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Places of worship can be health promotion spaces for faith-based black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) communities

Por: Ali · P.

Commentary on: Tomalin E, Sadgrove J, Summers R. Health, faith and therapeutic landscapes: places of worship as black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) public health settings in the United Kingdom. Soc Sci Med 2019;230:57–65.

Implications for practice and research

  • Further research is needed to understand how faith can influence health behaviours of members of faith-based communities.

  • Public health professionals should recognise that places of worship provide a point for people from same faith and especially for those from black, Asian and minority ethnic communities (in the UK context) to come together.

  • Context

    Individuals’ faith plays an important role in their ways of living and day-to-day choices. The relationship between faith and improved health outcomes, especially with regard to individuals from black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) community has been a focus of recent research.1 2 While the importance of faith-based...

    Adhering to tobacco dependency medications requires collaborative and personalised interventions for long-term smoking cessation outcomes in adults

    Por: Frazer · K.

    Commentary on: Sanders CJ, Lindenmeyer MA, Marriott J. A meta-ethnography of adult smokers’ exploring the meanings of tobacco dependency medications adherence behaviours during smoking cessation. J Adv Nurs 2019. doi: 10.1111/jan.14146. [Epub ahead of print: 09 Jul 2019].

    Implications for practice and research

  • Understanding smokers’ perspectives and willpower are necessary for effective health communications and smoking cessation practices.

  • Further research is needed to understand resistance to tobacco dependence medications and tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  • Context

    The detrimental effect of smoking on health is well known. Over 8 million deaths worldwide are associated with smoking; 7 million deaths result from direct tobacco use.1 The role of tobacco dependency medications has been established as effective in quitting smoking.2 3 However, factors that influence tobacco dependency medication (TDM) effectiveness in real-world settings, including adherence to treatment regimens, are less well known.

    Pedometer-based walking interventions provide sustained increases in physical activity levels, as well as reductions in cardiovascular events and fractures

    Por: Pavagadhi · D. · Car · J.

    Commentary on: Harris T, Limb ES, Hosking F, et al. Effect of pedometer-based walking interventions on long-term health outcomes: prospective 4-year follow-up of two randomised controlled trials using routine primary care data. PLoS Med 2019;16:e1002836.

    Implications for practice and research

  • A primary care pedometer-based intervention can be an effective and scalable approach for increasing physical activity, and potentially improving long-term health outcomes.

  • Further research is needed for testing the effects of comparable physical activity to identify if outcomes differ across diseases depending on the length of follow-up and change in the physical activity levels.

  • Context

    Long-term diseases are a priority health concern globally, and associated with considerable disease burden,1 lowered quality of life,2 morbidity and mortality.1 2 Prompt and evidence-based approaches for the prevention and optimal management of long-term diseases are imperative. Although the association between...

    Oral health should be considered when working with adults with intellectual disabilities, and larger, higher-quality studies in this area are needed

    Por: Hill · J. · Doherty · A. · Firestone · J.

    Commentary on: Ward LM, Cooper SA, Hughes-McCormack L, et al. Oral health of adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. J Intellet Disabil Res 2019;63:1359–78. doi:10.1111/jir.12632

    Implications for practice and research

  • Larger, higher-quality studies are needed to investigate the oral health needs of adults with intellectual disabilities.

  • Specific training in oral hygiene care and oral disease management should be given when working with adults with intellectual disabilities.

  • Context

    Poor oral health can have a harmful influence on an individual’s self-esteem, self-image, social interaction, stress, mood and can cause other health problems.1 In a previous systematic review, it was highlighted that adults with intellectual disabilities were more likely to experience poor oral health compared with the general public.2 Since this publication there has been a wide range of international research and policy development looking at specifically improving oral health for adults...

    Are E-cigarettes more effective in supporting smoking cessation than nicotine-replacement therapy?

    Por: Cadet · M.

    Commentary on: Hajek P, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, et al. A randomized trial of E-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy. N Engl J Med 2019;380:629-37. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1808779.

    Commentary: implication for research and practice

  • Nurses need to design evidence-based research studies on the prevention of smoking using e-cigarettes or nicotine-replacement therapy to improve health.

  • Nurses should support patients’ treatment preferences and values, based on evidence-based practice guidelines for smoking cessation.

  • Context

    A total of 34.3 million people are smokers in the USA.1 Smoking leads to disease, disability and harms to nearly every organ of the body.1 Treating smoking addictions has received a great deal of attention in recent years, but there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments using e-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy.2

    Methods

    Eight hundred and eighty-six participants underwent randomisation by assigning two groups from...

    Maternal weight status before pregnancy is strongly associated with offspring weight status in childhood

    Por: Cooper · R. · Pinto Pereira · S. M.

    Commentary on: Heslehurst N, Vieira R, Akhter Z, et al. The association between maternal body mass index and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 2019;16:e1002817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002817.

    Implications for practice and research

  • When designing strategies to prevent childhood obesity, the weight status of women prepregnancy is a potential target for intervention.

