Water irrigation is an efficacious decontaminating method for dermis exposures to corrosive agents and hence has been widely applied to treat especially alkali burns. Nevertheless, once alkali has infiltrated the deep subcutaneous tissue, washing the tissue surface with water irrigation does not attenuate the damage progress. Therefore, significant efforts have been devoted to promising strategies aimed at removing the deeply infiltrated lye. According to a recent report, the negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) reduces the pH value of the exudate from alkali-provoked burns thus accelerating wound healing. However, it remains to be ascertained whether or not NPWT coupled with water irrigation, that is, iNPWT, more effectively hinders the alkali injury deepening. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of an early application of water irrigation with or without NPWT in preventing the progressive deepening of the alkali burn in an animal model. Our histological examination results showed no appreciable difference in tissue injury depth, dermal retention, inflammatory cell infiltration, re-epithelization, and cellular function between iNPWT and water irrigation alone treatments. Thus, our results prove that the more expensive NPWT coupled with water irrigation does not more effectively hinder the alkali's injury deepening. Hence, iNPWT use should be more cautious in clinical practice.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of low-frequency ultrasound as an added treatment for chronic wounds. A systematic literature search up to May 2022 was performed and 838 subjects with chronic wounds at the baseline of the studies; 412 of them were using the low-frequency ultrasound (225 low-frequency high-intensity contact ultrasound for diabetic foot wound ulcers, and 187 low-frequency low-intensity non-contact ultrasound for a venous leg wound ulcers), and 426 were using standard care (233 sharp debridements for diabetic foot wound ulcers and 193 sham treatments for venous leg wound ulcers). Odds ratio (OR), and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of low-frequency ultrasound as an added treatment for chronic wounds using the dichotomous, and contentious methods with a random or fixed-effect model. The low-frequency high-intensity contact ultrasound for diabetic foot wound ulcers had significantly lower non-healed diabetic foot wound ulcers at ≥3 months (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24-0.56, P < .001), a higher percentage of diabetic foot wound ulcers area reduction (MD, 17.18; 95% CI, 6.62-27.85, P = .002) compared with sharp debridement for diabetic foot wound ulcers. The low-frequency low-intensity non-contact ultrasound for a venous leg wound ulcers had a significantly lower non-healed venous leg wound ulcers at ≥3 months (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15-0.62, P = .001), and higher percentage venous leg wound ulcers area reduction (MD, 18.96; 95% CI, 2.36-35.57, P = .03) compared with sham treatments for a venous leg wound ulcers. The low-frequency ultrasound as an added treatment for diabetic foot wound ulcers and venous leg wound ulcers had significantly lower non-healed chronic wound ulcers at ≥3 months, a higher percentage of chronic wound ulcers area reduction compared with standard care. The analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low sample size of all the 17 studies in the meta-analysis and a low number of studies in certain comparisons.
The purpose of this study was to prevent nasal bridge pressure injury among fit-tested employees, secondary to long-term wear of the N95 mask during working hours. A prospective, single-blinded, experimental cohort design. Participants were enrolled using the convenience sampling methods and randomisation was utilised for group assignment. Eligibility was determined by a COVID Anxiety Scale score and non-COVID clinical assignment. Participants with a history of previous skin injury or related condition were excluded. The experimental group was assigned Mepilex Lite® and the control group used Band- Aid®. Formal skin evaluations were done by Nurse Specialists who are certified in wound and ostomy care by the Wound, Ostomy, Continence, Nursing Certification Board (WOCNCB®). Fit test logs were provided to participants to measure subjective user feedback regarding mask fit and level of comfort. The results of this feasibility trial are promising in supporting the use of a thin polyurethane foam dressing as a safe and effective dressing to apply beneath the N95 mask. Additional research is needed to validate results due to limited data on efficacy and safety of the various barrier dressings as a potential intervention to prevent skin breakdown to the nasal bridge.
