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AnteayerCIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing

Evidence-Based Facebook Recruitment of Study Participants

imageTraditional methods for research study recruitment such as snail mail lists and posting flyers may fail to reach the tech-savvy participants needed for today's healthcare studies. Word of mouth can be effective for recruiting a few participants but can rarely accomplish the numbers needed for a representative sample. Social media can be a viable avenue to reach increased numbers of sample participants; however, a good understanding of the risks and benefits of using social media is needed before embarking on active recruitment. A recent study developed an evidence-based participant recruitment plan for the use of Facebook. Potential participant misrepresentation was addressed with clear inclusion criteria, no incentives, and open-ended questions. The Facebook ads to recruit study participation targeted licensed nurses who worked in the prior 2-year period living in the United States based on information in Facebook user profiles. A total of 536 participants responded to all questions on the survey at a cost of $1.78 per completed survey. Daily activity and cost for ads were closely monitored and adjusted to maintain cost control. Facebook can be an effective tool for study participant recruitment across all age ranges for completion of online surveys.

Prototype Development and Usability Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support Tool for Pharmacogenomic Pharmacy in Practice

imagePharmacogenetics, a subset of precision medicine, provides a way to individualize drug dosages and provide tailored drug therapy to patients. This revolution in prescribing techniques has resulted in a knowledge deficit for many healthcare providers on the proper way to use pharmacogenetics in practice. This research study explored the potential adoption of clinical decision support system mobile apps by clinicians through investigating the initial usability of the PGx prototype application in an effort to address the lack of such tools used in practice. The study method included usage of a clinical decision support system programmed within our pharmacogenomics drug dosage application (called PGx) in a simulated environment. Study participants completed the System Usability Scale survey to report on the perceived usefulness and ease of use of the mobile app. The PGx app has a higher perceived usability than 85% of all products tested, considered very good usability for a product. This general usability rating indicates that the nurse practitioner students find the application to be a clinical decision support system that would be helpful to use in practice.

In Quest of Tablet Apps for Elders With Alzheimer's Disease: A Descriptive Review

Por: Tak · Sunghee H.
imageCaregivers search for mobile device apps that offer meaningful and enjoyable activities to simultaneously enhance the preserved cognitive and functional abilities of those in their care. The purpose of this review article was to describe the current state of tablet apps with which elders with Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia may engage as users. Using the keywords “app,” “Alzheimer's,” and “dementia,” a sample of 83 apps was selected from the iTunes Store, Google, and discussion boards of Apple Support Communities. A descriptive content analysis was conducted using a coding scheme on the characteristics of tablet app activity and the requirements for functional abilities of the users. This review found that the activities of the selected apps included games, simple watching and viewing, music and sounds, memory training, learning and information, and social interaction starters. A high-level cognitive and physical ability such as eye-hand coordination is often required to play the majority of the game apps. A few apps are designed specifically for the population. Individuals' variability in cognitive and functional abilities necessitates a person-centered approach in designing and selecting games and activities for apps in order to increase engagement and promote positive experiences in older adults.

Development of the Benefit-Risk Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in People With Diabetes: A Delphi–Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach

imageThis study aimed to develop consensus on a decision-making algorithm for benefit-risk assessment of complementary and alternative medicine use in people with diabetes. Delphi–analytic hierarchy process was used with an anonymous voting scheme, based on a three-round procedure, to achieve consensus regarding the important criteria of decision-making algorithm to assess the benefit-risk ratio of complementary and alternative medicine use in people with diabetes. A total of five criteria were considered, namely, the safety of usage (weightage: 46.6%), diabetes-specific patient data (14.6%), complementary and alternative medicine attributes (14.2%), institutional culture in complementary and alternative medicine use (12.8%), and applicability of complementary and alternative medicine (11.8%). The consistency of this hierarchy structure was computed based on the following indices: λmax = 5.041, consistency index = 0.01; random consistency index =1.781; and consistency ratio = 0.009. All criteria to optimize decision-making in ensuring safe use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with diabetes should be considered by healthcare professionals.