  • Research is needed to identify interventions that are effective in reducing the prevalence of maternal prepregnancy obesity.

  • Context

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes across life. The rise in its global prevalence is therefore one of the most important public health challenges of our time.1

    Obesity tracks across life and so interventions to reduce its prevalence and minimise its lifelong consequences need to commence early in life.2 Parental and offspring weight status are strongly associated,3 and it is recognised that intervening on these...

    School asthma intervention programme effectively improved childrens knowledge and attitudes, and led to decreased hospital admission, length of stay and school absences

    Por: Saleh · A. S. E. M.

    Commentary on: Harris KM, Kneale D, Lasserson TJ, et al. School-based self-management interventions for asthma in children and adolescents: a mixed methods systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019;1:CD011651. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011651.pub2.

    Implications for practice and research

  • School intervention programmes directed towards self-management of asthma among school-aged children helped to improve knowledge and attitudes towards asthma.

  • The programmes lead to a decrease in length of the hospitalisation and admission to emergency units, as well as alleviation in severity and complications of asthma symptoms, thereby improving school performance and attendance.

  • Future research should focus on studying the effect of asthma-friendly school settings as a supportive learning environment for asthma school-aged children in improving their health status and school performance.

  • Context

    Asthma is a common chronic disease that is estimated to affect as many as 339 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of morbidity...

    Evaluation of care coordination among healthy community-dwelling older adults finds promising but minimal impact

    Por: Kean · T.

    Commentary on: Franse CB, van Grieken A, Alhambra-Borrás T, et al. The effectiveness of a coordinated preventive care approach for healthy ageing (UHCE) among older persons in five European cities: a pre-post controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2018; 88:153–162. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.

    Implications for practice and research

  • Primary healthcare service coordination among independent older adults can improve the effectiveness, safety and efficiency of a healthcare system and deliver safer and more effective care.

  • Research to examine the cumulative effects of coordinated preventive care, implemented at age 65 for a period of 5–10 years may reveal a legacy effect related to early health intervention.

  • Context

    The health of older adults can become more complex with each passing year. Multiple comorbidities and decreased capacity can lead to frequent health system use and increased healthcare costs.1 2 Many countries have adopted strategies to enable older adults...

    Fragmented health and well-being services as contributing barriers in overcoming the unmet needs of a population with special needs

    Por: Chowdhury · N. · Turin · T. C.

    Commentary on: Brewer A. "We were on our own": Mothers’ experiences navigating the fragmented system of professional care for autism. Soc Sci Med 2018; 215:61-8.

    Implications for practice and research

  • Managing conditions like autism disorder requires a multidisciplinary approach that effectively integrates subsections of medical and other professionals and facilitating patients’ and caregivers’ access to required services.

  • The consequences of the rising trend of super-specialisation and sub-specialisation of medical professions on patients and their caregivers need to be studied in future studies.

  • Context

    Studies have shown that increasing fragmentation of the healthcare system leads to systemic deficiencies, lack of coordination between professionals from collaborating disciplines, increased expenditure, inequalities and deprofessionalisation.1 2However, information on how decentralisation or fragmentation affects healthcare receivers and their caregivers requiring multidisciplinary approach is limited. Brewer’s study examines how the subdivisions of professional jurisdictions of childhood disabilities...

    Increased intake of omega-3 during pregnancy can reduce preterm births

    Por: Frazer · K.

    Commentary on: Middleton P, Gomersall JC, Gould JF, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid addition during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018;210. Art. No: CD003402. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003402.pub3

    Implications for practice and research

  • Increasing omega-3 intake during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of preterm birth.

  • No further studies comparing omega-3 with placebo are required.

  • Future research should ensure inclusion of wider socioeconomic populations and assess longer term maternal and child outcomes.

  • Context

    The WHO defines preterm births as babies born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy; 10.6% of all live births globally are preterm, and it is the leading cause of death for children aged 1 2 The causes of preterm births are complex; the role of diet and nutrition is acknowledged.1 Fish and fish oil contain omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA); particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have...

    Health checks have a limited effect on reducing morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic populations

    Por: Frazer · K.

    Commentary on: Krogsbøll LT, Jørgensen KJ, Gøtzsche PC. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019;1:CD009009. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009009.pub3.

    Implications for practice and research

  • Current evidence does not support continuing trials of health checks in general population and could lead to unnecessary tests and treatments.

  • Future research should examine effects of structural public health interventions including effects of higher tax on cigarettes and alcohol on reducing disease.

  • Context

    General health check programmes screen asymptomatic groups with the aim of detecting disease or risk factors at an earlier stage to prevent future illness and improve health outcomes.1 2 General health screening, while providing benefits, is associated with disadvantages including false reassurance or over treatment.3 Criteria for establishing screening and evaluation of programmes are essential.3

    Methods

    This was an update...

    Relational communication characteristics are an important facet of building effective practitioner-patient care relationships

    Por: Lawal · M.

    Commentary on: Peltola M, Isotalus P, Åstedt-Kurki P, et al. Patients’ interpersonal communication experiences in the context of type 2 diabetes care. Qual Health Res 2018;28:1267–82.

