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AnteayerInternacionales

Interventions to Support Adolescents With Cancer in Decision‐Making: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis

Abstract

Background

Adolescents have autonomous views and participatory rights. There is increasing support for involving adolescents with cancer in the healthcare decision-making process.

Aims

The purpose of this study was to synthesize current knowledge to identify major components and outcomes of interventions to enhance shared decision-making (SDM) by adolescents with cancer during and after treatment.

Methods

Six electronic databases (PubMed, CINHAL, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EBSCO, and Web of Science) were searched from their inceptions to February 2020. Eligibility criteria were intervention studies, studies of interventions to support adolescents with cancer involved in SDM, and studies of patients diagnosed with cancer between 10 and 18 years of age. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by using a standardized data extraction form. Quality appraisal was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

Results

Of 331 citations, five studies with a total of 648 participants aged between 13 and 21 years met inclusion criteria. Interventions included structured sessions held one to three times per week. SDM engagement strategies incorporated weekly assignments, live action videos, brochures, Five Wishes© advance directives, and follow-up counseling. Treatment preference congruence in adolescent and parent dyads was higher in intervention groups. Meta-analysis was performed on two studies and demonstrated statistically significant improvements in decision quality at 6 months (z = 3.37, p = .001; 95% CI = .174–.657) and 12 months (z = 3.17, p = .002; 95% CI = .150–.633) after SDM interventions in adolescent cancer survivors. No adverse events among patients were found, although anxiety scores increased in families in an intervention group.

Linking Evidence to Action

This review identified essential components of SDM interventions. Our findings may guide the future design of interventions to support high-quality decision-making by adolescents with cancer. Coaching can educate adolescent cancer survivors on quality decision-making methods and can improve the quality of consequent decisions. More research is needed to determine outcomes of SDM interventions.

Psychometric Properties of the Short Versions of the EBP Beliefs Scale, the EBP Implementation Scale, and the EBP Organizational Culture and Readiness Scale

Abstract

Background

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to clinical decision making that leads to a higher quality and safety of health care. Three valid and reliable scales that measure EBP attributes, including the EBP Beliefs Scale, the EBP Implementation Scale, and the Organizational Culture and Readiness Scale for System-Wide Integration of EBP, are widely used but require approximately 5 min each to complete. Shorter valid and reliable versions of these scales could offer the benefit of less time for completion, thereby decreasing participant burden.

Aim

The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the three shortened EBP scales, adapted from the longer versions.

Methods

This study used a descriptive survey design with 498 nurses who completed the three original EBP scales along with a shortened version of each scale. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with principal components extracted to examine the factor structure of each EBP measure for the three shortened EBP scales. Item intercorrelations and the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) were used to confirm the validity of using factor analysis. Reliability of each scale using Cronbach’s α was examined. Convergent validity of the three shortened EBP scales was assessed by correlating each shortened scale with its longer scale.

Results

Factor analysis supported the construct validity of each of the three shortened scales, as all item intercorrelations were greater than 0.40, and KMO values were 0.62 to 0.74. The shortened scales Cronbach alphas were 0.81 for the EBP Beliefs Scale, 0.89 for the EBP Implementation Scale, and 0.87 for the EBP Culture and Readiness Scale. The three shortened EBP scales had acceptable convergent validity (r = 0.42–.072) for the correlations between the shortened and longer scales.

Linking Evidence to Action

The three shortened EBP scales, which are valid and reliable, can be used as an alternative to the longer three scales to decrease participant burden when conducting program evaluations, research, or organizational assessments.

Admission Braden Scale Score as an Early Independent Predictor of In‐Hospital Mortality Among Inpatients With COVID‐19: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Abstract

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic has put a strain on health systems. Predictors of adverse outcomes need to be investigated to properly manage COVID-19 patients. The Braden Scale (BS), commonly used for the assessment of pressure ulcer risk, has recently been proposed to identify frailty.

Objective

To investigate the predictive utility of the BS for prediction of in-hospital mortality in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to non-ICU wards.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study evaluating all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection consecutively admitted over a 2-month period (from March 6 to May 7, 2020) to the COVID-19 general wards of our institution. Demographic, clinical, and nursing assessment data, including admission BS, were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the BS score and in-hospital death.