Nurses' Electronic Medical Record Workarounds in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

imageThe objective of this study was to identify nurses' workarounds related to the use of electronic medical records in a tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 106 nurses (84.8%) using the electronic medical records completed 10-item questionnaires scored on a Likert scale and five open-ended questions with written responses. The numerical data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and the written descriptions were categorized by meaning. The mean of the scored items ranged from 3.29 to 3.74. Approximately 38% to 50% of the participants reported (very) frequent workflow delays due to the use of the electronic medical records, and 46% to 64% reported (very) frequently using workarounds. Twenty-nine workarounds of the electronic medical records were due to electronic documentation, difficulty accessing the electronic medical records, medication administration, covering physician responsibilities, electronic communication with the physicians, respondents and physicians not skilled in using the electronic medical records, and connection failures between devices or machines and the electronic medical records. Although none of these identified workarounds were intended to be harmful, and certain workarounds were efficient for patient care and workflow, whether patient safety can be jeopardized by workarounds should be considered. This study contributes to the understanding of why and how workarounds occur in the hospital. It will be useful for achieving greater alignment between work contexts and the electronic medical record in the future.

Modeling for Change of Daily Nurse Calls After Surgery in an Orthopedics Ward Using Bayesian Statistics

imageNurse call data may be used to evaluate the quality of nursing. However, traditional frequency-based statistics may not easily apply to nurse calls due to the large individual variability and daily call changes. We intended to propose a probabilistic modeling of nurse calls based on Bayesian statistics. We constructed the model including nurse call daily changes, individual variability, and adjustment according to characteristics (age and sex). Nurse call differences after surgery were analyzed based on data from the orthopedic ward from April 2014 to October 2017. Results show that there were differences in nurse calls from day 1 to day 10 after surgery between patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery and those who had undergone other surgeries such as tumor surgery. Furthermore, there were differences in nurse calls from day 1 to day 8 after surgery between patients who used extra pain relief medicine and those who did not. Although the analysis required multiple comparisons regarding daily nurse call changes and fixed data samples per day, our approach using Bayesian statistics could detect the periods and significant differences. This indicates that our nurse call modeling based on Bayesian statistics may be used to analyze nurse call changes.

Status and Influential Factors of Intelligent Healthcare in Nursing Homes in China

imageWith the support of the Chinese government, nursing homes have increasingly adopted Internet and intelligent information technology to provide daily healthcare services to residents. However, no research has reported the status of intelligent healthcare in nursing homes. From September 2017 to May 2018, we conducted a survey of 197 nursing homes and collected information on their general characteristics, the intelligent healthcare services provided, the effectiveness of the application products used, and the attitudes of the staff and residents toward intelligent healthcare. Overall, 79.69% of the surveyed nursing homes have provided intelligent healthcare services, including medical care services (eg, chronic disease management and intelligent nursing) and daily life services (eg, fall monitoring and wireless positioning). Portable health monitoring devices and data management and service platforms are the most used healthcare products. The attitudes of staff probably affected the development of intelligent healthcare. Financial investment and the attitudes of staff and residents are factors that influence the effectiveness of the application of intelligent healthcare products in nursing homes. With the support of national policies, nursing homes have implemented primary intelligent healthcare. Stakeholders play pivotal roles in the provision of intelligent healthcare services.

Predicting Falls Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Demonstration of Applied Machine Learning

imageData science skills are increasingly needed by informatics nurses and nurse scientists, but techniques such as machine learning can be daunting for those with clinical, rather than computer science or technical, backgrounds. With the increasing quantity of publicly available population-level datasets, identification of factors that predict clinical outcomes is possible using machine learning algorithms. This study demonstrates how to apply a machine learning approach to nursing-relevant questions, specifically an approach to predict falls among community-dwelling older adults, based on data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. A random forest algorithm, a common approach to machine learning, was compared to a logistic regression model. Explanations of how to interpret the models and their associated performance characteristics are included to serve as a tutorial to readers. Machine learning methods constitute an increasingly important approach for nursing as population-level data are increasingly being made available to the public.

Using Mobile Technologies Among Undergraduate Nursing Students for Academic Purposes in Tertiary Education: A Quantitative Survey

imageMobile devices are increasingly part of daily life, with the benefits of using the technology in nursing education widely recognized. This study explored the use of mobile devices among undergraduate nursing students for academic purposes in South Africa, using a quantitative survey. The majority of participants owned smartphones (87.6%), followed by laptops (76%) and tablets (47.1%). Mobile devices were used to perform academic tasks and communicate and collaborate with peers and teachers, as well as search and access electronic resources. Few of the first year nursing students owned laptops and tablets and used them less frequently than the students from other levels of the study. Equipping nursing students with mobile devices, such as laptops and tablets, particularly first year students, and ensuring that they have adequate skills to use them, is essential to training future nurses who are expected to work in a technology-mediated health environment.

