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Hoy — Mayo 15th 2021Tus fuentes RSS

Recruiting Nurses Via Social Media for Survey Studies

imageBackground Nurses are a difficult population to recruit for research. Barriers to recruitment of nurses include survey fatigue, hospital structures and institutional review boards as gatekeepers to accessing participants, and limited generalizability of findings. Social media present innovative opportunities to recruit participants for survey research. However, there is limited information about best practices for recruiting nurses through social media. Objectives The aim of this report was to examine the advantages and disadvantages of and determine the best practices for recruiting nurses for survey studies via social media. Methods We examined recruitment strategies of three survey studies involving nurse participants. Each study used social exchange theory and leverage-saliency theory to guide recruitment. The studies included were (a) the Travel Nurse Onboarding Study, which recruited participants from a single closed group on Facebook; (b) the Presenteeism and Nursing Study where participants were recruited using association listservs, healthcare organizations, and paid ads and postings on social media; and (c) the Pain and Nursing Study in which participants were recruited through social media, association listservs, and in person at conferences. Results Social media offer accessible, low-cost, high-yield approaches to recruitment of nurses for survey studies. Discussion Useful strategies for crafting effective recruitment via social media are presented, including how, where, when, and how often to post. The generalizability of social media research is also discussed. Suggestions are provided for researchers using social media as well as guidelines for institutional review boards to address gray areas of social media research. Data integrity protection techniques are proposed to ensure social media survey data are not corrupted by malicious bots. This report outlines best practices for the recruitment of nurses for survey studies using social media.
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UK Chiari 1 Study: protocol for a prospective, observational, multicentre study

Introduction

Chiari 1 malformation (CM1) is a structural abnormality of the hindbrain characterised by the descent of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. The management of patients with CM1 remains contentious since there are currently no UK or international guidelines for clinicians. We therefore propose a collaborative, prospective, multicentre study on the investigation, management and outcome of CM1 in the UK: the UK Chiari 1 Study (UKC1S). Our primary objective is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with a new diagnosis of CM1 managed either conservatively or surgically at 12 months of follow-up. We also aim to: (A) determine HRQoL 12 months following surgery; (B) measure complications 12 months following surgery; (C) determine the natural history of patients with CM1 treated conservatively without surgery; (D) determine the radiological correlates of presenting symptoms, signs and outcomes; and (E) determine the scope and variation within UK practice in referral patterns, patient pathways, investigations and surgical decisions.

Methods and analysis

The UKC1S will be a prospective, multicentre and observational study that will follow the British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative model of collaborative research. Patients will be recruited after attending their first neurosurgical outpatient clinic appointment. Follow-up data will be collected from all patients at 12 months from baseline regardless of whether they are treated surgically or not. A further 12-month postoperative follow-up timepoint will be added for patients treated with decompressive surgery. The study is expected to last three years.

Ethics and dissemination

The UKC1S received a favourable ethical opinion from the East Midlands Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (REC reference: 20/EM/0053; IRAS 269739) and the Health Research Authority. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals, presented at scientific conferences, shared with collaborating sites and shared with participant patients if they so wish.

Development of the Prevent for Work questionnaire (P4Wq) for assessment of musculoskeletal risk in the workplace: part 1--literature review and domains selection

Por: Langella · F. · Christensen · S. W. M. · Palsson · T. S. · Hogh · M. · Gagni · N. · Bellosta-Lopez · P. · Christiansen · D. H. · Delle Chiaie · M. · Domenech-Garcia · V. · Johnston · V. · Szeto · G. P. Y. · Villafane · J. H. · Herrero · P. · Berjano · P.
Objective

This study aims to define appropriate domains and items for the development of a self-administered questionnaire to assess the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) and the risk of its progression to chronicity.

Design

Literature review and survey study.

Setting and participants

A literature review and a two-round interview with 15 experts in musculoskeletal pain were performed to identify the available domains for WMSD assessment.

Interventions and outcome

To ensure quality, only validated questionnaires were included for the Delphi process. A three-round Delphi method, with three round steps, was used to select the most pertinent and relevant domains and items.

Results

Nine questionnaires were identified through the expert discussion and literature review, comprising 38 candidate domains and 504 items. In the first round of the Delphi group, 17 domains reached more than 70% agreement and were selected. In the second round, 10 domains were rejected, while 11 were selected to complete the pool of domains. In the third and final round, 89 items belonging to 28 domains were defined as significant to develop a WMSDs risk assessment questionnaire.

