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Association between neighbourhood deprivation, fetal growth, small-for-gestational age and preterm birth: a population-based prospective cohort study

Por: Gootjes · D. V. · Posthumus · A. G. · Jaddoe · V. W. V. · Steegers · E. A. P.

To study the associations between neighbourhood deprivation and fetal growth, including growth in the first trimester, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Prospective cohort study.


The Netherlands, Rotterdam.


8617 live singleton births from the Generation R cohort study.


Living in a deprived neighbourhood.

Main outcome measures

Fetal growth trajectories of head circumference, weight and length.

Secondary outcomes measures

Small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (PTB).


Neighbourhood deprivation was not associated with first trimester growth. However, a higher neighbourhood status score (less deprivation) was associated with increased fetal growth in the second and third trimesters (eg, estimated fetal weight; adjusted regression coefficient 0.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.06). Less deprivation was also associated with decreased odds of SGA (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.97, p=0.01) and PTB (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96, p=0.01).


We found an association between neighbourhood deprivation and fetal growth in the second and third trimester pregnancy, but not with first trimester growth. Less neighbourhood deprivation is associated with lower odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The associations remained after adjustment for individual-level risk factors. This supports the hypothesis that living in a deprived neighbourhood acts as an independent risk factor for fetal growth and adverse pregnancy outcomes, above and beyond individual risk factors.

Improving early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and COPD: protocol of the RED-CVD cluster randomised diagnostic trial

Por: Groenewegen · A. · Zwartkruis · V. W. · Rienstra · M. · Hollander · M. · Koffijberg · H. · Cramer · M. J. M. · van der Schouw · Y. · Hoes · A. W. · de Boer · R. · Rutten · F. H.

The early stages of chronic progressive cardiovascular disease (CVD) generally cause non-specific symptoms that patients often do not spontaneously mention to their general practitioner, and are therefore easily missed. A proactive diagnostic strategy has the potential to uncover these frequently missed early stages, creating an opportunity for earlier intervention. This is of particular importance for chronic progressive CVDs with evidence-based therapies known to improve prognosis, such as ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

Patients with type 2 diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at particularly high risk of developing CVD. In the current study, we will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of screening these high-risk patients with our early diagnosis strategy, using tools that are readily available in primary care, such as symptom questionnaires (to be filled out by the patients themselves), natriuretic peptide measurement and electrocardiography.

Methods and analysis

The Reviving the Early Diagnosis-CVD trial is a multicentre, cluster randomised diagnostic trial performed in primary care practices across the Netherlands. We aim to include 1300 (2x650) patients who participate in a primary care disease management programme for COPD or type 2 diabetes. Practices will be randomised to the intervention arm (performing the early diagnosis strategy during the routine visits that are part of the disease management programmes) or the control arm (care as usual). The main outcome is the number of newly detected cases with CVDs in both arms, and the subsequent therapies they received. Secondary endpoints include quality of life, cost-effectiveness and the added diagnostic value of family and reproductive history questionnaires and three (novel) biomarkers (high-sensitive troponin-I, growth differentiation factor-15 and suppressor of tumourigenicity 2). Finally newly initiated treatments will be compared in both groups.

Ethics and dissemination

The protocol was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands. Results are expected in 2022 and will be disseminated through international peer-reviewed publications.

Trial registration number


Kidney disease and risk of dementia: a Danish nationwide cohort study

Por: Kjaergaard · A. D. · Johannesen · B. R. · Sorensen · H. T. · Henderson · V. W. · Christiansen · C. F.

It is unclear whether kidney disease is a risk factor for developing dementia. We examined the association between kidney disease and risk of future dementia.

Design and setting

Nationwide historical registry-based cohort study in Denmark based on data from 1 January 1995 until 31 December 2016.


All patients diagnosed with kidney disease and matched general population cohort without kidney disease (matched 1:5 on age, sex and year of kidney disease diagnosis).

Primary and secondary outcome measures

All-cause dementia and its subtypes: Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and other specified or unspecified dementia. We computed 5-year cumulative incidences (risk) and hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes using Cox regression analyses.


The study cohort comprised 82 690 patients with kidney disease and 413 405 individuals from the general population. Five-year and ten-year mortality rates were twice as high in patients with kidney disease compared with the general population. The 5-year risk for all-cause dementia was 2.90% (95% confidence interval: 2.78% to 3.08%) in patients with kidney disease and 2.98% (2.92% to 3.04%) in the general population. Compared with the general population, the adjusted HRs for all-cause dementia in patients with kidney disease were 1.06 (1.00 to 1.12) for the 5-year follow-up and 1.08 (1.03 to 1.12) for the entire study period. Risk estimates for dementia subtypes differed substantially and were lower for Alzheimer’s disease and higher for vascular dementia.


Patients diagnosed with kidney disease have a modestly increased rate of dementia, mainly driven by vascular dementia. Moreover, patients with kidney disease may be underdiagnosed with dementia due to high mortality and other comorbidities of higher priority.

Glucose-lowering drugs and outcome from COVID-19 among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-wide analysis in Hong Kong

Por: Luk · A. O. Y. · Yip · T. C. F. · Zhang · X. · Kong · A. P. S. · Wong · V. W.-S. · Ma · R. C. W. · Wong · G. L.-H.

To investigate the association between baseline use of glucose-lowering drugs and serious clinical outcome among patients with type 2 diabetes.


Territory-wide retrospective cohort of confirmed cases of COVID-19 between January 2020 and February 2021.


All public health facilities in Hong Kong.


1220 patients with diabetes who were admitted for confirmed COVID-19.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Composite clinical endpoint of intensive care unit admission, requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or in-hospital death.


In this cohort (median age 65.3 years, 54.3% men), 737 (60.4%) patients were treated with metformin, 385 (31.6%) with sulphonylureas, 199 (16.3%) with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and 273 (22.4%) with insulin prior to admission. In multivariate Cox regression, use of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors was associated with reduced incidence of the composite endpoint relative to non-use, with respective HRs of 0.51 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.77, p=0.001) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.71, p


Users of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors had fewer adverse outcomes from COVID-19 compared with non-users, whereas insulin and sulphonylurea might predict a worse prognosis.