This meta-review aimed to appraise and synthesise findings from existing systematic reviews that measured the impact of compression therapy on venous leg ulcers healing. We searched five databases to identify potential papers; three authors extracted data, and a fourth author adjudicated the findings. The AMSTAR-2 tool was used for quality appraisal and the certainty of the evidence was appraised using GRADEpro. Data analysis was undertaken using RevMan. We identified 12 systematic reviews published between 1997 and 2021. AMSTAR-2 assessment identified three as high quality, five as moderate quality, and four as low quality. Seven comparisons were reported, with a meta-analysis undertaken for five of these comparisons: compression vs no compression (risk ratio [RR]: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.78; P < .00001; moderate-certainty evidence); elastic compression vs inelastic compression (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96-1.08; P < .61 moderate-certainty evidence); four layer vs <four-layer bandage systems (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.82-1.40; P < .63; moderate-certainty evidence); comparison between different four-layer bandage systems (RR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.93-1.25; P = .34; moderate-certainty evidence); compression bandage vs compression stocking (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.87-1.03; P = .18; moderate-certainty evidence). The main conclusion from this review is that there is a statistically significant difference in healing rates when compression is used compared with no compression, with moderate-certainty evidence. Otherwise, there is no statistically different difference in healing rates using elastic compression vs inelastic compression, four layer vs <four-layer bandage systems, different four-layer bandage systems, or compression bandages vs compression stockings.
Wounds continue to be of a global concern. Therefore, a more focussed, evidence-based approach to wound assessment and management is required. The WOUND COMPASS™ Clinical Support App (CSA) is designed to support the health care professional with wound assessment and management at the point of care. This real-world pilot study aimed to determine the utility of the CSA during routine wound management, in multiple care settings. A non-interventional, real-world pilot programme of the CSA was conducted at four sites. Patients received routine wound management. The CSA was programmed to replicate the site's formulary for evidence-based wound management. Anonymised pre- and post-pilot clinician opinion surveys on useability and impact of the CSA were collected and reported. Wound Specialists (n = 7 [100%]) and Non-Wound Specialists (NWS) (n = 58 [82%]) indicated that competence and confidence in wound assessment were enhanced with use of the CSA (100%; 82%). Furthermore, practice variation was reduced because of a greater compliance to their local formulary (n = 7 [100%]; 79% [54%]). This real-world pilot shows the positive impact of the CSA, and the improvements that can be potentially realised via reduction in practice variation, improvement in NWSs confidence when managing wounds and increased formulary compliance.
To investigate the relationship between small noncoding microRNA-103 (miR-103) and wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and the underlying molecular mechanism, forty type 2 diabetes mellitus with DFU (DFU group), and 20 patients with a chronic skin ulcer of lower limbs and normal glucose tolerance (SUC group) were included. Quantitative real-time PCR method was used to determine miR-103 expression levels in the wound margin tissue of subjects, and to analyse the relationship between the expression of miR-103 and DFU wound healing. In vitro experiments were also performed to understand the effect of miR-103 on the high glucose-induced injury of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) cells. The results showed that the miR-103 expression level in the DFU group was significantly higher than that in the SUC group [5.81 (2.25–9.36) vs 2.08 (1.15–5.72)] (P < 0.05). The expression level of miR-103 in the wound margin tissue of DFU was negatively correlated with the healing rate of foot ulcers after four weeks (P = 0.037). In vitro experiments revealed that miR-103 could inhibit the proliferation and migration of NHDF cells and promote the apoptosis of NHDF cells by targeted regulation of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) gene expression in a high glucose environment. Down-regulation of miR-103 could alleviate high glucose-induced NHDF cell injury by promoting RCAN1 expression. Therefore, the increased expression of miR-103 is involved in the functional damage of NHDF cells induced by high-glucose conditions, which is related to poor wound healing of DFU. These research findings will provide potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic skin wounds in diabetes.