Conclusions

No specific risk assessment questionnaires for WMSDs were identified from the literature. WMSD risk of presence and chronicity can be defined by an assessment tool based on the biopsychosocial model and the fear-avoidance components of chronic pain. The present study provides the formulation and operationalisation of the constructs in domains and items needed for developing and validating the questionnaire.

Practitioners perceptions of acceptability of a question prompt list about palliative care for advance care planning with people living with dementia and their family caregivers: a mixed-methods evaluation study

Por: van der Steen · J. T. · Heck · S. · Juffermans · C. C. · Garvelink · M. M. · Achterberg · W. P. · Clayton · J. · Thompson · G. · Koopmans · R. T. · van der Linden · Y. M.
Objectives

In oncology and palliative care, patient question prompt lists (QPLs) with sample questions for patient and family increased patients’ involvement in decision-making and improved outcomes if physicians actively endorsed asking questions. Therefore, we aim to evaluate practitioners’ perceptions of acceptability and possible use of a QPL about palliative and end-of-life care in dementia.

Design

Mixed-methods evaluation study of a QPL developed with family caregivers and experts comprising a survey and interviews with practitioners.

Setting

Two academic medical training centres for primary and long-term care in the Netherlands.

Participants

Practitioners (n=66; 73% woman; mean of 21 (SD 11) years of experience) who were mostly general practitioners and elderly care physicians.

Outcomes

The main survey outcome was acceptability measured with a 15–75 acceptability scale with ≥45 meaning ‘acceptable’.

Results

The survey response rate was 21% (66 of 320 participated). The QPL was regarded as acceptable (mean 51, SD 10) but 64% felt it was too long. Thirty-five per cent would want training to be able to answer the questions. Those who felt unable to answer (31%) found the QPL less acceptable (mean 46 vs 54 for others; p=0.015). We identified three themes from nine interviews: (1) enhancing conversations through discussing difficult topics, (2) proactively engaging in end-of-life conversations and (3) possible implementation.

Conclusion

Acceptability of the QPL was adequate, but physicians feeling confident to be able to address questions about end-of-life care is crucial when implementing it in practice, and may require training. To facilitate discussions of advance care planning and palliative care, families and persons with dementia should also be empowered to access the QPL themselves.

Expert consensus on moving towards a value-based healthcare system in the Netherlands: a Delphi study

Por: Steinmann · G. · Delnoij · D. · van de Bovenkamp · H. · Groote · R. · Ahaus · K.
Objectives

While the uptake of value-based health care (VBHC) is remarkable, uncertainty prevails regarding the most important actions and practices in establishing a value-based healthcare system. In this paper, we generate expert consensus on the most important aspects of VBHC.

Design

The Delphi technique was used to reach consensus on the most important practices in moving towards a value-based healthcare system.

Setting and participants

A Dutch expert panel consisting of nine members participated in a two-round survey.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

We developed 39 initial items based on the pioneering literature on VBHC and recent health policies in the Netherlands. Experts rated the importance of each item on a 4-point Likert scale. Experts could change items or add new ones as they saw fit. We retained items that were rated (very) important by ≥80% of the panel.

Results

After two survey rounds, 32 items (72%) were included through expert consensus. Experts unanimously agree on the importance of shared decision-making, with this item uniquely obtaining the maximum score. Experts also reached consensus on the importance of outcome measurements, a focus on medical conditions, and full cycles of care. No consensus was reached on the importance of benchmarking.

Conclusion

This paper provides new insight into the most important actions and practices for establishing a value-based healthcare system in the Netherlands. Interestingly, several of our findings contrast with the pioneering literature on VBHC. This raises the question whether VBHC’s widespread international uptake indicates its actual implementation, or rather that the original concept primarily serves as an inspiring idea.

Improving the patient-centred care of children with life-altering skin conditions using feedback from electronic patient-reported outcome measures: protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study (PEDS-ePROM)

Por: Tyack · Z. · Simons · M. · McPhail · S. M. · Harvey · G. · Zappala · T. · Ware · R. S. · Kimble · R. M.
Introduction

Using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) with children have been described as ‘giving a voice to the child’. Few studies have examined the routine use of these measures as potentially therapeutic interventions. This study aims to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of feedback using graphical displays of information from electronic PROMs (ePROMs) that target health-related quality of life, to improve health outcomes, referrals and treatment satisfaction and (2) the implementation of ePROMs and graphical displays by assessing acceptability, sustainability, cost, fidelity and context of the intervention and study processes.