Results

Braden Scale was assessed in 146 patients (mean age 74.7 years; 52% males). On admission, 46 had a BS ≤ 15, and 100 patients had a BS > 15. Mortality among patients with BS ≤ 15 was significantly higher than in patients with BS > 15 (45.7% vs. 16%; p < .001). On multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for potentials confounders (age, Barthel scale, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension), the admission BS remained inversely associated with the risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.76; 95% CI [0.60, 0.96]; p = .020).

Linking Evidence to Action

Admission BS could be used as a simple bedside predictive tool able to early identify non-ICU COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis who might benefit from specific and timely interventions.

Function of a Psychological Nursing Intervention on Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients With Osteoporotic Fracture

Abstract

Background

Osteoporotic fracture is a serious complication of osteoporosis. The long-term therapy process and the heavy restriction to physical activities give rise to a psychological burden on osteoporotic fracture patients, especially older adult patients. Psychological nursing interventions significantly alleviate negative emotional reactions in cancer patients. This research aimed to investigate the function of psychological nursing interventions in the reduction of depression and anxiety and the improvement of quality of life in older adult patients with osteoporotic fracture.

Methods

Osteoporotic fracture patients (n = 106) were divided into control group (n = 53) or intervention group (n = 53). In the control group, the participants were given conventional nursing care. In the intervention group, the participants were given psychological nursing interventions. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life were evaluated and compared between the two groups.

Results

After 5 weeks of psychological nursing intervention, the anxiety and depression scores significantly decreased in the intervention group. The Mental Function in Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis score also decreased in the intervention group.

Linking Evidence to Action

Psychological nursing interventions alleviate anxiety and depression in older adult osteoporotic fracture patients and enhance their mental function.

Evidence‐Based Competency Training Program for Blood Product Administration

ABSTRACT

Background

Health care in deployed military environments requires robust clinical nursing skills to care for patients with traumatic injuries. Blood product administration is a critical skill in which nurses should be competent. However, in non-deployed environments, blood transfusions are performed less frequently, resulting in skill competency loss.

Aims

Our clinical inquiry focused on maintaining competency for infrequently performed nursing skills, specifically blood product administration.

Methods

A literature review and critical appraisal were executed, followed by an evidence-based practice change. A knowledge test, objective and subjective assessment, and training satisfaction evaluation were performed to measure the practice change outcomes. Both inpatient and outpatient nurses were included.

Results

Sixteen articles were identified and appraised. The evidence recommended a blended education approach, that is, lecture plus hands-on practice. Thus, a classroom lecture and simulation scenario were put into practice with an existing computer-based training for blood administration. The nurses met knowledge test standards (≥ 90%) before and after implementation, while skill performance improved by 13% and improved self-competence scores by 7%. Nurses in outpatient settings improved performance scores by 18.4% compared to inpatient nurses, whose scores improved by 9.4%. The simulation scenario completion time decreased by 8.3 minutes post-implementation, and the training program earned a 90% satisfactory rating.

Linking Evidence to Action

A blended education program improves clinical skill performance and enhances confidence in performing critical interventions. Blended education provides a safe learning environment for nurses to be prepared for the management of low-volume patient care emergencies.

Factors Associated With Quality of Life Among People Living With a Stoma in Nonmetropolitan Areas

