The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires hospitals to meet rigorous patient satisfaction requirements for reimbursement. One metric used for patient satisfaction is call light responsiveness within a unit.
To meet target call light responsiveness benchmarks at a 45-bed telemetry, medical–surgical nursing unit within a Magnet® designated hospital.
An evidence-based practice (EBP) project model was utilized. The chief nursing officer worked with an EBP nurse mentor. A PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time) question was developed to guide the literature search. Literature was critically appraised, and a resulting intervention was established. Nurse educators taught the unit nurses how to perform the intervention, and intervention integration was assessed via direct observation. Call light responsiveness data were collected to assess whether targets were met.
Five articles were deemed as applicable to the PICOT question, and the best evidence determined that using the 4Ps (pain, presence, “potty,” and positioning) during structured registered nurse (RN) care rounding every 2 h improved patient outcomes. After RN education and implementation, hospital call light responsiveness began to improve.
Rounding without intention increases RN workload and does not result in improved patient outcomes or a satisfied patient. RN rounding every 2 h is effective and efficient when done with intention (i.e., adhering to the 4Ps). RN patient rounds done every 2 h with intention improved patient satisfaction and other patient outcomes such as a decrease in call light usage.
An evidence-based practice (EBP) approach to implementing change is relevant and pertinent to the strategy to improve outcomes for hospitalized patients with central venous catheters (CVC). As health systems endeavor to achieve the ambitious goals of improving the patient experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing the cost of health care, it is imperative to understand the impact of a central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) on outcomes.
The purpose of the study was to contribute to the evidence of the association of CLABSI with the outcomes of hospital length of stay (LOS), readmission rates, and mortality rates for hospitalized patients.
A retrospective study was conducted, including all hospitalized patients with a CVC within four hospitals in an integrated health system in northwest Ohio and southeast Michigan. The sample population was stratified into two groups, CLABSI and no CLABSI, and the outcomes of interest for each group were compared.
The findings substantiate the association between CLABSI and the hospital mortality rate, LOS, and readmission. Patients with a CVC who develop a CLABSI were 36.6% more likely to die in the hospital and 37.0% more likely to be readmitted compared with patients with a CVC who did not develop a CLABSI. In addition, hospital LOS increased an average of 2 days compared with patients without CLABSI. This study evokes implications for EBP change to reduce the rate of CLABSI and for quality improvement during in-hospital care.
There is an association between CLABSI and hospital mortality rate, LOS, and 30-day readmission outcomes, presenting a profound sense of urgency for EBP change. There were potential variances in processes or practice relative to insertion, maintenance, and removal in the hospitals studied, representing an opportunity to examine the best practices in the hospitals that are performing well. Implementation of EBP requires selecting effective and innovative strategies, with a focus on stakeholder involvement and needs.
Some challenges affecting student nurse learning include student fatigue, clinical recovery time, and hindered clinical experiences due to students experiencing long clinical shifts.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between 12-hour biweekly and 6-hour weekly shifts on student nurse fatigue.
A descriptive research design was used with second-year nursing students (N = 80) upon completion of their clinical rotations of four distinct cohorts during 2019–2020. All students in these cohorts were invited to complete the Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery (OFER15) online survey, developed and validated to assess the full spectrum of fatigue.
There were no statistically significant differences in acute fatigue, chronic fatigue, or the inter-shift recovery subscale for the 6-hour and 12-hour clinical groups. Student nurses, like registered nurses, would likely prefer to choose between a 6-hour and 12-hour clinical shift depending on their individual circumstances. In the parameters of this study, there was no statistical significance in shift length and student nurse fatigue.
Student nurse fatigue levels can affect learning inside and outside of nursing clinical experiences. In this study, no statistical significances were found between 6-hour and 12-hour clinical experiences in second-year nursing students. Offering both the 6-hour and 12-hour clinical experiences provides flexibility for students, clinical sites, and the school of nursing.
A pressure ulcer (PU) is a localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence. The prevention PU per patient per day is costly; therefore, the detection of a PU at its earliest stage is imperative to afford timely interventions. Currently, there are very few clinically useful tools to assist with early PU detection and prevention.
There were two primary aims of this study: (1) to investigate the relationship between activity, mobility, and PU development; and (2) to ascertain the next steps for delineating an algorithm based on activity and mobility for detecting PU risk among older adult residents in long-term care.