    Implications for practice and research

  • The quality of healthcare practitioner versus patient relational communication may have a negative or positive impact on patient-centred diabetes care.

  • More research is required on approaches to preventing negative patient–practitioner interpersonal communication experiences.

  • Context

    The shift in nature and pattern of disease that has resulted from increased life span and lifestyle changes has led to patient empowerment as a paradigm shift from the traditional approach to long-term condition management.1 Although it is acknowledged that relational communication forms an integral part of this therapeutic relationship, there is paucity of research studies on this phenomenon.2

    Methods

    The purpose of the study2 was to explore the negative and positive impact of...

    Study shows lower vaccination rates for younger siblings after autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in older siblings

    Por: Vanderslott · S.

    Commentary on: Zerbo O, et al. Vaccination patterns in children after autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and in their younger siblings. JAMA Pediatr 2018;172(5):46975.

    Implications for practice and research

  • The younger siblings of children who received an autism spectrum diagnosis are shown to have lower vaccination rates than the younger siblings of children who have not received an autism spectrum diagnosis. The benefit of applying this knowledge in practice would be to take steps to target this subpopulation.

  • The research is novel in that previous studies were not as large or focused. The retrospective matched cohort study uses ‘Vaccine Safety Datalink’ information from six integrated healthcare delivery systems across the USA.

  • Future research could explore strategies for engaging with parents who have received an autism spectrum diagnosis for older children when considering vaccinating younger siblings.

  • Context

    Much interest has been placed on the reasons...

    Intimate partner violence, post-traumatic disorders and menopausal symptoms

    Por: Ali · P. · McGarry · J.

    Commentary on: Gibson CJ, Huang AJ, McCaw B, et al. Associations of intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder with menopause symptoms among midlife and older women. JAMA Intern Med 2019;179(1):80–7.

    Implications for practice and research

  • Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by mid-life and older women as IPV experiences and post-tramautic stress disorder (PTSD) can have an impact on menopausal symptoms

  • Further robust and longitudinal research is needed to explore the impact of IPV on mid-life and older women’s lives.

  • Context

    IPV is a major public health problem which intersects ethnic, religious, societal and geographical boundaries and results in serious physical and psychological consequences for those affected. IPV can exist in same sex relationships and men can also be victims of IPV, however, the frequency and severity of IPV experienced by women is...

    Routine health checks can provide opportunities for alcohol health promotion in older adults who identify as responsible drinkers

    Por: Alfred · L.

    Commentary on: Bareham BK, Kaner E, Spencer LP et al. Drinking in later life: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies exploring older people’s perceptions and experiences. Age Ageing 2019; 48:134-146.

    Implications for practice and research

  • Healthcare professionals should incorporate alcohol health promotion during routine health checks with older adults who identify as responsible drinkers.

  • Personalised interventions should also consider the positive role that alcohol plays in maintaining social connections and cultural identity.

  • More research that explores the gender differences in consumption over time is required.

  • Context

    Over the last 15 years, alcohol-specific mortality in older adults has risen by approximately 45%.1 Older adults may drink less alcohol than those under 50 years old, however they tend to consume it more frequently and have comparatively higher numbers of alcohol-related hospital admissions.2 National surveys from high-income countries such as Great...

    Parenting intervention programmes during childhood can improve health outcomes for black and rural communities

    Por: Frazer · K.

    Commentary on: Brody H, et al. Preventive parenting intervention during childhood and young black adults' unhealthful behaviors: a randomised controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 11. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12968

    Implications for practice and research

  • Targeted improvements for reducing smoking, alcohol intake and drug use are required amongst disadvantaged groups to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality.

  • Future research needs to consider factors associated with engagement in supportive parenting programmes.

  • Context

    Supporting early childhood development across the life course is a fundamental component of the UN sustainable development goals framework.1–3 The impact of deprivation and discrimination results in poorer mental and physical health outcomes with increased negative health behaviours for those at risk.3 4 Black and rural communities in America experience negative living conditions. However, the challenging conditions do not always result in negative...

    Is exercise and yoga a panacea for recovery from sexual violence?: knowing the risks and benefits of yoga and exercise is important

    Por: Duma · S.

    Commentary on: Smith-Marek EN, Baptist J, Lasley C, et al. "I don’t like being that hyperaware of my body": Women survivors of sexual violence and their experience of exercise. Qual Health Res 2018;28:1692–707. doi: 10.1177/1049732318786482.

    Implications for both practice and research

  • The type of exercise that each individual feels comfortable in doing, the stage of recovery and the level of safety one feels at should be established before promoting exercise and yoga for survivors of sexual violence (SV).

  • Further research including the use of randomised controlled trials is needed in order to make conclusive assertions regarding the benefits of exercise and yoga for survivors of SV.

  • Context

    Survivors of SV are confronted by trauma-related consequences including fear, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. There has been a growth in the promotion of non-pharmacological (NP) interventions such as physical exercise and yoga to enhance recovery from SV....

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