Methods and analysis

A hybrid II effectiveness-implementation study will be conducted from February 2020 with children with life-altering skin conditions attending two outpatient clinics at a specialist paediatric children’s hospital. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial and mixed methods process evaluation will be completed. Randomisation will occur at the child participant level. Children or parent proxies completing baseline ePROMs will be randomised to: (1) completion of ePROMs plus graphical displays of ePROM results to treating clinicians in consultations, versus (2) completion of ePROMs without graphical display of ePROM results. The primary outcome of the effectiveness trial will be overall health-related quality of life of children. Secondary outcomes will include other health-related quality of life outcomes (eg, child psychosocial and physical health, parent psychosocial health), referrals and treatment satisfaction. Trial data will be primarily analysed using linear mixed-effects models; and implementation data using inductive thematic analysis of interviews, meeting minutes, observational field notes and study communication mapped to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from Children’s Health Queensland Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/2019/QCHQ/56290), The University of Queensland (2019002233) and Queensland University of Technology (1900000847). Dissemination will occur through stakeholder groups, scientific meetings and peer-reviewed publications.

Trial registration number

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12620000174987).

Effects of an optimised approach to home-based respiratory care in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Por: Pondofe · K. · Fregonezi · G. A. F. · Brito · O. · Dourado Junior · M. E. · Torres-Castro · R. · Resqueti · V. R.
Introduction

This study aims to investigate the effects of an optimal home-based respiratory care protocol in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Methods and analysis

This is a randomised, blinded controlled trial involving patients diagnosed with ALS, both sexes, age between 18 and 80 years. Patients will be randomly allocated into the conventional respiratory care (CRC) group and the optimised respiratory care home-based (ORC) group. Primary outcomes will be peak cough flow, the number of exacerbations and ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised. Secondary outcomes will include chest wall volumes, maximal respiratory pressures, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, nasal expiratory pressure and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC. The CRC group will receive educational information about respiratory care at the clinic. The ORC group will receive conventional care and home-based care. The clinical status of all individuals will be monitored weekly through telephone calls. A 6-month intervention is planned, the outcomes will be assessed every 3 months and 3 and 6 months follow-up after final evaluation. The primary and secondary results will be described as average or median for continuous variables and absolute and relative frequencies for qualitative variables. Treatment effects or differences between the outcomes (baseline, 3 months and 6 months) of the study groups will be analysed using an analysis of variance. The level of significance will be set as p≤0.05.

Ethics and dissemination

The research ethics committee approved the study. It is expected to evaluate respiratory function in patients with ALS in the short, medium and long terms with home-based care protocol applied. The disease’s rapid progression is a limitation for performing a long-term clinical study.

Trial registration number

RBR-3z23ts; Pre-results.

Chinesisation, adaptation and validation of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment Tool in critically ill patients: a cross-sectional observational study

Por: Zhang · Z. · Wang · G. · Wu · Y. · Guo · J. · Ding · N. · Jiang · B. · Wei · H. · Li · B. · Yue · W. · Tian · J.
Purpose

To translate and adapt the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment Tool (CPAx) into Chinese version (‘CPAx-Chi’), test the reliability and validity of CPAx-Chi, and verify the cut-off point for the diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW).

Study design

Cross-sectional observational study.

Methods

Forward and back translation, cross-cultural adaptation and pretesting of CPAx into CPAx-Chi were based on the Brislin model. Participants were recruited from the general ICU of five third-grade class-A hospitals in western China. Two hundred critically ill adult patients (median age: 53 years; 64% men) with duration of ICU stay ≥48 hours and Glasgow Coma Scale ≥11 were included in this study. Two researchers simultaneously and independently assessed eligible patients using the Medical Research Council Muscle Score (MRC-Score) and CPAx-Chi.

Results

The content validity index of items was 0.889. The content validity index of scale was 0.955. Taking the MRC-Score scale as standard, the criterion validity of CPAx-Chi was r=0.758 (p

Conclusions

CPAx-Chi demonstrated content validity, criterion-related validity and reliability. CPAx-Chi showed the best accuracy in assessment of patients at risk of ICU-AW with good sensitivity and specificity at a recommended cut-off of 31.