This quantitative, prospective, descriptive, non-experimental study was conducted between July 2019 and March 2020 among 53 older adult residents who were followed for 4 consecutive days. Participants’ Braden score, Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) score, Movement Level, and 6-item Cognitive Impairment Test score were assessed. Further, the sacrum and heels were assessed daily using a non-invasive subepidermal moisture (SEM) scanner and visual skin assessment (VSA). SEM values > 0.5 were considered as indicative of the presence of an SEM-PU.
The incidence rate of VSA-PU was 15.1% (N = 8). There was an incidence of 87.5% (N = 42) of SEM-PU damage. According to the Braden subscale, Mobility Braden, most of the participants (62.2%, N = 33) were assessed as having no limitations/slightly limited mobility, while the EMS indicated that most of the participants (67.9%, N = 36) were classed in an independent category. From the 42 SEM-PUs observed, 62% (N = 26) occurred among the low movers, and 38% (N = 16) occurred among the high movers.
Using traditional methods for the assessment of movement does not provide insight into the protective nature of the movement. Given that both low- and high-moving patients can develop tissue damage, it is important to focus on the assessment of movement using more objective measures and algorithms, which enable real-time assessment of the protective nature of the movement. This would enable development of person-centered PU prevention strategies to reduce the burden of this significant healthcare problem.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach to health care that combines best available evidence, healthcare professionals’ expertise, and patient preferences, yielding benefits for patients, healthcare professionals, and organizations. However, globally, EBP implementation remains inconsistent among nurses. Exploring this in an Irish context will establish a national baseline from which progress can be made on system-wide integration of EBP in nurse and midwife (i.e., clinician) practice, nursing/midwifery education, and the Irish healthcare system.
To establish clinician, educator, and student’s EBP beliefs, knowledge, and implementation, and the organizational culture of the clinical and educational settings within the Republic of Ireland.
Using a descriptive study design, a national survey with demographic questions, uniquely focused EBP scales, and an open-ended question were administered to clinicians, nursing/midwifery educators, and students. Ethical review was obtained. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data.
Clinicians, educators, and students reported positive beliefs about EBP (M = 59.98, SD 8.68; M = 87.72, SD = 10.91; M = 55.18, SD = 10.29, respectively). Beliefs regarding their ability to implement EBP were lower overall. EBP implementation was low across all groups (clinicians: M = 12.85, SD = 14; educators: M = 31.09, SD = 16.54; students: M = 16.59, SD = 12.11). Clinicians, educators, and students reported varying perceptions of organizational support and readiness for EBP (M = 74.07, SD = 19.65; M = 86.43, SD = 15.01; M = 93.21, SD = 16.21, respectively). Across all measures, higher scores indicated higher beliefs, implementation, and organizational culture and readiness for EBP.
Clinicians have a unique opportunity to facilitate system-wide integration of EBP. Furthermore, given the variable EBP knowledge, beliefs, and implementation, opportunities to enhance these attributes abound, particularly when supported by their organizations. This study established a contemporary baseline in Ireland from which to engage the identified strengths, challenges, and opportunities required to craft an organizational culture and environment that supports and advances an EBP approach to nursing and midwifery practice and education.
The delivery of health care during the COVID-19 outbreak imposed significant challenges on the global nursing workforce and placed them at a higher risk of occupational burnout and turnover. In Lebanon, the pandemic hit when nurses were already struggling with an economic collapse caused by government failures. Resilience may play a protective factor against adversity and enable effective adaption to the burden of the pandemic.
To determine the level of resilience in the nursing workforce and its relationship to burnout, intention to quit, and perceived COVID-19 risk.
A cross-sectional study was employed among all registered nurses affiliated with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon and working in patient care positions in hospitals. The online survey questionnaire incorporated the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Quartile scores were used to differentiate levels of resilience and burnout. Multiple logistic regression identified variables significantly associated with resilience.
Five-hundred and eleven nurses responded to the questionnaire. Nurses had a moderate level of resilience (M = 72 ± 13.5). In multivariate analyses, being male (OR = 3.67; 95% CI [1.46, 9.22]; p = .006) and having a master’s degree (OR = 4.082; 95% CI [1.49, 11.20]; p = .006) were independently associated with higher resilience. Resilience levels decreased with higher personal burnout (OR = 0.12; 95% CI [0.03, 0.435]; p = .001), work-related burnout (OR = 0.14; 95% CI [0.04, 0.46]; p = .001), and client-related burnout rates (OR = 0.09; 95% CI [0.03, 0.34]; p < .001). Nurses reporting the intention to quit their job had lower resilience scores (OR = 0.20; 95% CI [0.04, 0.88]; p = .033).