imageBackground Interruption of gastrointestinal continuity through surgical formation of a stoma can be lifesaving. However, it is also typically associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). Although past research has investigated QoL among people living with a stoma, no known studies have investigated stoma-related QoL, specifically among nonmetropolitan residents who may experience distinct health issues compared with their metropolitan counterparts. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the level of and factors associated with QoL among people living with a stoma in nonmetropolitan Australia. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 678 adults with colostomy, ileostomy, and/or urostomy and with membership in a regional Victorian stoma association were given the City of Hope Quality of Life Questionnaire for a Patient With an Ostomy (QOL-O). Total QoL score was calculated and described before categorization into quintiles. Patient factors associated with quintiles of QoL were assessed using univariable and multivariable proportional odds ordinal logistic regression, with a 95% confidence interval excluding 1.00 denoting statistical significance. Results Overall, 311 regional ostomy association members (46%) responded to any QOL-O questions; 285 members responded to >80% of QOL-O questions and contributed data to the study. Their median age was 73 years, and 60% were male. The median total QoL score was 6.9 on a scale of 0–10, where a higher number indicates better QoL. Factors independently associated with better QoL in the multivariable model were working full/part time, no poststoma clothing change, poststoma sexual activity, and older age. Factors independently associated with worse QoL were poststoma depression and a stoma location issue. Discussion People living with a stoma in nonmetropolitan Australia reported moderate-to-high QoL. Better QoL was identified in those who worked, had no poststoma clothing change, were sexually active poststoma, and were older. Worse QoL was seen in those who had poststoma depression and stoma location issues. Healthcare providers could influence stoma-related QoL by identifying risk factors and tailoring interventions toward individuals in nonmetropolitan settings.

Evidence-Based Facebook Recruitment of Study Participants

imageTraditional methods for research study recruitment such as snail mail lists and posting flyers may fail to reach the tech-savvy participants needed for today's healthcare studies. Word of mouth can be effective for recruiting a few participants but can rarely accomplish the numbers needed for a representative sample. Social media can be a viable avenue to reach increased numbers of sample participants; however, a good understanding of the risks and benefits of using social media is needed before embarking on active recruitment. A recent study developed an evidence-based participant recruitment plan for the use of Facebook. Potential participant misrepresentation was addressed with clear inclusion criteria, no incentives, and open-ended questions. The Facebook ads to recruit study participation targeted licensed nurses who worked in the prior 2-year period living in the United States based on information in Facebook user profiles. A total of 536 participants responded to all questions on the survey at a cost of $1.78 per completed survey. Daily activity and cost for ads were closely monitored and adjusted to maintain cost control. Facebook can be an effective tool for study participant recruitment across all age ranges for completion of online surveys.

Getting Reviewed

Por: Pickler · Rita H.
No abstract available

Associations Between Dysmenorrhea Symptom-Based Phenotypes and Vaginal Microbiome: A Pilot Study

imageBackground Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent; it places women at risk for other chronic pain conditions. There is a high degree of individual variability in menstrual pain severity, the number of painful sites, and co-occurring gastrointestinal symptoms. Distinct dysmenorrhea symptom-based phenotypes were previously identified, but the biological underpinnings of these phenotypes are less known. One underexplored contributor is the vaginal microbiome. The vaginal microbiota differs significantly among reproductive-age women and may modulate as well as amplify reproductive tract inflammation, which may contribute to dysmenorrhea symptoms. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine associations between dysmenorrhea symptom-based phenotypes and vaginal microbiome compositions on- and off-menses. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, pilot study of 20 women (aged 15–24 years) grouped into three dysmenorrhea symptom-based phenotypes: “mild localized pain,” “severe localized pain,” and “severe multiple pain and gastrointestinal symptoms.” Over one menstrual cycle, participants provided vaginal swabs when they were on- and off-menses. We assayed the vaginal microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to compare microbiome compositions across phenotypes, with heat maps generated to visualize the relative abundance of bacterial taxa. Results The vaginal microbiome compositions (n = 40) were different across the three phenotypes. After separating the on-menses (n = 20) and off-menses (n = 20) specimens, the statistically significant difference was seen on-menses, but not off-menses. Compared to the “mild localized pain” phenotype, participants in the “multiple severe symptoms” phenotype had a lower lactobacilli level and a higher abundance of Prevotella, Atopobium, and Gardnerella when on-menses. We also observed trends of differences across phenotypes in vaginal microbiome change from off- to on-menses. Discussion The study provides proof-of-concept data to support larger studies on associations between dysmenorrhea symptom-based phenotypes and vaginal microbiome that might lead to new intervention targets and/or biomarkers for dysmenorrhea. This line of research has the potential to inform precision dysmenorrhea treatment that can improve women’s quality of life.