Are medical record front page data suitable for risk adjustment in hospital performance measurement? Development and validation of a risk model of in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction

Por: Wu · C. · Zhang · D. · Bai · X. · Zhou · T. · Wang · Y. · Lin · Z. · He · G. · Li · X. · for the China PEACE Collaborative Group · Weng · Xie · Wu · Chen · Li · Wang · Yu · Li · Li · Hao · Zhang · Wu · Zhang · Liu · Wang · Jia · Bate · Qiqige · Jin · Cai · Liu · Xu · He · Yang · Yuan · Wang · Gu
Objectives

To develop a model of in-hospital mortality using medical record front page (MRFP) data and assess its validity in case-mix standardisation by comparison with a model developed using the complete medical record data.

Design

A nationally representative retrospective study.

Setting

Representative hospitals in China, covering 161 hospitals in modelling cohort and 156 hospitals in validation cohort.

Participants

Representative patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction. 8370 patients in modelling cohort and 9704 patients in validation cohort.

Primary outcome measures

In-hospital mortality, which was defined explicitly as death that occurred during hospitalisation, and the hospital-level risk standardised mortality rate (RSMR).

Results

A total of 14 variables were included in the model predicting in-hospital mortality based on MRFP data, with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 among modelling cohort and 0.79 among validation cohort. The median of absolute difference between the hospital RSMR predicted by hierarchical generalised linear models established based on MRFP data and complete medical record data, which was built as ‘reference model’, was 0.08% (10th and 90th percentiles: –1.8% and 1.6%). In the regression model comparing the RSMR between two models, the slope and intercept of the regression equation is 0.90 and 0.007 in modelling cohort, while 0.85 and 0.010 in validation cohort, which indicated that the evaluation capability from two models were very similar.

Conclusions

The models based on MRFP data showed good discrimination and calibration capability, as well as similar risk prediction effect in comparison with the model based on complete medical record data, which proved that MRFP data could be suitable for risk adjustment in hospital performance measurement.

Predicting the risk of drug-drug interactions in psychiatric hospitals: a retrospective longitudinal pharmacovigilance study

Por: Wolff · J. · Hefner · G. · Normann · C. · Kaier · K. · Binder · H. · Domschke · K. · Hiemke · C. · Marschollek · M. · Klimke · A.
Objectives

The aim was to use routine data available at a patient’s admission to the hospital to predict polypharmacy and drug–drug interactions (DDI) and to evaluate the prediction performance with regard to its usefulness to support the efficient management of benefits and risks of drug prescriptions.

Design

Retrospective, longitudinal study.

Setting

We used data from a large multicentred pharmacovigilance project carried out in eight psychiatric hospitals in Hesse, Germany.

Participants

Inpatient episodes consecutively discharged between 1 October 2017 and 30 September 2018 (year 1) or 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2019 (year 2).

Outcome measures

The proportion of rightly classified hospital episodes.

Methods

We used gradient boosting to predict respective outcomes. We tested the performance of our final models in unseen patients from another calendar year and separated the study sites used for training from the study sites used for performance testing.

Results

A total of 53 909 episodes were included in the study. The models’ performance, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic, was ‘excellent’ (0.83) and ‘acceptable’ (0.72) compared with common benchmarks for the prediction of polypharmacy and DDI, respectively. Both models were substantially better than a naive prediction based solely on basic diagnostic grouping.

Conclusion

This study has shown that polypharmacy and DDI can be predicted from routine data at patient admission. These predictions could support an efficient management of benefits and risks of hospital prescriptions, for instance by including pharmaceutical supervision early after admission for patients at risk before pharmacological treatment is established.

Magnitude of antenatal care service uptake and associated factors among pregnant women: analysis of the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

Por: Fenta · S. M. · Ayenew · G. · Getahun · B. E.
Objective

Antenatal and postnatal cares are crucial for the survival and well-being of both the mother and the child. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal care (ANC) visits during a pregnancy. In Ethiopia, only 38% of women in the reproductive age make a minimum of first ANC visits. This value is far below the typical rates of least developed countries. This study aimed to calculate the magnitude and identify associated factors of ANC service utilisation among pregnant women in Ethiopia.

Design

Cross-sectional study design.

Setting

Ethiopia.

Participants

A total of 7913 pregnant women participated in the study.

Primary outcome measures

Antenatal care service uptake among pregnant women.