Nursing stakeholders must introduce programs to regularly assess and enhance the resilience of nurses especially at time of crisis. Such programs would protect nurses from the perils of burnout and enhance their retention during times when they are most needed. Protecting nurses from burnout is an ethical imperative as well as an operational requirement.
There is an evidence that some nurses struggle with reading and using research. This struggle becomes a barrier to engaging in evidence-based practice (EBP). Personal beliefs, attitudes about research, and difficulties with research language and statistics have been reported as important variables in quantitative studies.
The aim of this review was to explore nurses' experiences and perceptions of interacting with research literature for work or educational purposes.
Studies eligible for inclusion were qualitative, published in English from years 2009–2020, and included registered nurses engaged in interaction with research literature for any work or educational purpose. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s qualitative systematic review methods were used.
We included 11 qualitative studies with 186 participants. Most studies used focus groups or semi-structured interviews to collect data. Overall, study quality was moderate. We extracted 29 findings, which were synthesized into five categories, and meta-aggregated into one synthesis. Research is a complex field of engagement for nurses, who simultaneously value its contribution to their profession and feel the burden of unsupported expectations. Nurses perceive a double standard in their workplaces where expectations of using evidence in practice are often discussed, but EBP education and access to literature can be hard to access.
Educators conducting research education should consider the complex emotional reactions this activity may engender in participants who may feel unprepared by their previous experience or education. Clinicians and workplace leaders trying to encourage the use of evidence in practice should consider the source of any reluctance to engage. An observed lack of engagement in their staff may be related to issues with understanding the materials.
Less than 5% of eligible adult cancer survivors participate in cancer clinical trials. Survivors identifying as Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) are less likely to participate in clinical trials compared to those identifying as non-Hispanic White. Common barriers to BIPOC participation are lack of knowledge, lack of access, and mistrust. These barriers are all factors in the disparities observed in BIPOC cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical trials need adequate BIPOC representation to garner generalizable findings that can reduce or eliminate cancer disparities associated with the social construct of race.
This systematic review examined the use of video education interventions to impact BIPOC survivor participation in clinical trials.
Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, PsycInfo, and CINAHL databases were queried for articles that described or tested video interventions aimed at increasing adult, BIPOC survivor clinical trial participation. Two authors independently screened articles for inclusion, appraised quality, and abstracted relevant data. All authors synthesized the data into themes through discussion and consensus.
The search yielded 2,512 articles. Seven selected articles described six distinct interventions. Although the six interventions reduced barriers to participation in clinical trials, their findings varied on Black and Hispanic survivors’ readiness to enroll and participate in trials. Four themes emerged: (a) cultural sensitivity is needed in video development and delivery; (b) video content should be aimed to educate and change attitudes about clinical trials; (c) video interventions are feasible and acceptable; and (d) video interventions affect outcomes on intention or actual enrollment.
Video interventions are well-received by BIPOC survivors and may improve representation in clinical trials. Yet, video interventions are underutilized. More studies are needed to establish best practices for video interventions aimed at diversifying clinical trial participation as widening cancer disparities and rapidly changing cancer care continue to emerge.
Nursing retention is a concern for healthcare systems, hospital administrators, and nurses who have spent considerable time and money to achieve educational goals. Nearly, 33% of nurses will drop out in the 2 years practice. Those who stay in practice face an increased risk of suicide when compared the general population.
To examine the relationship between nurse sociodemographic data and unique study variables with potential morally injurious outcomes (i.e., dropping out variables: changing jobs, intention to leave the profession, or suicidal thinking).
A descriptive, correlational study design was used to characterize the relationship between the sociodemographic data of 216 registered nurses (RNs) and patient safety and the suicidal behavioral questionnaire.
RNs involved in a patient safety incident (PSI) considered changing jobs when the degree of harm was death (p < .001) or was unknown (p < .05) when compared with no harm. RNs were more likely to consider leaving the profession when the degree of harm to the patient was permanent (p < .01) or the patient died (p < .05) when compared with having no harm. RNs future suicidal thinking (i.e., their self-reported likelihood of future suicidal behavior) was statistically significant when degree of harm to the patient was death (p < .05) as a result of a PSI (95% CI [1.11, 8.71]) when compared with no harm. The RNs who had suicidal thoughts over the past year compared with those without and the RNs with future suicidal thinking compared with those without, may respond differently in the aftermath of a PSI.