Prototype Development and Usability Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support Tool for Pharmacogenomic Pharmacy in Practice

imagePharmacogenetics, a subset of precision medicine, provides a way to individualize drug dosages and provide tailored drug therapy to patients. This revolution in prescribing techniques has resulted in a knowledge deficit for many healthcare providers on the proper way to use pharmacogenetics in practice. This research study explored the potential adoption of clinical decision support system mobile apps by clinicians through investigating the initial usability of the PGx prototype application in an effort to address the lack of such tools used in practice. The study method included usage of a clinical decision support system programmed within our pharmacogenomics drug dosage application (called PGx) in a simulated environment. Study participants completed the System Usability Scale survey to report on the perceived usefulness and ease of use of the mobile app. The PGx app has a higher perceived usability than 85% of all products tested, considered very good usability for a product. This general usability rating indicates that the nurse practitioner students find the application to be a clinical decision support system that would be helpful to use in practice.

In Quest of Tablet Apps for Elders With Alzheimer's Disease: A Descriptive Review

Por: Tak · Sunghee H.
imageCaregivers search for mobile device apps that offer meaningful and enjoyable activities to simultaneously enhance the preserved cognitive and functional abilities of those in their care. The purpose of this review article was to describe the current state of tablet apps with which elders with Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia may engage as users. Using the keywords “app,” “Alzheimer's,” and “dementia,” a sample of 83 apps was selected from the iTunes Store, Google, and discussion boards of Apple Support Communities. A descriptive content analysis was conducted using a coding scheme on the characteristics of tablet app activity and the requirements for functional abilities of the users. This review found that the activities of the selected apps included games, simple watching and viewing, music and sounds, memory training, learning and information, and social interaction starters. A high-level cognitive and physical ability such as eye-hand coordination is often required to play the majority of the game apps. A few apps are designed specifically for the population. Individuals' variability in cognitive and functional abilities necessitates a person-centered approach in designing and selecting games and activities for apps in order to increase engagement and promote positive experiences in older adults.

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Patients With Breast Cancer

imageBackground The physical and psychological well-being of patients with breast cancer is an important global issue. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) aims to equip patients with the skills to respond and adapt to difficult circumstances. However, the extent of the physical and psychological outcomes of this therapy in patients with breast cancer remains unclear. Objectives The aim of the study was to summarize available evidence and assess the efficacy of ACT on physiological and psychological outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Methods Published randomized controlled studies were identified in MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and CNKI from inception to December 2019 and Cochrane Library, AMED, and Clinical trials.gov from inception to September 2020. Methodological rigor was assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions. Sufficient data were statistically pooled with review manager; otherwise, a narrative summary was used. Results Thirteen trials were included in the review. Methodological quality varied across the studies. Meta-analyses demonstrated that ACT had moderate to large effects on reducing anxiety, depression, and stress and improving hope. Sensitivity analyses reached results similar to those of the meta-analyses. However, the effects of ACT on the physiological symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, and psychological flexibility of patients with breast cancer remain inconclusive. Discussion ACT has beneficial effects on the anxiety, depression, stress, and hope of patients with breast cancer. The evidence of ACT on physiological symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, and psychological flexibility needs to be treated with caution. Further studies are needed and should consider different delivery forms and also explore the mechanisms of each component of ACT under different cultural contexts.

Personalized Behavioral Nutrition Among Older Asian Americans: Study Protocol

imageBackground Metabolomics profiling is an objective assessment of metabolic responses to intricate dietary patterns. However, few studies have investigated the potential benefits associated with personalized behavioral nutrition (PBN) interventions incorporating the metabolomics approach for improving diabetes outcomes for older Asian Americans with Type 2 diabetes. Objective This article describes the protocol for a pilot study testing self-management of a nutrition intervention-provided personalized dietary advice incorporating metabolites phenotypic feedback and digital self-monitoring of diet and blood glucose. Methods A total of 60 older Asian Americans will be randomized into two groups: a PBN group and a control group. Participants in the PBN group will receive personalized dietary advice based on dietary and phenotypic feedback-used metabolic profiles. This study aims to examine the feasibility and preliminary effects of the PBN on diabetes outcomes. Results The study began in September 2020, with estimated complete data collection by late 2021. Discussion Findings from this pilot study will inform future research for developing personalized nutrition interventions for people with Type 2 diabetes.