Result

Only 35.5% of the pregnant mothers have used ANC services at least four times and 64.5% of the pregnant mothers have used less than three times during their periods of pregnancy. The study showed that rich women (PR=1.077, 95% CI: 1.029 to 1.127), having access to mass media (PR=1.086, 95% CI: 1.045 to 1.128), having pregnancy complications (PR=1.203, 95% CI: 1.165 to 1.242), secondary education and above (PR=1.112, 95% CI:1.052 to 1.176), husbands’ having secondary education and above (PR=1.085, 95% CI: 1.031 to 1.142) and married (PR=1.187; 95% CI: 1.087 to 1.296), rural women (PR=0.884, 95% CI: 0.846 to 0.924) and women>30 years of age (PR=1.067, 95% CI: 1.024 to 1.111) significantly associated with the ANC service uptake.

Conclusion

The magnitude of ANC service uptake was low. This low magnitude of ANC service utilisation calls for a need to improve community awareness about maternal health. More importantly, intensive health education is required for pregnant women to have better ANC service uptake and follow-up adherence.

Treatment preferences for preventive interventions for rheumatoid arthritis: protocol of a mixed methods case study for the Innovative Medicines Initiative PREFER project

Por: Falahee · M. · Simons · G. · DiSantostefano · R. L. · Valor Mendez · L. · Radawski · C. · Englbrecht · M. · Schölin Bywall · K. · Tcherny-Lessenot · S. · Kihlbom · U. · Hauber · B. · Veldwijk · J. · Raza · K.
Introduction

Amidst growing consensus that stakeholder decision-making during drug development should be informed by an understanding of patient preferences, the Innovative Medicines Initiative project ‘Patient Preferences in Benefit-Risk Assessments during the Drug Life Cycle’ (PREFER) is developing evidence-based recommendations about how and when patient preferences should be integrated into the drug life cycle. This protocol describes a PREFER clinical case study which compares two preference elicitation methodologies across several populations and provides information about benefit–risk trade-offs by those at risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for preventive interventions.

Methods and analysis

This mixed methods study will be conducted in three countries (UK, Germany, Romania) to assess preferences of (1) first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with RA and (2) members of the public. Focus groups using nominal group techniques (UK) and ranking surveys (Germany and Romania) will identify and rank key treatment attributes. Focus group transcripts will be analysed thematically using the framework method and average rank orders calculated. These results will inform the treatment attributes to be assessed in a survey including a discrete choice experiment (DCE) and a probabilistic threshold technique (PTT). The survey will also include measures of sociodemographic variables, health literacy, numeracy, illness perceptions and beliefs about medicines. The survey will be administered to (1) 400 FDRs of patients with RA (UK); (2) 100 FDRs of patients with RA (Germany); and (3) 1000 members of the public in each of UK, Germany and Romania. Logit-based approaches will be used to analyse the DCE and imputation and interval regression for the PTT.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has been approved by the London-Hampstead Research Ethics Committee (19/LO/0407) and the Ethics Committee of the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (92_17 B). The protocol has been approved by the PREFER expert review board. The results will be disseminated widely and will inform the PREFER recommendations.

Web-based early intervention for children with motor difficulties aged 3-8 years old using multimodal rehabilitation (WECARE): protocol of a patient-centred pragmatic randomised trial of paediatric telerehabilitation to support families

Por: Camden · C. · Zwicker · J. G. · Morin · M. · Schuster · T. · Couture · M. · Poder · T. G. · Maltais · D. B. · Battista · M.-C. · Baillargeon · J.-P. · Goyette · M. · Pratte · G. · Hurtubise · K. · Phoenix · M. · Nguyen · T. · Berbari · J. · Tousignant · M. · WECARE TEAM
Introduction

Mild motor difficulties in children are underdiagnosed despite being highly prevalent, leaving such children often underserved and at higher risk for secondary consequences such as cardiovascular disease and anxiety. Evidence suggests that early patient-oriented interventions, coaching parents and providing children with early stimulation should be provided, even in the absence of a diagnosis. Such interventions may be effectively delivered via telerehabilitation.

Methods and analysis

A family-centred, pragmatic randomised controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of a Web-based Early intervention for Children using multimodAl REhabilitation (WECARE). Families of children with motor difficulties, 3–8 years of age, living in Quebec, Canada, and receiving no public rehabilitation services (n=118) will be asked to determine up to 12 performance goals, evaluated using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM, the primary outcome). Families will be randomised to receive either usual care or the WECARE intervention. The WECARE intervention will be delivered for 1 year via a web-based platform. Families will have access to videoconferences with an assigned rehabilitation therapist using a collaborative coaching approach, a private chat function, a forum open to all intervention arm participants and online resources pertaining to child development. Participants will be asked to re-evaluate the child’s COPM performance goals every 3 months up to 1 year post allocation. The COPM results will be analysed using a mixed Poisson regression model. Secondary outcomes include measures of the child’s functional ability, parental knowledge and skills and health-related quality of life, as well as qualitative outcomes pertaining to parental satisfaction and service delivery trajectories. Investigators and quantitative data analysts will be blinded to group allocation.