Development of subcutaneous abdominal wound healing impairment (SAWHI) can greatly affect patient care. Complications from SAWHI include delayed healing, increased risk of infection, and fascial dehiscence resulting in increased patient care and associated costs. Treatment options include conventional wound treatment or negative pressure wound therapy, both of which can be used in the out-of-hospital setting. However, limited published evidence on cost-effectiveness exists. A conservative health economic model was created to assess the cost–benefit of negative pressure wound therapy in the out-of-hospital setting for the management of SAWHI. Study data from a published multicentre randomised controlled trial was used and represented 221 patients that received care in the out-of-hospital setting. The mean per-patient total cost within 42 days was slightly higher in the negative pressure wound therapy group (2034.98 € versus 1918.91 €); however, when wound closure rates were considered, a cost savings of 4155.98 € per closed wound was observed with the use of negative pressure wound therapy (4324.34 € versus 8480.32 €). A cost-effectiveness analysis was constructed, and negative pressure wound therapy was observed to have a lower cost of care and a higher incremental closure rate.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of serologic malnutrition on postoperative wound infection problems after total joint arthroplasty. A systematic literature search up to April 2022, was performed and 446 501 subjects with total joint arthroplasty at the baseline of the studies; 200 433 of them were confirmed serologic malnutrition, and 246 068 were confirmed normal nutrition. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of serologic malnutrition on postoperative wound infection problems after total joint arthroplasty using the dichotomous method with a random or fixed-effect model. The serologic malnutrition subjects had a significantly higher wound disruption (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.53–2.53, P < 0.001), higher superficial incisional surgical site infection (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.67–5.01, P < 0.001), higher deep incisional surgical site infection (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.36–3.96, P < 0.001), and higher organ space surgical site infection (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.34–4.24, P < 0.001) in subjects after total joint arthroplasty compared with normal nutrition. The serologic malnutrition subjects had a significantly higher wound disruption, superficial incisional surgical site infection, deep incisional surgical site infection, and organ space surgical site infection in subjects after total joint arthroplasty compared with normal nutrition. The analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low number of studies in certain comparisons.
Two distinct design concepts exist for single-use negative pressure wound therapy systems: Canister-based versus canisterless. The canister-based technology provides intrinsic stable delivery of the intended negative pressure, because exudate is constantly transferred from the wound into a canister, thereby preventing dressing saturation. In contrast, with a canisterless system, where delivery of the negative pressure depends on continuous evaporation of wound fluids from its dressing, loss of the intended wound-bed pressure may occur due to dressing saturation. To investigate whether these two designs differ in their mechanobiological effect with respect to magnitudes and distributions of tissue strain fields under the absorptive dressing, termed the influence zone, we integrated computational modelling with an animal study. This influence zone must be of biologically influential strain levels and extend sufficiently into the peri-wound for stimulating fibroblasts to migrate and progress the healing. We found that an effective influence zone requires continuous delivery of the intended pressure to the wound-bed. Loss of negative pressure at the wound-bed below 40 mmHg adversely lowered the peri-wound stimulation around a 120 × 70 mm sized wound to less than one-third of the baseline stimulation, and further pressure decreases to 20 mmHg or lower resulted in complete lack of peri-wound mechano-stimulation.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of prophylactic negative pressure treatment for post-surgery groin wounds management in vascular surgery. A systematic literature search up to April 2022 was performed and 1537 total number of groin vascular surgery incisions at the baseline of the studies; 729 of them were using the prophylactic negative pressure treatment, and 808 were using control. Odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of prophylactic negative pressure treatment for post-surgery groin wounds management in vascular surgery using the dichotomous, and contentious methods with a random or fixed-effect model. The prophylactic negative pressure treatment subjects had a significantly lower surgical site wound infection (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.16-0.42, P < .001) in subjects after vascular surgery compared with control. However, prophylactic negative pressure treatment did not show any significant difference in revision surgery (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52-1.00, P = .05), readmission (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.66-1.32, P = .69), mortality in hospital (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-1.01, P = .05), and length of hospital stay (MD, −0.24; 95% CI, −0.91-0.44, P = .49) compared with control in subjects after vascular surgery. The prophylactic negative pressure treatment subjects had a significantly lower surgical site wound infection and no significant difference in revision surgery, readmission, mortality in hospital, and length of hospital stay compared with control in subjects after vascular surgery. The analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low sample size of 2 out of 10 studies in the meta-analysis and a low number of studies in certain comparisons.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes various complications over time, one such complication is diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), which are challenging to treat and can lead to amputation. Additionally, a system for accurate prediction of amputation has yet to be developed. In total, 131 patients were included in the study after retrospectively collecting data from 2016 to 2020 about DFU. The collected data were used for comparison of the accuracy between five existing classification systems and the newly revised DIRECT coding system, and investigation of risk factors for lower extremity amputation (LEA). The existing five classification systems and DIRECT system can effectively predict LEA. The DIRECT3 system has three elements, C-reactive protein (CRP), ulcer history (UH), and hypertension (HTN) in addition to those of the DIRECT system. It had a high predictive value and accuracy similar to that of Wagner and University of Texas (UT) on depth among the five classification systems. Among the statistically significant risk factors, duration of DM and HTN, haemoglobin (Hb), CRP, and UH showed an association with LEA. The DIRECT coding system is effective for predicting LEA and explaining appropriate treatment methods for DFU, and is widely applicable because of its user accessibility and convenience.