This study served as a pioneering effort to the current understanding between nurse characteristics and patient harm and “dropping out” outcomes in RNs involved in PSIs. RNs involved with PSIs that led to more harm were more likely to change jobs, consider leaving the profession, or contemplate future suicide. These findings have important implications for nurses, administrative managers in healthcare organizations, and researchers.
Advance care planning (ACP) refers to a process of discussions between professionals, patients, and their families, which allows the patient to define and communicate their care and treatment preferences. Understanding the barriers to advance care planning is the first step on the way to overcoming them and to improving person-centred care and attention.
To identify the barriers perceived by professionals, patients, and family members when implementing ACP in a clinical context and to analyse the methodological quality of the evidence.
An umbrella review guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute and a systematic review in accordance with PRISMA 2015 were utilized. Data were obtained from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE in November 2018.
Fourteen systematic reviews were included. The main barriers reported by professionals were lack of knowledge and skills to carry out ACP, a certain fear of starting conversations about ACP, and a lack of time for discussions. Patients and family members considered that the main barriers were fear of discussing their relative’s end of life, lack of ability to carry out ACP, and not knowing who was responsible for initiating conversations about ACP.
This review has examined the barriers presented by health professionals, patients, and family members, so that future lines of research can develop preventive or decisive measures that encourage the implementation of ACP in health care.
Health information and communication fall within patient preferences in evidence-based practice. Now more than ever, patients and families in the community have free access to "evidence" and healthcare information on the internet. However, is that information trustworthy, and how can we encourage people to use evidence to promote their optimal health and wellness? The recent rise of global spread of mis- and disinformation through social media outlets has affected public health. There is growing recognition that social media platforms provide magnified podiums leading to unfortunate outcomes. While much work has been done during the COVID-19 pandemic to address health misinformation, there is still much more work to do. We must respond to the widespread misinformation as a collective healthcare community to prevent poor healthcare decisions. Urging the public to be alert to information spread, assess the quality of health information (and whether it is evidence-based), and use shared decision-making tools is a path we can travel together.
Patients commonly display aggressive and violent behaviors toward nursing staff, contributing to severe consequences. Healthcare institutions must develop and implement systems addressing this global safety problem.
To improve clinical practice safety for inpatient acute care settings by providing healthcare teams throughout a large academic medical center with a Behavioral Emergency Response Team (BERT) program, that is, a system for reporting and de-escalating aggressive patient encounters.
This descriptive quality improvement process took place within two inpatient acute care departments using simulation-based training, patient safety rounds, and a BERT activation system. Participant groups included nursing personnel who completed a baseline survey (n = 302), telecommunication dispatchers (n = 20), BERT responders (n = 78), and bedside nursing staff (n = 43) recipients of BERT program resources. Methods included a baseline questionnaire, pre- and post-intervention surveys, formal reports of aggressive patient encounters, documentation from patient safety rounds, and records of activated BERT responses. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
This project mitigated patient aggression episodes by successfully designing and implementing an evidence-based BERT program. Findings suggested bedside nursing program participants felt more confident and capable of managing aggressive patient behaviors. A strong partnership between security officers and nursing staff limited the risk of harm to clinical staff by identifying and intervening with 41 potentially aggressive patients. Finally, formal reports of patient aggression episodes did not increase during this project, which may have indicated early prevention and detection of aggression while reflecting the broader problem of aggression under-reporting in nursing.
Healthcare organizations need to have robust systems to manage aggressive patient encounters. Comprehensive strategies for managing patient aggression include simulation-based training, the use of BERT responders, and a strong partnership between nursing and security officer teams.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase a woman’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease, with risk factors manifested as early as one year postpartum. Researchers are examining how physical activity may help to mitigate cardiovascular risk factors in this population.
Review the existing scientific literature on the impact of physical activity in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy related to physical activity and cardiovascular risk factor outcomes.
This integrative review examined research studies addressing physical activity in women with a history of preeclampsia or other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Using four databases, the search strategy included published studies through December 31, 2019. Identified studies were assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools.
The initial search identified 1,166 publications. Seven studies including two observational, four quasi-experimental, and one experimental study were included in the review. Although the studies had limitations, none of these limitations were deemed significant enough to eliminate a study from the review. Studies were conducted in four countries, and participants were predominantly White. Physical activity interventions primarily consisted of delivery of educational content, and data were primarily obtained by self-report. Of the five studies utilizing intervention strategies, three reported positive findings including increased physical activity, enhanced physiologic adaptations, and decreased physical inactivity. One study reported mixed findings of improved physical fitness in both groups, while another reported no change in intent to change exercise behavior associated with the intervention.