Ethics and dissemination

The CIUSSS de l’Estrie—CHUS ethics committee approved this trial (2020-3429). Study results will be communicated via peer-reviewed journal publications, conference presentations and stakeholder-specific knowledge transfer activities.

Trial registration number

NCT04254302.

Evaluation of intervention fidelity of a complex psychosocial intervention Lifestyle Matters: a randomised controlled trial

Por: Sprange · K. · Mountain · G. · Craig · C.
Objectives

Robust research of complex interventions designed to promote mental well-being in later life is required to inform service development. An essential component is ensuring that such interventions are delivered as intended. We present a detailed description of the design and implementation of a fidelity assessment within a trial of one such intervention (Lifestyle Matters). The findings help to explain the trial results and also inform the design of embedded fidelity assessments within future evaluations of complex interventions.

Design

We conducted a mixed-method fidelity assessment embedded as part of a multicentre pragmatic randomised controlled trial. A conceptual fidelity framework was developed from the Behaviour Change Consortium framework. From this the fidelity assessment was designed. The resulting instrument assessed the following parameters: intervention design, training, supervision; and delivery, receipt and enactment of the intervention.

Intervention

The Lifestyle Matters intervention was designed to assist older people to improve and sustain mental well-being through participation in meaningful activity. The aim is to enable participants to engage in both new and neglected activities through a mix of facilitated group meetings and individual sessions.

Results

The fidelity assessment demonstrated that the intervention was delivered as per protocol for the group component and was tailored to meet individual needs. There was substantial inter-rater agreement for training; and group member performance 0.72; and moderate agreement for facilitator performance 0.55. It was not possible to determine whether small declines seen in facilitator performance were due to facilitator drift or moderating factors such as group dynamics or participant characteristics.

Conclusions

The assessment methods adequately measured criteria identified as being significant indicators of fidelity. Adherence during training, delivery and supervision was good. The subjective nature of identification and rating observed behaviours was the main challenge. Future research should explore alternative methods of assessing fidelity in trials of complex interventions.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN67209155.

Prevalence and risk factors of adverse birth outcomes in the Pacific Island region: a scoping review protocol

Por: Kaforau · L. S. K. · Tessema · G. A. · Jancey · J. · Dhamrait · G. K. · Bugoro · H. · Pereira · G. F.
Introduction

Fetal growth restriction, preterm birth, low birth weight and stillbirth are adverse birth outcomes that are prevalent in low-income and middle-income settings such as the Pacific Island region. It is widely accepted that the excess burden of adverse birth outcomes is attributable to socioeconomic and environmental factors that predispose families to excess risk. Our review seeks to determine the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes in the Pacific Island region and to identify the risk factors of adverse birth outcomes in the Pacific Island region.

Methods

This scoping review will follow the five-staged Arksey and O’Malley’s framework and consultation with Solomon Islands’ health stakeholders. A preliminary literature review was undertaken to understand the scope of the review. We will use Medical Subject Heading and keyword terms for adverse birth outcomes to search CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ProQuest and Springer Link databases for articles published from 1 January 2000. The subsequent searches will be undertaken via Google Scholar and the internet browser to world health organisation and regional health organisations for published and unpublished reports on non-indexed studies. All articles retrieved will be managed with EndNote software. Eligible studies will be screened using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow chart for final selection. In the charting phase, we will extract the data into Excel spreadsheets. The results will be presented as numerical and thematic summaries that map risk factors and prevalence to the population and cultures of the Pacific Island region.

Ethics and dissemination

Formal ethical approval is not required as primary or administrative data will not be collected. However, we will seek ethics approval for the stakeholder consultation from the Research Office of Curtin University and the Solomon Islands. The findings of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in national and regional conferences and disseminated to stakeholders.

Ethics approval

There will be no direct contact with human or patients in the case of the scoping review; therefore, no ethics will be required. However, we will seek ethical approval from the Research Ethics Office of Curtin University and the Health Research and Ethics Committee in the Solomon Islands for stakeholder consultation. Dissemination will be made through regional conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals.