An Analysis of the Application of the Harmony Search Algorithm to Solving the Nurse Rostering Problem

imageThe nurse rostering problem describes the task of distributing nurses over working time slots, called shifts, in such a way that the workforce demand for each shift in a scheduling period is met, while ensuring that each nurse is not overttasked or undertasked. This problem is a major issue in Ghana, which this research aims to tackle. To that end, the performance of a heuristic algorithm that showed promise, called the Harmony Search algorithm, is examined. The algorithm, as applied to solving the nurse rostering problem in a hospital in Ghana, was implemented and evaluated with the Python programming language. The results suggest that the algorithm performs well in generating 1-week duty rosters but falters for extended periods, indicating that it may not on its own be potent enough to handle optimization problems. Finally, we outline some recommendations future researchers may want to note.

Interdisciplinary Optimization of Admission Documentation: Reducing the Bloat

imageMoving toward the electronic health record increases the quality of information gathered. However, nurses argue that the electronic health record is an added burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of duplicative or unnecessary fields and reordering fields on the admission form to increase documentation that is meaningful to the patient story. A team of approximately 60 interdisciplinary clinicians engaged in document review to evaluate the importance of each field and removal or modification based on those findings. After a review of the 251 fields, the authors reduced the form to 124 fields, and the percentage of unfields by 31%. After outlier removal, the average time to complete the admission form decreased by 2.88 minutes. The new form showed a reduction of 36.71% of the use of the free text advance directive. Additionally, nurses' perceptions of the form significantly improved from pretest to posttest in terms of satisfaction with the form, time to complete, usability and usefulness, question flow, and length of the form. This study shows that an interdisciplinary team can effectively work together to optimize the Adult Admission History Form, increasing the quality of documentation while reducing the time to complete.

Building on Evidence to Improve eHealth Literacy in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

imageThis review aimed to provide information on ways to improve eHealth literacy in older adults by assessing current studies examining eHealth literacy. To achieve the aim, this review focused on what theories or theoretical frameworks were used in the studies, what factors were related to eHealth literacy, and what outcome variables were used in eHealth literacy interventions for older adults. Five electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was followed to select relevant studies, and narrative synthesis was performed. Among a total of 27 studies, 13 described theories or theoretical frameworks. Credibility in Internet health information, knowledge, and experience were identified as modifiable factors related to eHealth literacy. The most frequently used outcome variable was eHealth literacy efficacy. Nurses who are interested in improving eHealth literacy in older adults should consider appropriate theoretical frameworks and multiple factors influencing eHealth literacy.

Agent-Based Modeling Simulation of Nurse Medication Administration Errors

imageIt has been 20 years since the National Academy of Medicine released its report, “To Err Is Human,” which shocked the healthcare community on the pervasiveness of medical error. While errors in medication administration are a significant contributor to medical error, research seeking to understand the complex systems nature and occurrence of medication administration error is limited. Computer modeling is increasingly being used in the healthcare industry to assess the impact of changes made to healthcare processes. The objective of the study is to evaluate the use of agent-based modeling, a type of computer modeling that allows the simulation of virtual individuals and their behavior, to simulate nurse performance in the medication administration process. The model explores the effect of Just-in-Time information, as an intervention, on the occurrence of medication error. The model demonstrated significant utility in understanding the interplay of the system elements of the nurse medication administration process. Therefore this approach, using systems-level computer simulation such as agent-based models, can help administrators understand the effects of changes to the medication administration process as they work to reduce errors and increase performance.

Information Needs and the Use of Documentation to Support Collaborative Decision-Making: Implications for the Reduction of Central Line–Associated Blood Stream Infections

imageIt is clear that interdisciplinary communication and collaboration have the potential to mitigate healthcare-associated harm, yet there is limited research on how communication through documentation in the patient record can support collaborative decision making. Understanding what information is needed to support collaborative decision making is necessary to design electronic health information systems that facilitate effective communication and, ultimately, safe care. To explore this issue, we focused on information needs related to central venous catheter management and the prevention of central line–associated blood stream infections. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses working in an intensive care unit. Interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) challenges managing documentation in multiple places in the absence of formal documentation processes for central venous catheter management; (2) lack of standardized decision-making processes for managing central venous catheters; and (3) oral communication holds it together. Our findings provide a foundation for the development of EHR functional requirements that enhance communication regarding the management of central venous catheters and facilitate the prompt removal of unnecessary lines.