Physical activity promotion among women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy has been studied by a small group of researchers. Current literature on the topic is characterized by limited sample diversity, lack of exercise-based interventions, and over reliance on self-report to measure physical activity. It is imperative that further research be conducted to facilitate improved cardiovascular outcomes.
Postoperative delirium is the most common complication of surgery particularly in older patients.
The current study aimed to summarize the commonly used delirium assessment tools in assessing postoperative delirium (POD) and to estimate the incidence rates of POD.
A systematic review that included empirical cohort studies reporting the use of delirium assessment tools in assessing POD between 2000 and 2019. Five core databases were searched for eligible studies. The methodological quality assessment of the included studies was undertaken using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist to examine the risk of bias. Pooled incidence estimates were calculated using a random effects model.
Nineteen studies with a total of 3,533 postsurgery older patients were included in this review. The confusion assessment method (CAM) and CAM-ICU were the most commonly used tools to assess POD among older postoperative patients. The pooled incidence rate of POD was 24% (95% CI [0.20, 0.29]). The pooled incidence estimates for mixed (noncardiac) surgery, orthopedic surgery, and tumor surgery were 23% (95% CI [0.15, 0.31]), 27% (95% CI [0.20, 0.33]), and 19% (95% CI [0.15, 0.22]), respectively. More than 50% of included studies used CAM to assess POD in different types of postoperative patients. Using CAM to assess delirium is less time-consuming and it was suggested as the most efficient tool for POD detection.
We identified that CAM could be implemented in different settings for assessing POD. The incidence and risk factors for POD introduced can be used for future research to target these potential indicators. The incidence rate, risk factors, and predictors of POD explored can provide robust evidence for clinical practitioners in their daily practice.
Many organizations struggle to systematically integrate EBP into practice. EBP mentors address organizational barriers and promote the translation of evidence into clinical practice at the bedside.
To evaluate research findings related to EBP mentor development programs, to identify effective practices, and to assess the outcomes associated with EBP mentor development programs.
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to retrieve studies from CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus, using keywords and subject headers related to EBP mentorship and quality and safety outcomes. Studies were appraised and reviewed to compare mentor program composition and examine clinician, organizational, and patient outcomes.
Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria: one randomized control trial (RCT), one literature review, eleven descriptive studies, and two case reviews. Most programs included didactic content, an EBP project with coaching, and resources to support learning. The studies found that these programs led to improvements in clinicians’ EBP beliefs, practices, and abilities, the organization’s readiness for EBP, and patient safety.
There is solid justification for healthcare organizations to invest in an EBP mentor development program.
Nurse leaders play a unique role in seeking ways to promote a strong nurse workforce and positive work attitudes and behaviors among nurses to assist in their success. The leadership practice of nurse managers could be an important factor in promoting nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.
To determine the relationship between transformational leadership practices of first-line nurse managers and nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.
A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at a Saudi university hospital. The study consisted of 60 nurse managers and 211 nurses. Measures included Leadership Practices Inventory, organizational resilience, and job involvement questionnaires. Results were analyzed using inferential statistics and Structural Equation Modeling.
In addition to the positive significant correlation found among the studied variables, First-Line Nurse Managers’ Leadership practices accounted for 43% and 40% of the variance of nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.
Nurse leaders perform a crucial role in embracing and executing effective strategies through their transformational leadership and managerial caring to support nurses’ resilience and job involvement. Shared governance and a respectful working atmosphere that conveys gratitude to nurses are popular strategies that enhance the efficacy of nursing leadership and promote positive work attitudes among nurses.
At least 40% of maternal deaths are attributable to failure to rescue (FTR) events. Nurses are positioned to prevent FTR events, but there is minimal understanding of systems-level factors affecting obstetric nurses when patients require rescue.
To identify the nurse-specific contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes underlying obstetric FTR and the interventions designed to prevent these events.
A realist review was conducted to meet the aims. This review included literature from 1999 to 2020 to understand the systems-level factors affecting obstetric nurses during FTR events using a human factors framework designed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety.
Existing interventions addressed the prevention of maternal death through education of clinicians, improved protocols for care and maternal transfer, and an emphasis on communication and teamwork.
Few researchers addressed task overload or connected employee and organizational outcomes with patient outcomes, and the physical environment was minimally considered. Future research is needed to understand how systems-level factors affect nurses during FTR events.