policies on COVID-19 outcomes.
The reviewed literature directly evaluating the impact of COVID-19 policies largely failed to meet key design criteria for inference of sufficient rigour to be actionable by policy-makers. More reliable evidence review is needed to both identify and produce policy-actionable evidence, alongside the recognition that actionable evidence is often unlikely to be feasible.