Reducing police occupational needle stick injury risk following an interactive training: the SHIELD cohort study in Mexico

Por: Beletsky · L. · Abramovitz · D. · Baker · P. · Arredondo · J. · Rangel · G. · Artamonova · I. · Marotta · P. · Mittal · M. L. · Rocha-Jimenez · T. · Morales · M. · Clairgue · E. · Kang · S. · Banuelos · A. · Cepeda · J. · Patterson · T. A. · Strathdee · S. A.
Objective

At a time of unprecedented attention to the public health impact of policing, it is imperative to understand the role of occupational safety in shaping officer behaviours. We assessed the longitudinal impact of police training in a quasi-experimental hybrid type-1 trial to reduce syringe-related occupational risk, while realigning police practices with public health prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID).

Setting

Tijuana, Mexico.

Participants

Of 1806 Tijuana municipal police trainees, 771 reporting previous exposure to syringes were randomly selected for follow-up. All participants completed at least one follow-up visit; attrition at 24 months was 8%.

Intervention

Between 2015 and 2016, officers received a training intervention (Safety and Health Integration in the Enforcement of Laws on Drugs, SHIELD) bundling occupational needle stick injury (NSI) prevention with health promotion among PWID.

Outcome measures

Longitudinal analysis with generalised linear mixed models to evaluate training impact on occupational NSI risk via NSI incidence and prevalidated Syringe Threat and Injury Correlates (STIC) score. This composite indicator integrates five self-reported risky syringe-handling practices (eg, syringe confiscation, breaking) and was used as a proxy for NSI risk due to reporting bias and concerns about reliability of NSI incidence reports.

Results

No change in self-reported NSI incidence was observed, but significant reductions in risk (16.2% decrease in STIC score) occurred at 3 months, with a sustained decrease of 17.8% through 24 months, compared with pretraining (p

Conclusions

SHIELD is the first intervention to be associated with significant sustained changes in police practices that pose risk for both occupational and the public’s health. Integrating occupational safety and public health education should inform other interventions to mitigate the community health detriments of policing behaviours.

Trial registration number

NCT02444403.

Community-centred interventions for improving public mental health among adults from ethnic minority populations in the UK: a scoping review

Por: Baskin · C. · Zijlstra · G. · McGrath · M. · Lee · C. · Duncan · F. H. · Oliver · E. J. · Osborn · D. · Dykxhoorn · J. · Kaner · E. F. S. · LaFortune · L. · Walters · K. R. · Kirkbride · J. · Gnani · S.
Objectives

Undertake a scoping review to determine the effectiveness of community-centred interventions designed to improve the mental health and well-being of adults from ethnic minority groups in the UK.

Methods

We searched six electronic academic databases for studies published between January 1990 and September 2019: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Scopus, CINAHL and Cochrane. For intervention description and data extraction we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist and Template for Intervention Description and Replication guide. Quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tools. Grey literature results were deemed beyond the scope of this review due to the large number of interventions and lack of available outcomes data.

Results

Of 4501 studies, 7 met the eligibility criteria of UK-based community interventions targeting mental health in adults from ethnic minority populations: four randomised controlled trials, one pre/post-pilot study, one cross-sectional study and one ethnographic study. Interventions included therapy-style sessions, peer-support groups, educational materials, gym access and a family services programme. Common components included a focus on tackling social isolation, using lay health workers from within the community, signposting and overcoming structural barriers to access. Four studies reported a statistically significant positive effect on mental health outcomes and six were appraised as having a high risk of bias. Study populations were ethnically heterogeneous and targeted people mainly from South Asia. No studies examined interventions targeting men.

Conclusions

There is a paucity of high-quality evidence regarding community-centred interventions focused on improving public mental health among ethnic minority groups. Decision makers need scientific evidence to inform effective approaches to mitigating health disparities. Our next steps are to map promising community activities and interventions that are currently being provided to help identify emerging evidence.

Published patterns of spin in biomedical literature: a protocol for a meta-research study

Por: Su · N. · van der Linden · M. · van der Heijden · G. J. · Listl · S. · Schandelmaier · S. · Faggion Jr · C. M.
Introduction

Spin is defined as reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and create misleading conclusions by suggesting more favourable results. Such unjustifiable and misleading misrepresentation may negatively influence the development of further studies, clinical practice and healthcare policies. Spin manifests in various patterns in different sections of publications (titles, abstracts and main texts). The primary aim of this study is to identify reported spin patterns and assess the prevalence of spin in general, and the prevalence of spin patterns reported in biomedical literature based on previously published systematic reviews and literature reviews on spin.