Cigarette smoking is associated with surgical complications, including wound healing and surgical site infection. However, the association between smoking status and postoperative wound complications is not completely understood. Our objective was to investigate the effect of smoking on postoperative wound complications for major surgeries. Data were collected from the 2013 to 2018 participant use files of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. A propensity score matching procedure was used to create the balanced smoker and nonsmoker groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for postoperative wound complications, pulmonary complications, and in-hospital mortality associated with smokers. A total of 1 156 002 patients (578 001 smokers and 578 001 nonsmokers) were included in the propensity score matching analysis. Smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of postoperative wound disruption (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.56-1.75), surgical site infection (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.28-1.34), reintubation (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54), and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19) compared with nonsmoking. The length of hospital stay was significantly increased in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Our analysis indicates that smoking is associated with an increased risk of surgical site infection, wound disruption, and postoperative pulmonary complications. The results may drive the clinicians to encourage patients to quit smoking before surgery.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the epidemiological characteristics and causes of burns in patients admitted to burns services. A total of 629 patients who applied to the burn center of our hospital on March 11 to June 11, 2019, and March 11 to June 11, 2020, were included in this single-center, retrospective study. The demographic information of the patients, causes of burns, burn degrees, affected anatomical areas, admission times and burn surface areas were recorded retrospectively according to patient records. The findings of our study suggest that gender, age, causes of burns, affected anatomical areas and application times did not differ before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of cases has significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with that of the previous year. As a result, burn trauma is an emergency; it is preventable and cannot be ignored. The COVID-19 pandemic has had many effects on social, cultural and economic fields, as well as on the field of health.
Oral antibiotics (OAB), probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are reported to be effective for preventing postoperative infection following colorectal surgery, but the comparative effectiveness between them has not been studied. To compare these interventions through a network meta-analysis. Ovid Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from inception to January 1, 2022 without any language restriction. Two reviewers independently screened the retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and extracted information from the included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcome was infection rate, and the secondary outcome was anastomotic leakage rate. 4322 records were retrieved after literature search, and 20 RCTs recruiting 3726 participants were finally included. The analysis showed that usual care (UC) + Synbiotics ranked the most effective treatment (SUCRA = 0.968), UC + OAB ranked the second (SUCRA = 0.797), and UC + IAB ranked the third (SUCRA = 0.678) for preventing postoperative infection rate, but only UC + OAB achieved statistical significance. UC + OAB was the most effective treatment (SUCRA = 0.927) for preventing anastomotic leakage rate. Our study confirmed that preoperative administration of OAB was associated with lower infection rate and anastomotic leakage rate than placebo and UC alone. However, the beneficial effect of probiotics and synbiotics should still be investigated by large-scale randomised controlled trials.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on surgical site wound infection, and other postoperative problems after coronary artery bypass grafting. A systematic literature search up to April 2022 was performed and 37 444 subjects with coronary artery bypass grafting at the baseline of the studies; 4320 of them were with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 33 124 were without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Odds ratio (OR), and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on surgical site wound infection, and other postoperative problems after coronary artery bypass grafting using the dichotomous, and contentious methods with a random or fixed-effect model. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects had a significantly higher surgical site wound infection (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.60, P = 0.04), respiratory failure (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.55-2.18, P < 0.001), mortality (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.37-1.89, P < 0.001), pneumonia (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.97-2.68, P < 0.001), pleural effusion (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.12-2.83, P = 0.02), stroke (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.17-3.36, P = 0.01), and length of intensive care unit stay (MD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.19-1.26, P = 0.008) after coronary artery bypass grafting compared with subjects without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects did not show any significant difference in length of hospital stay (MD, 0.83; 95% CI, −0.01 to 1.67, P = 0.05), and pneumothorax (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.98-2.59, P = 0.06) after coronary artery bypass grafting compared with subjects without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects had a significantly higher surgical site wound infection, respiratory failure, mortality, pneumonia, pleural effusion, stroke, and length of intensive care unit stay, and no significant difference in length of hospital stay, and pneumothorax after coronary artery bypass grafting compared with subjects without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low sample size of 1 out of 11 studies in the meta-analysis and a low number of studies in certain comparisons.