Predictors of Participation in Clinical Research

imageBackground Despite numerous efforts to create more equitable healthcare systems, minority populations face long-standing health disparities compared to White populations. Healthcare research is the necessary foundation for creating equitable health systems and providing patient-centered care. Significant challenges exist, however, with recruiting and engaging underrepresented populations in clinical research. Objectives The purpose of this analysis was to determine how research participants' race, trust, and level of education influence participation barriers in clinical research. Methods The study used secondary, cross-sectional survey data that were collected between 2014 and 2016 through the former Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network, currently known as the Stakeholders, Technology, and Research Clinical Research Network. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank correlations were performed between level of education, level of trust, and each attitude statement for each racial category. Results A total of 2,190 survey responses were used in the data analysis. The mean age of respondents was 52 years, with majority being women, White, insured, and working full time. Overall, the respondents had favorable attitudes toward research participation. Trust was correlated with agreement in many attitude statements for both White and African American respondents, whereas correlations with education level were more variable depending on racial grouping. Trust level was negatively associated with agreement toward the statement “researchers do not care about me” in White and Native American respondents. Discussion The results support the importance of trust to research participation. Generally, education level was not strongly predictive of research participation, although prediction was influenced by race and attitude.

Development of the Benefit-Risk Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in People With Diabetes: A Delphi–Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach

imageThis study aimed to develop consensus on a decision-making algorithm for benefit-risk assessment of complementary and alternative medicine use in people with diabetes. Delphi–analytic hierarchy process was used with an anonymous voting scheme, based on a three-round procedure, to achieve consensus regarding the important criteria of decision-making algorithm to assess the benefit-risk ratio of complementary and alternative medicine use in people with diabetes. A total of five criteria were considered, namely, the safety of usage (weightage: 46.6%), diabetes-specific patient data (14.6%), complementary and alternative medicine attributes (14.2%), institutional culture in complementary and alternative medicine use (12.8%), and applicability of complementary and alternative medicine (11.8%). The consistency of this hierarchy structure was computed based on the following indices: λmax = 5.041, consistency index = 0.01; random consistency index =1.781; and consistency ratio = 0.009. All criteria to optimize decision-making in ensuring safe use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with diabetes should be considered by healthcare professionals.

Poor Sleep Predicts Increased Pain Perception Among Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment

imageBackground Older adults with mild cognitive impairment are at an increased risk for dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. These older adults also report poorer sleep and more pain than their cognitively intact adult counterparts. Poor sleep and pain are both symptoms associated with an increased risk for dementia in later life. Symptom science research in the direction of how poor sleep affects pain among older adults, especially those with mild cognitive impairment, is needed for the development of targeted sleep interventions to reduce pain and potentially delay/reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in this population. Objective The aim of the study was to examine a predictive model of the relationship between poor sleep and pain perception among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Methods A longitudinal prospective design with 58 continuous matched sleep–pain observations of 15 older adults with mild cognitive impairment for up to 6 months was used. Multilevel, mixed-modeling, statistical techniques were used to examine the effects of prior-week sleep on subsequent pain perception. Pain perception (pain intensity, pain interference, and pain behavior) is measured by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System during monthly in-person visits. The ActiGraph GT3X+ was used to measure sleep (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, awakenings after sleep onset) objectively and continuously for up to 6 months, along with other covariates (e.g., physical activity). Results Increased awakenings after sleep onset in the prior week is associated with increased pain intensity, pain interference, and pain behavior. There was a trend toward sleep efficiency, and increased pain intensity and sleep efficiency predicted increased pain interference and pain behavior. There was no relationship between prior-week total sleep time and subsequent pain perception. Discussion In this study, poor sleep in the prior week increased pain intensity, pain interference, and pain behavior. Interventions designed to decrease awakening after sleep onset and increase sleep efficiency specifically may effectively reduce pain in this population. Given that these symptoms are prevalent among older adults with mild cognitive impairment, sleep and pain interventions may also ameliorate some of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in this population.
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