Methods and analysis

PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS will be searched to identify systematic or literature reviews on spin in biomedicine. To improve the comprehensiveness of the search, the snowballing method will be used to broaden the search. The data on spin-related outcomes and characteristics of the included studies will be extracted. The methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed with selective items of the A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2 checklist. A new classification scheme for spin patterns will be developed if the classifications of spin patterns identified in the included studies vary. The prevalence of spin and spin patterns will be pooled based on meta-analyses if the classification schemes for spin are comparable across included studies. Otherwise, the prevalence will be described qualitatively. The seriousness of spin patterns will be assessed based on a Delphi consensus study.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has been approved by the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam Ethics Review Committee (2020250). The study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Registration

Open Science Framework: osf.io/hzv6e

Study protocol and design for the assessment of paediatric pneumonia from X-ray images using deep learning

Por: Sun · M. G. · Saha · S. · Shah · S. A. · Luz · S. · Nair · H. · Saha · S.
Introduction

In low-income and middle-income countries, pneumonia remains the leading cause of illness and death in children

Methods and analysis

Approximately 10 000 paediatric chest X-ray images are currently being collected from an ongoing WHO-supported surveillance study in Bangladesh. Each image will be read by two trained clinicians/radiologists for the presence or absence of primary endpoint pneumonia (PEP) in each lung, as defined by the WHO. Images whose PEP labels are discordant in either lung will be reviewed by a third specialist and the final assignment will be made using a majority vote. Convolutional neural networks will be used for lung segmentation to align and scale the images to a reference, and for interpretation of the images for the presence of PEP. The model will be evaluated against an independently collected and labelled set of images from the WHO. The study outcome will be an automated method for the interpretation of chest radiographs for diagnosing paediatric pneumonia.

Ethics and dissemination

All study protocols were approved by the Ethical Review Committees of the Bangladesh Institute of Child Health, Bangladesh. The study sponsor deemed it unnecessary to attain ethical approval from the Academic and Clinical Central Office for Research and Development of University of Edinburgh, UK. The study uses existing X-ray images from an ongoing WHO-coordinated surveillance. All findings will be published in an open-access journal. All X-ray labels and statistical code will be made openly available. The model and images will be made available on request.

Algorithmic surveillance of ICU patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ASIC): protocol for a multicentre stepped-wedge cluster randomised quality improvement strategy

Por: Marx · G. · Bickenbach · J. · Fritsch · S. J. · Kunze · J. B. · Maassen · O. · Deffge · S. · Kistermann · J. · Haferkamp · S. · Lutz · I. · Voellm · N. K. · Lowitsch · V. · Polzin · R. · Sharafutdinov · K. · Mayer · H. · Kuepfer · L. · Burghaus · R. · Schmitt · W. · Lippert · J. · Riedel
Introduction

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly relevant entity in critical care with mortality rates of 40%. Despite extensive scientific efforts, outcome-relevant therapeutic measures are still insufficiently practised at the bedside. Thus, there is a clear need to adhere to early diagnosis and sufficient therapy in ARDS, assuring lower mortality and multiple organ failure.

Methods and analysis

In this quality improvement strategy (QIS), a decision support system as a mobile application (ASIC app), which uses available clinical real-time data, is implemented to support physicians in timely diagnosis and improvement of adherence to established guidelines in the treatment of ARDS. ASIC is conducted on 31 intensive care units (ICUs) at 8 German university hospitals. It is designed as a multicentre stepped-wedge cluster randomised QIS. ICUs are combined into 12 clusters which are randomised in 12 steps. After preparation (18 months) and a control phase of 8 months for all clusters, the first cluster enters a roll-in phase (3 months) that is followed by the actual QIS phase. The remaining clusters follow in month wise steps. The coprimary key performance indicators (KPIs) consist of the ARDS diagnostic rate and guideline adherence regarding lung-protective ventilation. Secondary KPIs include the prevalence of organ dysfunction within 28 days after diagnosis or ICU discharge, the treatment duration on ICU and the hospital mortality. Furthermore, the user acceptance and usability of new technologies in medicine are examined. To show improvements in healthcare of patients with ARDS, differences in primary and secondary KPIs between control phase and QIS will be tested.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was obtained from the independent Ethics Committee (EC) at the RWTH Aachen Faculty of Medicine (local EC reference number: EK 102/19) and the respective data protection officer in March 2019. The results of the ASIC QIS will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial registration number

DRKS00014330.

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